A cyclical process that begins with
a curious inquiry within the human
brain
Our Target Objectives:
• To review some basic principles of research
methodology
• To plan / design an appropriate and
ade...
What is Research?
• It is a systemic inquiry that uses disciplined
methods to answer questions or solve problems.
• It is ...
What is Research?
• It is a formal, scientific and intensive process of
analyzing problems through scientific means for
pu...
What is Research?
• A collection of data in a rigorously controlled situation
for purposes of explanation and prediction.
...
What is Research?
• It is a way of dealing with ideas for
purposes of clarifying, verifying and
confirming data.
• “To sea...
Why is RESEARCH important?
• It provides a theoretical or scientific basis for
nursing care.
• It is a diligent, systemati...
What is NURSING Research?
• It is a systematic inquiry designed to develop
trustworthy evidence about issues of importance...
IMPORTANCE of Nursing
Research
• Is essential for the development of empirical
knowledge that enables nurses to provide
ev...
PURPOSES of Research
• To have a research-based practice
• To document contributions to nursing and the
overall health car...
Purposes of NURSING Research
• Is to answer questions or solve problems of
relevance to the nursing profession
– Basic Res...
Purposes of NURSING Research
• Is to answer questions or solve problems of
relevance to the nursing profession
– Applied R...
Purposes of NURSING Research
• Using this framework, specific purposes of
nursing research include identification,
descrip...
Quantitative Research – the investigation of phenomena
that lend themselves to precise measurement and
quantification, oft...
Purposes of NURSING Research
• Identification-identifying or naming a
phenomena
– Quantitative
– Qualitative
• “What is th...
Purposes of NURSING Research
• Description-focuses on the prevalence, incidence,
size, measurable attributes, dimensions, ...
Purposes of NURSING Research
• Exploration-investigates the full nature of a
phenomena, the manner it is manifested,
and t...
Purposes of NURSING Research
– Quantitative
• “What factors are related to the phenomenon?”
• “What are the antecedents of...
Purposes of NURSING Research
• Explanation-understanding the
underpinnings of specific natural
phenomena, & to explain sys...
Purposes of NURSING Research
– Quantitative
• “What is the causal pathway through which the
phenomenon unfolds?”
– Qualita...
Purposes of NURSING Research
• Prediction-use of empirical evidence to make
forecasts about how variables will behave in a...
Purposes of NURSING Research
• Control-the process of holding constant
confounding influences on the dependent variable
un...
ROLES of Nurses in Research
• It has become a nurse’s responsibility to engage in 1 or
more research activity along a cont...
ROLES of Nurses in Research
• Related activities:
– Participate in journal club in a practice setting to discuss
& critiqu...
ROLES of Nurses in Research
• Related activities: (cont’d)
– Assist researchers in collecting information for study
– Prov...
ROLES of Nurses in Research
Level of Education
Preparation
Participation
Post Doctorate ● Develop and coordinate funded
re...
ROLES of Nurses in Research
Level of Education
Preparation
Participation
MS / MN ● Collaborate in research projects
● Prov...
ROLES of Nurses in Research
Level of Education
Preparation
Participation
AD ● Assist with the identification of
research p...
BASIC RESEARCH
TERMINOLOGY
• Conceptualization-refers to the process of
developing and refining abstract ideas.
BASIC RESEARCH
TERMINOLOGY
• Concept-abstractions that are formulated by
generalizing from particular manifestations of
ce...
BASIC RESEARCH
TERMINOLOGY
• Construct-refers to an abstraction or a
mental representation inferred from
situations, event...
BASIC RESEARCH
TERMINOLOGY
• Operationalizing constructs:
– Property-a concept or logical construct that
describes charact...
BASIC RESEARCH
TERMINOLOGY
• Theory-is an abstract generalization that
presents a systematic explanation about
the interre...
BASIC RESEARCH
TERMINOLOGY
• Variable-something that varies
– Are concepts that assume more than 1 value
– Takes on differ...
Kinds of Variables
• Continuous vs. Categorical Variables
– Continuous-are expressed in whole number &
fractions which can...
Kinds of Variables
• Continuous vs. Categorical Variables
– Categorical-represent discrete categories
rather than incremen...
Kinds of Variables
• Active vs. Attribute Variables
– Active or Manipulated-defined in terms of an
experimental/operationa...
