The Impact of Synchronous Inter-Networked Teacher Training in ICT Integration

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How does the use of synchronous networking technology impact on ICT integration by pre-service teachers? A presentation of my Ed.D thesis. …

How does the use of synchronous networking technology impact on ICT integration by pre-service teachers? A presentation of my Ed.D thesis.
Related references:
(1) Martin, S. & Vallance, M. (2007). The impact of synchronous inter-networked teacher training in Information and Communication Technology integration. Computers & Education, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 26 June 2007 at http://www.sciencedirect.com
(2) Vallance, M. (2007). An information and communications technology (ICT)-enabled method for collecting and collating information about pre-service teachers’ pedagogical beliefs regarding the integration of ICT, ALT-J, Volume 15, Issue 1, pp.51-65.

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  • 1. The Impact of Synchronous Inter-Networked Teacher Training in ICT Integration. By Michael Vallance Durham EdD Thesis 1
  • 2. Statement of the topic Assumption: graduating pre-service teachers should be well prepared to integrate technology in their teaching Literature reveals: pre-service teachers lack confidence and do not know how to apply ICT to a constructivist pedagogy 2
  • 3. Literature Review 3
  • 4. What the literature revealed about ICT integration + 87% schools online in USA + 25% English/ 17% science/ 11% maths teachers use on a weekly basis in class (US Dept. of Edu., 2002) - 67% in-service teachers in USA felt inadequately prepared to use technology in class (US Dept. of Edu., 2000) - 47% of graduating pre-service teachers in USA felt inadequately prepared to use technology in class (US Dept. of Edu., 2002) - 44% of graduating pre-service teachers in Singapore felt inadequately prepared to use technology in class (Hu et al, 2004) 4
  • 5. What the literature revealed about ICT integration • Didactic utilisation • teacher presentations/ Knowledge Instruction • online e-learning mainly a repository • Access to ICT does not necessarily alter pedagogical practices • e.g. a lack of questioning and elicitation • Skills courses (in the IT) most ineffective for changing pedagogical practices • ACOT 12-year longitudinal study • an arduous 5 stage development of change in pedagogy that impacted upon learning environment: from Knowledge Instruction to Knowledge Construction 5
  • 6. • Many papers over the past 25 years on computer assisted learning • control vs experimental groups • motivational aspects • technical innovations and usage • lack of research on types of cognitive outcomes and process activities that IT supports (Knipe & Lee, 2002). 6
  • 7. What the literature revealed about ICT integration. Key factors for informed ICT integration 7
  • 8. which can be represented as ... Characteristic categories based upon Selwyn’s (1997) proposal for ICT teacher training 8
  • 9. What was missing? • I discovered from the literature review that ICT mainly used to mimic teaching a didactic approach adopted without technology. • I knew from experience that my trainees over the past 4 years were not being trained to adopt technology to support a more constructivist pedagogy (as desired by policy makers and research that had positive results in technology facilitated learning). • How to train teachers effectively to adopt a more constructivist approach with their learners when using computers. • A proposed strategy for teacher training in ICT (Selwyn, 1997) but literature lacking in details of implementation (ACOT was in- service!) 9
  • 10. CAE 442 - Using IT in language & literature • access to IT literate trainee teachers in final BEd year • an opportunity to implement Selwyn’s strategy • over 12 weeks (36 hrs) attempt to collect data on activities and cognitive outcomes • over 12 weeks determine if/ how beliefs in teaching strategies alter given experiences in a technology rich course that emphasised theoretical justifications 10
  • 11. How to provide a unique IT related experience that would cater to opportunities for varying activities and cognitive outcomes, and simultaneously stimulate reflection in pedagogical practices? • SYNCHronous technology - P2P document collaboration. • Directly involved in task design and implementation. • Reflect upon activities and perceived cognitive outcomes, • which facilitates reflection on tasks’ process and product leading to, maybe, (re)consideration of their pedagogical practice. • Resulting in research that reports on trainee teachers’ adoption of ICT to support a constructivist pedagogy... OR NOT! 11
  • 12. The research question How does the use of synchronous networking technology impact on ICT integration by pre- service teachers? 12
