Imperialism, 1850 - 1914
What is Imperialism?
• As European countries
industrialized, they needed
new markets and raw
materials to further improve
...
New Imperialism?
• Old imperialism was when
European nations
established colonies in the
Americas, India, and SE
Asia betw...
Justification:
(AKA reasons, rationale)

• Social Darwinism!
• Moral duty to pass on
European progress to the
less-advance...
Social Darwinism
• Applying Darwin’s theory of “survival
of the fittest” to human society
• It was natural for stronger na...
White Man’s Burden
• Poem penned by
Rudyard Kipling
offered justification
for Imperialism
• Wrote it to remind
Americans o...
East India Company
• Since 1600s, East India Company
controlled Bombay, Madras, &
Calcutta to conduct trade ->
• British E...
Colonial Policies
• The British viewed
Indians as second class
citizens.
• Members of the Indian
Vaisya and Shudra
castes ...
Why was India valuable?
• India was “Jewel in the
Crown”- most valuable
of Britain’s colonies
• Valuable markets for
Briti...
Sepoy Mutiny
• Cause - began when Indian
soldiers of the East India
Company (sepoys) were jailed
for refusing to accept ri...
Sepoy Mutiny
• Consequence - sepoys
rebelled and march on
Delhi, East India Company
takes over 1 year to
restore order.
• ...
Berlin Conference

• 1884, in order to avoid
conflict among
themselves, European
leaders from 14 countries
met in Berlin, ...
Boer War
• Dutch settlers
(Boer/Afrikaner) settled
in South Africa 1st, and
fought Zulus for control
of territory, 1700s
•...
Resistance?
• Africans -> spears
• Europeans -> guns
• Enough said.
• Africans that were armed
with European guns (Menelik...
African Settlement
• In 1850, most of Africa had been free
• 70 years later, only Liberia and
Ethiopia were free.
China under the Qing
• Qing - Manchus from N.
China conquer Ming Dynasty
• Ethnocentrism - looked
down on all foreigners l...
Qing Dynasty
• Had a Ministry of
Punishment to deal with
treatment of foreigners
• Westerners hated it
• British send Lord...
Opium?
• Started to trade opium for
tea - stopped specie drain
• Opium is addictive, and
Chinese get hooked Prohibition Ed...
• Cause - British
merchants ignored
China’s requests to stop
trading opium
• China confiscates a
shipment and dump it
into...
Its on!

• British iron-clad ship Nemesis
blockades Canton, other ports,
then Nanjing (capital)
• Consequences - China suf...
Treaty of Nanjing
• 1) Treaty Ports - China forced to open new
ports to trade
• 2) fixed tariffs - low cost to trade
• 3) ...
Effects of Opium War
• Extraterritoriality:
Westerners could commit
crimes with impunity
• Western countries never
set up ...
Reaction to
Europeans:
1st Take out the Qing!

• Taiping Rebellion - 1851-64 - led by Hong
Xiuquan, mili. & social movemen...
Boxer Rebellion
• China has internal
problems - food production
can’t keep up with pop.
• Widespread hunger
• Poor peasant...
Boxer Rebellion
• 1900-1901
• Slogan:“Revive the Qing,
destroy the foreign”
• Called Boxers due to
martial art practice
• ...
Chinese Nationalism
• Sun-Yatsen (Sun Yixian)
• Led a secret movement
within the Chinese
military to overthrow
the Qing - ...
• Wanted to end foreign
domination
• Form a representative
govt
• Create economic
security for the Chinese
• Sun becomes P...
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Imperialism 1850 1914

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Notes on Imperialism for Global History & Geography II.