Kinds of Variables
• Active vs. Attribute Variables
– Attribute or Qualitative-often called non-
manipulative variables, f...
Kinds of Variables
• Independent vs. Dependent Variables
Independent Variable Dependent Variable
● stimulus variable
● inp...
Other Variables
• Confounding Variables-are those variables
that interfere with the study design and the
data gathering pr...
Other Variables
• Intervening Variables-comes between the
independent and dependent variables
which cannot be measured, se...
Other Variables
• Extraneous Variables-those that lie
outside the principal interest in the study
but may have the effect ...
Other Variables
• Antecedent Variable-occurs earlier than the
independent variable and bears a
relationship both to it and...
EVIDENCE-BASED NURSING
RESEARCH
• Evidence-based practice (EBP) is defined
as the use of the best clinical evidence in
mak...
Importance of building an Evidence-
based Nursing Research
• Empirical knowledge can be developed to improve
nursing care,...
Importance of building an Evidence-
based Nursing Research
• Determines the best way to deliver health care services
to en...
Utilization of Evidence-based Nursing
Research
• Priorities for Nursing Research
– Health care and prevention of illness
–...
PARADIGM & CATEGORIES OF
RESEARCH
• Paradigm – refers to a world, a general
perspective on the complexities of reality.
Positivist vs. Naturalist
Type of
Assumption
POSITIVIST PARADIGM NATURALIST PARADIGM
The nature of
reality
● Reality exist...
Positivist vs. Naturalist
Type of Assumption POSITIVIST PARADIGM NATURALIST PARADIGM
The role of values in
the inquiry
● V...
Positivist vs. Naturalist
Type of
Assumption
POSITIVIST PARADIGM NATURALIST PARADIGM
Best methods for
obtaining
evidence /...
Quantitative or Qualitative
The Bedrock Axiom: The nature of the data and
the problem for research dictate the methodology
TWO Broad Types of Research
Methods
QUANTITATIVE QUALITATIVE
● involves the systematic collection of numerical
info. often...
TWO Broad Types of Research
Methods
QUANTITATIVE QUALITATIVE
● uses structured procedures & formal
instruments to collect ...
Contrasting Qualitative & Quantitative
Type
Aspects QUANTITATIVE QUALITATIVE
Perspective
Outsider:
Arriving at an understa...
Contrasting Qualitative & Quantitative
Type
Aspects QUANTITATIVE QUALITATIVE
Focus
Particularistic:
To gain control of the...
Contrasting Qualitative & Quantitative
Type
Aspects QUANTITATIVE QUALITATIVE
Orientation
Verification:
The procedures empl...
Contrasting Qualitative & Quantitative
Type
Aspects QUANTITATIVE QUALITATIVE
Data
Objective:
Focus is on objective data th...
Contrasting Qualitative & Quantitative
Type
Aspects QUANTITATIVE QUALITATIVE
Conditions
Controlled:
Usually quantitative d...
Contrasting Qualitative & Quantitative
Type
Aspects QUANTITATIVE QUALITATIVE
Results
Reliable:
Heavy focus on reliability ...
Major Classes of Qualitative
Research
• Grounded theory study-which has its roots in sociology,
seeks to describe and unde...
Major Classes of Qualitative
Research
• Phenomenology-rooted in philosophical tradition, concerned
with the lived experien...
Major Classes of Qualitative
Research
• Ethnography-is the primary research tradition within
anthropology, and provides a ...
Major Classes of Quantitative Research
• Experimental Research – researchers actively
introduce an intervention or treatme...
Major Classes of Quantitative Research
• Exercise
– A researcher gave flakes to 1 group of
subjects & prune juice to anoth...
Major Classes of Quantitative Research
• Exercise
• EXPERIMENTAL because the researcher
intervened in the normal course of...
Major Classes of Quantitative Research
• Exercise
– A researcher compared elimination patterns
of 2 groups of people whose...
Major Classes of Quantitative Research
• Exercise
• NON-EXPERIMENTAL because there is no
intervention, such study focuses ...
Reference:
Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2008).
Nursing Research: Generating and
Assessing Evidence for Nursing
Practice (8...
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Transcript of "Nursing Research"

  1. 1. A cyclical process that begins with a curious inquiry within the human brain
  2. 2. Our Target Objectives: • To review some basic principles of research methodology • To plan / design an appropriate and adequate research project
  3. 3. What is Research? • It is a systemic inquiry that uses disciplined methods to answer questions or solve problems. • It is a scientific study or investigation that is pursued to discover facts, revise theories or laws based on new facts and its practical application.