  • 13. Sign-post the Case Study 13
  • 14. What is synchronous networking? 14
  • 15. Synchronous networking: iStorm 15
  • 16. Methodology 16
  • 17. Methodology Case Study Research Design provides an in-depth understanding of the situation and its meaning to those involved (Merriam, 1988; Guba & Lincoln, 1981) attempts to uncover the interaction of significant factors known as “interpretation in context” (Cronbach, 1975) Methodology 17
  • 18. Summary of methodology Methodology 18
  • 19. Procedure for collecting data Levy (2003) Methodology 19
  • 20. Procedure for collecting data Levy (2003) Methodology 19
  • 21. Procedure for collecting data Plan for constructing synchronous networking research: CASE STUDY RESEARCH (Levy, 2003; Merriam, 1988) Phase 4: dissemination Phase 1: planning action and Phase 2: research Phase 3: taking reconstructing, action, evaluating monitoring, reflecting Levy (2003) Methodology 19
  • 22. Phase 1 Planning action and research Methodology/ Phase 1/ Planning action and research 20
  • 23. Participants Methodology/ Phase 1/ Planning action and research 21
  • 24. Data collection Methodology/ Phase 1/ Planning action and research 22
  • 25. Quantitative data: weekly survey Adapted from Knipe & Lee (2002) with permission Pilot study published by Vallance (2005) Methodology/ Phase 1/ Planning action and research 23
  • 26. Qualitative data Methodology/ Phase 1/ Planning action and research 24
  • 27. Qualitative data Researcher’s weekly BLOG & interviewing participants Methodology/ Phase 1/ Planning action and research 24
  • 28. Phase 2 Taking action, monitoring and reflecting 25
  • 29. The Case Study Methodology/ Phase 2 Taking action, monitoring and reflection 26
  • 30. Synchronous task development summary Characteristic categories based upon Selwyn’s (1997) proposal for ICT teacher training Methodology/ Phase 2 Taking action, monitoring and reflection 27
  • 31. The four (4) synchronous tasks designed within the framework (details not shown) Methodology/ Phase 2 Taking action, monitoring and reflection 28
  • 32. For example ...Task 1 (role play) Objective: to develop an outline for a school report on upgrading the library with (a) books or (b) computers or (c) outsourcing/e-learning Methodology/ Phase 2 Taking action, monitoring and reflection 29
  • 33. Methodology/ Phase 2 Taking action, monitoring and reflection 30
  • 34. Phase 3 Reconstructing and evaluating 31
  • 35. Methodology/ Phase 3 Reconstructing and evaluating 32
  • 36. Digital capture Methodology/ Phase 3 Reconstructing and evaluating 33
  • 37. Interviews/ discussion Methodology/ Phase 3 Reconstructing and evaluating 34
  • 38. Bulletin Board “One thing that i learnt from the last lesson we had was that many times, we have the tendency to plan tasks System (BBS) without really looking at the end product I never knew that planning for a task required so many considerations to be taken.” HUI MIN Methodology/ Phase 3 Reconstructing and evaluating 35
  • 39. which led to ... Methodology/ Phase 3 Reconstructing and evaluating 36
  • 40. Methodology/ Phase 3 Reconstructing and evaluating 37
  • 41. Phase 4 Dissemination 38
  • 42. Methodology/ Phase 4 Dissemination 39
  • 43. ACTIVITIES category SYNCH: NON SYNCH IT 100%:97% NOTES 50%:45% EXERCISE 92%:89% INFO 82%:88% EXPLAN 82%:95% ... this may be due to the students reading (READ, 70%:83%) and revising (REVISE, 54%:80%) in groups (GROUP, 92%:99%) as the instructor worked through the course syllabus. PRESENT 70%:85% Methodology/ Phase 4 Dissemination 40
  • 44. Methodology/ Phase 4 Dissemination 41
  • 45. COGNITIVE OUTCOMES category SYNCH: NON SYNCH NEW IDEAS 78%:69% (generic) PROBLEM 78%:68% (declarative) CORE SKILLS 80%:79% (generic) DECISIONS 84%:77% (generic) VALUES 60%:57% (epistemic) VIEWPOINTS 74%:84% (declarative) CONNECTION 66%:79% (epistemic) Methodology/ Phase 4 Dissemination 42
  • 46. Methodology/ Phase 4 Dissemination 43
  • 47. ACTIVITIES Category TEACHER: STUDENT INSTRUCT 75%:98% PLAN 50%:68% PRESENT 50%:70% REVISE 75%:54% COGNITIVE OUTCOMES VALUES 100%:60% (epistemic) STUDENT VALUES after Task1 50% after Task2 40% after Task3 79% after Task4 71% Methodology/ Phase 4 Dissemination 44
  • 48. Breadth of learning (Knipe & Lee, 2002) Methodology/ Phase 4 Dissemination 45
  • 49. Breadth of learning (Knipe & Lee, 2002) BREADTH OF LEARNING • A cautious indication of breadth of learning (Knipe & Lee, 2002) SYNCH: NON SYNCH 52%:43% • high occurrence of both ACTIVITIES and COGNITIVE OUTCOMES • Impact on learning could be considered through reflections; I find that I can now use IT more naturally because I'm beginning to see the IT as an integral part of teaching and learning instead of some added plus or gimmick to impress students. … now, the questions I ask most of the time are 'How can I make my lesson better than before and how can the use of IT add value to the lesson?' SZELENG Methodology/ Phase 4 Dissemination 46