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Imperialism 1850 1914

  1. 1. Imperialism, 1850 - 1914
  2. 2. What is Imperialism? • As European countries industrialized, they needed new markets and raw materials to further improve their economies. (output=wealth!) • In simplest terms, it is the “domination and exploitation of weaker states by stronger ones.”
  3. 3. New Imperialism? • Old imperialism was when European nations established colonies in the Americas, India, and SE Asia between 1500 and 1800. • New imperialism was when industrialized nations focused on Asia and Africa to expand their territories between 1870 and 1914. • Prior to WWI
  4. 4. Justification: (AKA reasons, rationale) • Social Darwinism! • Moral duty to pass on European progress to the less-advanced nonEuropeans • (White Man’s Burden) • Chance to “westernize” people • Christianity! • Best way to end slavery is by helping them
  5. 5. Social Darwinism • Applying Darwin’s theory of “survival of the fittest” to human society • It was natural for stronger nations to dominate weaker ones.
  6. 6. White Man’s Burden • Poem penned by Rudyard Kipling offered justification for Imperialism • Wrote it to remind Americans of their moral obligation to educate lesser peoples • It is the duty of all white imperialists!
  7. 7. East India Company • Since 1600s, East India Company controlled Bombay, Madras, & Calcutta to conduct trade -> • British East India Company governs directly the best territory in India • The company even had its own army of Indian soldiers (sepoys)
  8. 8. Colonial Policies • The British viewed Indians as second class citizens. • Members of the Indian Vaisya and Shudra castes were servants to British officers and their families. • Often showed disregard for Hindu and Muslim culture, exploit workers
  9. 9. Why was India valuable? • India was “Jewel in the Crown”- most valuable of Britain’s colonies • Valuable markets for British goods, supplied raw materials for industrialized economy • Plantation cash-crops (tea, indigo, coffee, cotton, OPIUM)
  10. 10. Sepoy Mutiny • Cause - began when Indian soldiers of the East India Company (sepoys) were jailed for refusing to accept rifle cartridges that they believed were greased with beef and pork fat • Cows are sacred to Hindus, Muslims cannot eat pork • Indians already mad at racism
  11. 11. Sepoy Mutiny • Consequence - sepoys rebelled and march on Delhi, East India Company takes over 1 year to restore order. • British government takes over control of India from E.I.Co. • India now governed by a British viceroy, with authority from London
  12. 12. Berlin Conference • 1884, in order to avoid conflict among themselves, European leaders from 14 countries met in Berlin, Germany • Set up rules for colonizing Africa • Divided Africa with little to no regard for the people who lived there!
  13. 13. Boer War • Dutch settlers (Boer/Afrikaner) settled in South Africa 1st, and fought Zulus for control of territory, 1700s • British annexed the Boer republics = Fight over land, and British win 3 year war, despite heavy losses • Leaves feeling of hatred in region
  14. 14. Resistance? • Africans -> spears • Europeans -> guns • Enough said. • Africans that were armed with European guns (Menelik II in Ethiopia) were able to resist European domination
  15. 15. African Settlement • In 1850, most of Africa had been free • 70 years later, only Liberia and Ethiopia were free.
  16. 16. China under the Qing • Qing - Manchus from N. China conquer Ming Dynasty • Ethnocentrism - looked down on all foreigners little interest in trading with the West • 1760 - restricted all foreign trade to city of Canton (Guangzhou) • England was trading silver for Chinese tea - specie drain (running out of silver)
  17. 17. Qing Dynasty • Had a Ministry of Punishment to deal with treatment of foreigners • Westerners hated it • British send Lord George McCartney to Qing emperor Qianlong to try and expand trade • NO - England has nothing that China wants (ethnocentrism!!!!)
  18. 18. Opium? • Started to trade opium for tea - stopped specie drain • Opium is addictive, and Chinese get hooked Prohibition Edicts in 1800 and 1813 make it illegal in China • But by 1835 - 12 million hooked, & England continues to trade it
  19. 19. • Cause - British merchants ignored China’s requests to stop trading opium • China confiscates a shipment and dump it into river, take a British trade official hostage • British are pushed from Canton Opium War!
  20. 20. Its on! • British iron-clad ship Nemesis blockades Canton, other ports, then Nanjing (capital) • Consequences - China suffers humiliating defeat • China forced to sign the Treaty of Nanjing
  21. 21. Treaty of Nanjing • 1) Treaty Ports - China forced to open new ports to trade • 2) fixed tariffs - low cost to trade • 3) “most favored nation” status • 4) Hong Kong - British property • 5) indemnity - China must pay in silver the cost of lost opium • Other nations followed + extraterritoriality
  22. 22. Effects of Opium War • Extraterritoriality: Westerners could commit crimes with impunity • Western countries never set up jails or courts • Chinese grow to resent foreigners, opium trade they introduced
  23. 23. Reaction to Europeans: 1st Take out the Qing! • Taiping Rebellion - 1851-64 - led by Hong Xiuquan, mili. & social movement tried to overthrow Qing & estab. “Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace” - capture Nanjing in 1853 • Qing counterattacks backed by Western tech. drive them out after 11 years - 20 million die
  24. 24. Boxer Rebellion • China has internal problems - food production can’t keep up with pop. • Widespread hunger • Poor peasants resented privileged foreigners, Chinese Christians • Rebelled against Qing rulers, foreigners, missionairies
  25. 25. Boxer Rebellion • 1900-1901 • Slogan:“Revive the Qing, destroy the foreign” • Called Boxers due to martial art practice • Western military force put down the rebellion • Though defeated, Chinese nationalism will emerge
  26. 26. Chinese Nationalism • Sun-Yatsen (Sun Yixian) • Led a secret movement within the Chinese military to overthrow the Qing - succeeds in 1911 (Wuchang Uprising) • His Revolutionary Alliance becomes Guomingdang (or the Nationalists)
  27. 27. • Wanted to end foreign domination • Form a representative govt • Create economic security for the Chinese • Sun becomes President of New Republic of China, secures backing by western countries • End of Dynastic Cycle in China Sun Yat-sen

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