  4. 4. What is Research? • It is a formal, scientific and intensive process of analyzing problems through scientific means for purposes of discovery and development of an organized body of knowledge. • In its broadest sense, is an attempt to find solutions to problems.
  5. 5. What is Research? • A collection of data in a rigorously controlled situation for purposes of explanation and prediction. • A problem-solving process that utilizes the scientific method of discovery and develop ideas and theories that give meaningful answers to complex questions about human beings and their environment.
  6. 6. What is Research? • It is a way of dealing with ideas for purposes of clarifying, verifying and confirming data. • “To search again” or “to examine carefully”
  7. 7. Why is RESEARCH important? • It provides a theoretical or scientific basis for nursing care. • It is a diligent, systematic inquiry or study that validates and refines existing knowledge and develops new knowledge.
  8. 8. What is NURSING Research? • It is a systematic inquiry designed to develop trustworthy evidence about issues of importance to the nursing profession, including nursing practice, education, administration, and informatics. • CLINICAL NURSING research – designed to guide nursing practice to improve the health and quality of the life of clients.
  9. 9. IMPORTANCE of Nursing Research • Is essential for the development of empirical knowledge that enables nurses to provide evidence-based nursing care • Broadly, the nursing profession is accountable to society for providing high quality, cost-effective care for patients and families.
  10. 10. PURPOSES of Research • To have a research-based practice • To document contributions to nursing and the overall health care • To generate knowledge • To improve the image of nursing
  11. 11. Purposes of NURSING Research • Is to answer questions or solve problems of relevance to the nursing profession – Basic Research • To extend the base of knowledge in a discipline • Ex. A researcher may perform an in depth study to better understand normal grieving processes, w/o having explicit nursing implications in mind
  12. 12. Purposes of NURSING Research • Is to answer questions or solve problems of relevance to the nursing profession – Applied Research • Focuses on finding solutions to existing problems • Ex. A study to determine the effectiveness of a nursing intervention to ease grieving
  13. 13. Purposes of NURSING Research • Using this framework, specific purposes of nursing research include identification, description, exploration, explanation, prediction, & control
  14. 14. Quantitative Research – the investigation of phenomena that lend themselves to precise measurement and quantification, often involving a rigorous and controlled design. Qualitative Research – the investigation of phenomena, typically in an in-depth and holistic fashion, through the collection of rich narrative materials using a flexible research design
  15. 15. Purposes of NURSING Research • Identification-identifying or naming a phenomena – Quantitative – Qualitative • “What is this phenomenon?” • “What is its name?”
  16. 16. Purposes of NURSING Research • Description-focuses on the prevalence, incidence, size, measurable attributes, dimensions, variations, and importance of a phenomena – Quantitative • How prevalent is the phenomenon? – Qualitative • What is important about the phenomena?
  17. 17. Purposes of NURSING Research • Exploration-investigates the full nature of a phenomena, the manner it is manifested, and the other factors to which it is related…
  18. 18. Purposes of NURSING Research – Quantitative • “What factors are related to the phenomenon?” • “What are the antecedents of the phenomenon?” – Qualitative • “What is the full nature of the phenomenon?” • “What is the process by which the phenomenon evolves or is experienced?”
  19. 19. Purposes of NURSING Research • Explanation-understanding the underpinnings of specific natural phenomena, & to explain systematic relationships among phenomena…
  20. 20. Purposes of NURSING Research – Quantitative • “What is the causal pathway through which the phenomenon unfolds?” – Qualitative • “How does the phenomenon work?”
  21. 21. Purposes of NURSING Research • Prediction-use of empirical evidence to make forecasts about how variables will behave in a new setting and with different individuals – Quantitative • “What will happen if we alter a phenomenon or introduce an intervention?” • “If phenomenon X occurs, will phenomenon Y follow?” – Qualitative
  22. 22. Purposes of NURSING Research • Control-the process of holding constant confounding influences on the dependent variable under study – Quantitative • “How can we make the phenomenon happen or alter its prevalence?” • “Can the occurrence of the phenomenon be prevented or controlled?” – Qualitative
  23. 23. ROLES of Nurses in Research • It has become a nurse’s responsibility to engage in 1 or more research activity along a continuum of research participation. • Nurses are users (consumers) of nursing research & read research reports to develop new skills & to keep up- to-date on relevant findings that may affect their practice.
