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Russian Revolutions


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  • 1. Revolutions in RussiaRevolutions in Russia Causes and Impacts
  • 2. #1#1 Czars Alexander III & Nicholas II sought to industrialize & build economic strength. Russia wants to import western technology, but block ideals of French Revolution -> anti-czar! Meiji Japan industrialized faster & better -> Japan whoops Russia in Russo- Japanese War, 1904-1905.
  • 3. #2#2 Russian liberals called for a constitution & reforms that’d eliminate corruption. Czars used harsh tactics to suppress reform Secret police, jail, sent to Siberia, executions
  • 4. #3#3Peasants hurt by rigid social class system -> too poor to buy land they worked after they were freed from serfdom Poverty -> work in factories (long hours, low pay, poor living conditions) Want change!
  • 5. #4#4  Vast empire and diverse empire included many ethnic minorities: Pockets of nationalism  These people would want sovereignty: authority to rule themselves
  • 6. #5 Bloody Sunday: Revolution of 1905#5 Bloody Sunday: Revolution of 1905 Shot into a peaceful protest -> destroyed faith & trust in the czar Led to strikes & revolts Led to limited reforms October Manifesto: Nicholas II created Duma, a representative body, which silenced critics; he later removed their power
  • 7. #6#6 Limited industry -> not ready to fight less than adequate weapons & supplies leads to military losses Food scarce, many desert Military defeats, shortage of food, fuel, housing leads to March Revolution, 1917
  • 8. #6 March Revolution#6 March Revolution 1917 Rioters in St. Petersburg demand bread, soldiers are sympathetic with them “Down with war & high prices!” “Down with starvation!” “Bread for workers!” Czar abdicates (leaves throne) & taken into custody
  • 9. #7#7 The provisional govt set up failed because: 1) Continued unpopular war against Germany, draining men & resources 2) Didn’t help the peasants & workers So revolutionary socialists set up Soviets (councils of wrkrs and soldiers) in many Russian cities and begin to plot a takeover
  • 10. #8#8 V.I. Lenin returns from exile in Switzerland with help of Germany after March Revolution Leon Trotsky & Lenin both lead the Bolsheviks “Peace” - end war “Land” - distribute to peasants “Bread” - end food shortages
  • 11. #9#9 Nov 1917, Bolsheviks led soldiers, sailors, and factory workers in an uprising that overthrew the govt Now called Communists, they gave land to peasants & gave workers control of mines and factories A lot like communism, but still have a battle to face.
  • 12. #10 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk#10 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Russia loses Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, the Ukraine, Bessarabia & Poland (Baltic States) to Germany Had to pay $ Lenin hoped socialist revolution in Germany would occur & reverse some of these losses.
  • 13. #11 Civil War!!!#11 Civil War!!! Reds (Communists) vs. Whites (Czarist & Aristocratic) Whites were supported by French, British, Greek, Polish, Czech, Japanese, and U.S. troops They were still fighting Germany Czar Nicholas II & family executed (eliminate white’s rallying point) Reds win; 500,000 die
  • 14. #12#12 Marx: urban workers (proletariat) would rise to overthrow capitalist bourgeoisie Lenin: dual revolution of poor, land-hungry peasants led by Bolshevik party of elite, highly-trained, constantly purged revolutionaries to instruct and lead the masses Not to be seduced by short-term gains
  • 15. #13#13  Lenin had given control of factories to workers, land to peasants  Economy in ruins, March 1921  Lenin’s New Economic Policy (NEP) - govt controlled banks, large industry, & foreign trade  But allowed some privately owned businesses!!!!!  Not socialism (some capitalism), but worked!  Like Brest-Litovsk – painful, but necessary
  • 16. #14#14 Lenin dies in 1924, Joseph Stalin takes over after forcing Trotsky into exile - later killed in Mexico Feared other members were plotting against him Great Purge - accused thousands of crimes against govt. -> executed or sent to forced-labor camps Centralized his power!
  • 17. #15#15 Totalitarian rule: One-party dictatorship attempts to regulate every aspect of the lives of its citizens
  • 18. #16#16 Promoted Russian history, language, culture -> sometimes forbid native cultural practices Appointed Russians to key posts in govt & secret police Redrew boundaries of many republics to ensure non-Russians would not gain a majority
  • 19. #17#17 What Communism becomes in practice: Communist Command Economy: Govt officials (party members) make all economic decisions Govt controls all factories, businesses, & farms Not a lot of incentive to work hard, shortage of consumer goods Produce tanks over toilet paper, guns over butter: (country 1st, consumer 2nd)
  • 20. #17#17 Capitalist Economy Businesses are privately owned & operated for a profit Free market controls economic decisions (businesses make what consumers want) Competition, supply & demand regulate prices Innovative; opportunity; incentive to work; quick to meet consumer needs
  • 21. #18#18 Stalin’s Five-Year Plans: Build industry & increase farm output Establish quotas to be met in 5 year intervals Invest in heavy industry, build big things Forced Communism
  • 22. #18 5-Year Plans: Success or Failure?#18 5-Year Plans: Success or Failure? Soviet production in oil, coal, steel, mining, & military goods increases. Factories, hydroelectric power, and railroads built. Most Russians remained poor & endured a lower standard of living Less consumer goods, lower quality goods
  • 23. #19 Collectives#19 Collectives Large, state-owned farms, operated by peasants as a group Govt controlled prices & supplies & set production quotas. Plan: grow enough grain to feed city workers, & export surplus grain, finance industrialization
  • 24. #20#20 Stalin ruthlessly eliminated opposition Ukrainian kulaks faced forced famine when they tried to resist collectivization Govt seized their grain, 6 million die
  • 25. Russian Revolution Catchphrase!Russian Revolution Catchphrase!
  • 26. Partner APartner A Czar Nicholas II 5 Year Plans Sickle Bloody Sunday Absolute Monarchy
  • 27. Partner BPartner B Lenin Peace, Land, Bread Bolsheviks Provisional Government Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
  • 28. PartnerPartner AA Collectivization Ukraine Trotsky Pogroms Russification
  • 29. Partner BPartner B Hammer Rasputin Red Army Stalin New Economic Policy
  • 30. For All The MarblesFor All The Marbles Czarina Alexandra