  • 50. Epistemic: application, values, connections Competencies Declarative: critical, (Goodyear, 2001; Generic: core skills, viewpoints, understand Morrison & Collins, consolidate, new ideas 1996) Methodology/ Phase 4 Dissemination 47
  • 51. Teachers ourselves are not trained how to use IT! Not only do some teachers themselves are not taught how to make lessons using IT. ZURA I can now use IT more naturally because I'm beginning to see the IT as an integral part of teaching and learning. SZE LENG Methodology/ Phase 4 Dissemination 48
  • 52. Task 1 & 2/ weeks 1-6 • Our mindsets about how we usually plan our lesson made it difficult to infuse IT. LI CHING • i was projecting my apprehension of IT onto students. LOSHINI Tasks 3 & 4/ weeks 7-12 • Teaching style has become less rigid and learning for students is very much self-directed. One example is the use of i-storm. LI CHING • I think to change our mindset ... involved the discarding of a lot of security blankets and assumptions on our part. SZE LENG • our mindset should be that of a willingness to take risks and persevere. preciaLILY Methodology/ Phase 4 Dissemination 49
  • 53. Pre-Case Study I am not against the use of IT. it's just that i feel that it can be pretty much over-rated. Just like how during practicum, we are pressured into 'enhancing' our lessons with IT to ‘score’ better grades. HUI MIN Post- Case Study my opinions about teaching and learning as well as student activities have changed.... I realised the importance and significance of student activities being collaborative and interactive... Previously, I do not think that this is possible in reality but now i have come to know that it can be done. =) preciaLILY Methodology/ Phase 4 Dissemination 50
  • 54. • Generic competencies (NEW IDEAS and CORE SKILLS) increased • SYNCH tasks impacted upon epistemic (VALUES) and declarative (CRITICAL and VIEWPOINTS) competencies • which led to transformative potential; i.e. teachers moved from developing technology to pedagogical - related competencies. • Pre-service teachers developed critical viewpoints about informed use. Methodology/ Phase 4 Dissemination 51
  • 55. The Impact of Synchronous Inter- Networked Teacher Training in ICT Integration 52
  • 56. A summary of key points are derived from an analysis and interpretation of the triangulation of data within this Case Study. 1. Test and ensure the technology (hardware, software and the network) is functioning prior to undertaking the task. o The task focus must be on good learning and not the technology. 2. Provide time for a basic risk free, non-judgmental task that allows users to become familiarised with the synchronous networking technologies. 3. Allow users to practice communication skills (formal on the main frame and informal in the CHAT frame), and also turn-taking on both document access and video-conference interactions. 4. Provide learners with a learning objective and a context (the CONTENT). The process of achieving the outcome must be negotiated by the learners. 5. Integrate content such as English communication skills, digital literacy and, say, science. 53
  • 57. A summary of its key points are derived from an analysis and interpretation of the triangulation of data within this Case Study. 6. Provide opportunities for learners to be aware of the ACTIVITIES they are doing in undertaking a synchronous networking technologies based task. 7. Encourage learners to reflect on their learning by posting questions that will draw out what they know of the content upon completion of the task, or a stage of the task (COGNITIVE OUTCOMES). 8. Provide a necessary need for learners to create a shared space. • Goodyear (2000) states that, “Successful online/ networking learning communities emerge and shape themselves” (p.69). As such, the instructor can help influence the interactions but does not necessarily create the community. Therefore, instructors need to step back and allow learners themselves to develop the task process and associated activities, even if these activities were unanticipated or varies greatly from that predicted by the task designer or instructor. 9. The instructor should set boundaries such as a time frame, use of certain language online, and also evaluation criteria. 10. Allow for affordancess • Let individuals bring and use specific skills that can add to the communication or task process. 54
  • 58. meaningful time the the technology communication Framework for informed negotiated synchronous networking technologies and good good learning (Vallance, 2005) the learning the task 55
  • 59. time for time for non- testing judgemental, risk free practice time user friendly the technology Framework for informed synchronous networking technologies and good learning (Vallance, 2005) 56