  24. 24. ROLES of Nurses in Research • Related activities: – Participate in journal club in a practice setting to discuss & critique research articles – Attend research presentations at professional conferences – Evaluate completed research for its possible use in practice – Help to develop an idea for a clinical study – Review a proposed research plan and other clinical expertise to improve the plan
  25. 25. ROLES of Nurses in Research • Related activities: (cont’d) – Assist researchers in collecting information for study – Provide information and advise to clients who are participating in studies – Discuss the implications and relevance of research findings with clients
  26. 26. ROLES of Nurses in Research Level of Education Preparation Participation Post Doctorate ● Develop and coordinate funded research programs PhD / DNS ● Develop nursing knowledge through research and theory development ● Conduct funded independent research projects
  27. 27. ROLES of Nurses in Research Level of Education Preparation Participation MS / MN ● Collaborate in research projects ● Provide clinical expertise for research BS ● Critique research findings for use in practice ● Use research findings in practice
  28. 28. ROLES of Nurses in Research Level of Education Preparation Participation AD ● Assist with the identification of research problems ● Assist with data collection ● Use research findings in practice with supervision
  29. 29. BASIC RESEARCH TERMINOLOGY • Conceptualization-refers to the process of developing and refining abstract ideas.
  30. 30. BASIC RESEARCH TERMINOLOGY • Concept-abstractions that are formulated by generalizing from particular manifestations of certain behaviors of characteristics – Categories/generalizations from particular instances – Names given to things which share common char. – Intellectual abstractions, creation of the human intellect
  31. 31. BASIC RESEARCH TERMINOLOGY • Construct-refers to an abstraction or a mental representation inferred from situations, events or behavior – Is a concept that has been deliberately and consciously invented or adopted for a special scientific purpose
  32. 32. BASIC RESEARCH TERMINOLOGY • Operationalizing constructs: – Property-a concept or logical construct that describes characteristic which is common to all members of a set, but which members of a set vary. Example: punctuality – Indicant-something that points to the property and helps define it. Example: is never late in class
  33. 33. BASIC RESEARCH TERMINOLOGY • Theory-is an abstract generalization that presents a systematic explanation about the interrelationship among phenomena.
  34. 34. BASIC RESEARCH TERMINOLOGY • Variable-something that varies – Are concepts that assume more than 1 value – Takes on different values as the situation changes, example: height, weight, body temp. – Is any quality of an organism, group or situation that takes on different values
  35. 35. Kinds of Variables • Continuous vs. Categorical Variables – Continuous-are expressed in whole number & fractions which can be broken down to the smallest decimal
  36. 36. Kinds of Variables • Continuous vs. Categorical Variables – Categorical-represent discrete categories rather than incremental placement along a continuum – Types: • Two-category or dichotomous variables provide for only 2 possibilities indicating the incidence of the variable • Multiple-category variables assume more than 2 categories
  37. 37. Kinds of Variables • Active vs. Attribute Variables – Active or Manipulated-defined in terms of an experimental/operational definition • Example: Type of mouth care used after vomiting - ice chips - ginger ale Teaching Methods - laboratory method - modular method - traditional method
  38. 38. Kinds of Variables • Active vs. Attribute Variables – Attribute or Qualitative-often called non- manipulative variables, focuses on traits and characteristics, also expressed in non- numerical forms but can be measured • Example: age, sex, height, intelligence, civil status
  39. 39. Kinds of Variables • Independent vs. Dependent Variables Independent Variable Dependent Variable ● stimulus variable ● input variable ● presumed cause ● it is the factor that affect the value of the dependent condition that produce the outcome ● response variable ● output variable ● presumed effect ● it is the factor which is observed & measured to determine the effect of the independent variable
  40. 40. Other Variables • Confounding Variables-are those variables that interfere with the study design and the data gathering process by influencing the subjects or the dependent variable. • Example: What is the effect of unwanted pregnancies on the incidence of child abuse?
  41. 41. Other Variables • Intervening Variables-comes between the independent and dependent variables which cannot be measured, seen or manipulated
  42. 42. Other Variables • Extraneous Variables-those that lie outside the principal interest in the study but may have the effect on the independent and dependent variable • Discrete Variables-those variables expressed in whole numbers
  43. 43. Other Variables • Antecedent Variable-occurs earlier than the independent variable and bears a relationship both to it and the dependent variable • Organismic Variables-those that cannot be changed through manipulation
  44. 44. EVIDENCE-BASED NURSING RESEARCH • Evidence-based practice (EBP) is defined as the use of the best clinical evidence in making patient care decisions.
  45. 45. Importance of building an Evidence- based Nursing Research • Empirical knowledge can be developed to improve nursing care, patient outcomes, & health care delivery system • Document the effectiveness of selected nursing interventions in treating particular patient problems and promoting positive patient and family outcomes
  46. 46. Importance of building an Evidence- based Nursing Research • Determines the best way to deliver health care services to ensure that the greatest number of people receive care
  47. 47. Utilization of Evidence-based Nursing Research • Priorities for Nursing Research – Health care and prevention of illness – Development of cost-efficient delivery systems or nursing care – Development of strategies that provide effective nursing care to high risk groups
  48. 48. PARADIGM & CATEGORIES OF RESEARCH • Paradigm – refers to a world, a general perspective on the complexities of reality.
  49. 49. Positivist vs. Naturalist Type of Assumption POSITIVIST PARADIGM NATURALIST PARADIGM The nature of reality ● Reality exists; there is a real world driven by real natural causes ● Reality is multiple, subjective& mentally constructed by individuals The rel. b/w researcher & those being studied ● The researcher is independent from those being researched ● The researcher interacts with those being researched & findings are the creation of the interaction.
  50. 50. Positivist vs. Naturalist Type of Assumption POSITIVIST PARADIGM NATURALIST PARADIGM The role of values in the inquiry ● Values are to be held in check, objectivity is sought ● Subjectivity and values are inevitable and desirable Best methods for obtaining evidence/ knowledge ● seeks generalizations ● emphasis on discrete concepts ● fixed design ● focus on the objective & quantifiable ● measured, quantitative info, statistical analysis ● seeks patterns ● emphasis on the whole ● flexible design ● focus on the subjective & non- quantifiable ● narrative info, qualitative analysis
  51. 51. Positivist vs. Naturalist Type of Assumption POSITIVIST PARADIGM NATURALIST PARADIGM Best methods for obtaining evidence / knowledge ● control over context; decontextualized ● outsider knowledge – researcher as external ● verification of researcher’s hunches ● focus on the product ● context-bound; contextualized ● insider knowledge – researcher as internal ● emerging interpretations grounded in participants’ experiences ● focus on product & process
  52. 52. Quantitative or Qualitative The Bedrock Axiom: The nature of the data and the problem for research dictate the methodology
  53. 53. TWO Broad Types of Research Methods QUANTITATIVE QUALITATIVE ● involves the systematic collection of numerical info. often under conditions of considerable control, and the analysis of that info. using statistical procedures ● focuses on a relatively small number of specific concepts ● begins with pre-conceived ideas about how concepts are interrelated ● involves the systematic collection & analysis of more subjective narrative materials using procedures in which that tends to be a minimum of researcher-imposed control ● attempts to understand the entirety of some phenomena rather than focus on specific concepts ● has few pre-conceived ideas and stresses the importance of people’s interpretation of events and circumstances rather than the researcher’s interpretation
  54. 54. TWO Broad Types of Research Methods QUANTITATIVE QUALITATIVE ● uses structured procedures & formal instruments to collect information ● collects info. under conditions of control ● emphasizes objectivity in the collection and analysis of information ● analyzes numerical information through statistical procedures ● collects info. without formal, structured instruments ● does not attempt to control the context of the research but rather attempts to capture in its entirety ● attempts to capitalize on the subjective as a means for understanding & interpreting human experiences ● analyzes narrative information in an organized, but intuitive fashion
  55. 55. Contrasting Qualitative & Quantitative Type Aspects QUANTITATIVE QUALITATIVE Perspective Outsider: Arriving at an understanding of facts by maintaining a detached, objective view that, hypothetically, is free from all bias Insider: Talking to and/or observing subjects who have experienced firsthand the activities or procedures under scrutiny (Firsthand experience provides more meaningful data) Reality Static: Accumulation of facts and causes of behavior and believes that the facts gathered do not change Dynamic: Concern with the changing and dynamic nature of reality