  • 60. process outcome Schema for informed clear synchronous objective negotiated networking clear technologies and context content the task related to (negotiated) syllabus dificulty: not too complicated, not too easy authentic meaningful 57
  • 61. Framework for informed synchronous networking allow for technologies and good affordances good learning (Vallance, 2005) the learning provide opportunities to reflect at appropriate stages provide ensure a opportunities range of for a range of activities cognitive outcomes 58
  • 62. a real need for communication (not enforced communication or collegiality) authentic (must be a need) develop a shared space autonomous in construction (less teacher directed) meaningful the communication integrate content Framework for informed synchronous networking technologies and good learning (Vallance, 2005) 59
  • 63. meaningful time the the technology communication Framework for informed negotiated synchronous networking technologies and good good learning (Vallance, 2005) the learning the task 60
  • 64. Limitations Valid Case Study research must allow for external judgments to be made about its procedures and outcomes. This has been referred to as a research’s ‘trustworthiness’ and can be represented by four criteria: credibility, dependability, transferability, and confirmability (Guba & Lincoln, 1999). Credibility: ensure that the data and resultant findings are accurately identified and described (Guba & Lincoln, 1999). How? 1. Participants’ discussions and physical actions are captured by a digital camera attached to the top of the computer. 2. On-screen actions are digitally recored. 3. O-screen and participants’ discussion combined digitally. 4. Discussions transcribed and inserted to digital file. 5. After SYNCH task, 2 participants interviewed. 6. Interview transcribed. 7. All above summarised and initial interpretations uploaded to BLOG before next task for participants to check and comment. 8. Always look back at previous files (1 to 7 above) in later commentaries. 61
  • 65. Dependability: considers whether the Case Study procedure is consistent in its method over the duration of the research (Miles & Huberman, 1994) How? 1. All data digitally captured as previously mentioned. 2. In addition ,weekly survey on ACTIVITIES and COGNITIVE OUTCOMES considered in interpretation on BLOG for participants’ comments. 3. Interviews focus upon SYNCH task initially (ACTIVITIES and COGNITIVE OUTCOMES) and more generalised as participants discuss. Transferability: considers how the results of the Case Study can be generalised or transferred to other contexts with different participants. How? 1. Link qualitative data (interviews, BBS, task process discussions) and quantitative data to seek commonalities. 2. Interpret how SYNCH task may have impacted upon, say, a mentioned COGNITIVE OUTCOME (e.g. understanding). 3. Comment on the related COMPETENCY and how this may be applied in a different scenario. 62
  • 66. Confirmability: refers to the bias of the researcher. How? 1. Start interviews by focussing upon ACTIVITIES and COGNITIVE OUTCOMES 2. Allow participants to discuss any issue 3. Transcribe, interpret and post online (BLOG) asap for participants (and colleagues and supervisor) to read. 4. Be aware of bias - by using a public BLOG I carefully considered my interpretation ALWAYS thinking about bias due to it being online. 63
  • 67. Recommendations for future research 64
  • 68. Technology FaceTop research at Chapel Hill (USA) 65
  • 69. Pedagogy meaningful time the the technology communication Framework for informed negotiated synchronous networking technologies and good good learning (Vallance, 2005) the learning the task 66
  • 70. Digital workstyle • Collaboration is considered a key capability of Microsoft’s future technology and its end-users; • “Instant messaging, telephony and conference will converge in an environment that gives information workers easy and flexible access to all of their communication tools, with a secure infrastructure that archives the entire collaborative process in one place. Collaborative workspaces will be simple to set up and use with co-workers, partners and customers to create documents, work on projects and find and use relevant business information.” Digital Workstyle: The New World of Work’ (2005) 67
  • 71. The Impact of Synchronous Inter-Networked Teacher Training in ICT Integration By Michael Vallance Future University- Hakodate Email mvallance@mac.com 68
  • 72. “The real change [in education] is likely to occur not by trying to exclusively deliver old learning outcomes with new technology, but by looking for new learning outcomes that can only be delivered by that new technology” (Heppell, 2005). 69