  56. 56. Contrasting Qualitative & Quantitative Type Aspects QUANTITATIVE QUALITATIVE Focus Particularistic: To gain control of the events under scrutiny, the situation is structured by identifying& isolating specific variables for study & by employing specific measurement devices to collect info. on variables Holistic: Gains a complete or holistic view of what is being studied To achieve this end, a wide array of data are needed: documents, records, photographs, observations, interviews, case histories, & even quantitative data
  57. 57. Contrasting Qualitative & Quantitative Type Aspects QUANTITATIVE QUALITATIVE Orientation Verification: The procedures employed are usually high structured and designed to verify or disproved predetermined hypotheses. To eliminate as much bias as possible, flexibility is kept to a minimum Discovery: The research procedures employed are flexible, exploratory and discovery oriented. As the study progresses, the researcher can add to or change the types and sources of data gathered. This type of flexibility permits a deeper understanding of what is being investigated than can be achieved through a more rigid approach
  58. 58. Contrasting Qualitative & Quantitative Type Aspects QUANTITATIVE QUALITATIVE Data Objective: Focus is on objective data that exist apart from the feelings and thoughts of individuals and is typically expressed in numbers Subjective: Focus is on subjective data that exist within the minds of individuals and is typically expressed or reported through language. It is essential to understand the meaning that persons attach to events in their environ.
  59. 59. Contrasting Qualitative & Quantitative Type Aspects QUANTITATIVE QUALITATIVE Conditions Controlled: Usually quantitative data are collected under controlled conditions in order to rule out the possibility that variables other than the ones under study could account for the relationships among the variables Naturalistic: Qualitative data are collected within the context of their natural occurrence. This permits any variable that naturally influences the data to operate without interference
  60. 60. Contrasting Qualitative & Quantitative Type Aspects QUANTITATIVE QUALITATIVE Results Reliable: Heavy focus on reliability – data that are consistent or stable as indicated by the researcher’s ability to replicate the findings Valid: Concentration on validity – data that are representative of a true and full picture of what the researcher is attempting to investigate
  61. 61. Major Classes of Qualitative Research • Grounded theory study-which has its roots in sociology, seeks to describe and understand the key social, psychological & structural processes that occur in a social setting. – Example: King & colleagues (2006) conducted a series of grounded theory studies with men and women from five groups in Canada who had been diagnosed with coronary artery disease. The analysis focused on the process through which patients met the challenge of managing CAD risk.
  62. 62. Major Classes of Qualitative Research • Phenomenology-rooted in philosophical tradition, concerned with the lived experiences of humans. It is an approach to thinking about what life experiences of people are like and what they mean. (essence) – Example: O’Dell & Jacelon (2005) conducted in-depth interviews to explore the experiences of women who had undergone vaginal closure surgery to correct severe vaginal prolapse.
  63. 63. Major Classes of Qualitative Research • Ethnography-is the primary research tradition within anthropology, and provides a framework for studying the patterns, lifeways and experiences of a cultural group in a holistic fashion. (immersion) – Example: Schoenfeld & Juarbe (2005) conducted ethnographic fieldwork in two rural Ecuadorian communities and studied the burdens of women’s roles, the women’s perceived health needs, and their health care resources.
  64. 64. Major Classes of Quantitative Research • Experimental Research – researchers actively introduce an intervention or treatment (AKA controlled or clinical trial) • Non-Experimental Research – researchers are bystanders, they collect data without introducing treatments or making changes (AKA observational study)
  65. 65. Major Classes of Quantitative Research • Exercise – A researcher gave flakes to 1 group of subjects & prune juice to another to evaluate which method facilitated elimination more effectively, this study would be…
  66. 66. Major Classes of Quantitative Research • Exercise • EXPERIMENTAL because the researcher intervened in the normal course of things, he/she created an “active variable” involving a dietary intervention
  67. 67. Major Classes of Quantitative Research • Exercise – A researcher compared elimination patterns of 2 groups of people whose regular eating patterns differed-for example, some normally took foods that stimulated bowel elimination & others did not, this study would be…
  68. 68. Major Classes of Quantitative Research • Exercise • NON-EXPERIMENTAL because there is no intervention, such study focuses on existing attributes only
  69. 69. Reference: Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2008). Nursing Research: Generating and Assessing Evidence for Nursing Practice (8th ed.)
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