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  2. 2. __________________________________________________________________ School of Management Studies (VIBA) BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE This is to certify that project report titled “A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONALCULTURE WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO M/S ETA ENGINEERING PVT LTDCHENNAI” Is a Bonafide record of work carried out by MOHAMMED MUZAMMIL.Mschool of management studies, under VELS UNIVERSITY submitted in partial fulfillmentof the requirements for the award of the degree of Master of Business Administrationfrom the VELS UNIVERISTY for the fourth semester during 2010 – 2012 under ourguidance.M/S S.PREETHA. Ms S.SARAHOD-Management Studies (PROJECT GUIDE) D.R Y LAKSHMAN KUMAR (DIRECTOR, School of Management Studies)Internal Examiner External Examiner 2
  3. 3. DECLARATIONI MOHAMMED MUZAMMIL.M student of MBA, School of Management Studies, VELS UNIVERSITYhereby declare that this project work titled “A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE WITHSPECIAL REFERENCE TO M/S ETA ENGINEERING PVT LTD CHENNAI”, Submitted to VELSUNIVESITY in partial fulfillment of requirement for the award of the degree Master of BusinessAdministration is a record of bonafide research carried out by me under the guidance of Ms S.Sara, School ofManagement Studies, VELS UNIVERSITY and no part of it has been submitted for any other degree ordiplomaPLACE:CHENNAI MOHAMMED MUZAMMIL MDATE: REG NO:103011127 3
  4. 4. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT It is my great pleasure to regard my deep sense of gratitude to honourableChancellor Dr. ISHARI K. GANESH, M.com M.B.A., Ph.D.,Dr. P. Govindarajan ,M.A.,Ph.D., Registrar of Vels University, Chennai for the patronage and all facilities offered toComplete the project successfully. I like to thank MS. S.PREETHA, M.B.A. , M.Phil. Asst Professor express and Head,School Of Management Studies, for the encouragement and guidance to do the projecteffectively I am also thankful to my guide MS S.SARA M.B.A. M.Phil, Asst Professor,School ofManagement Studies, Vels University, for her encouragement and guidance given towardsThe preparation of this report. I express my sincere gratitude to MR C.P MOHAMMED ANEEZ.MANAGER H.R“ ETA ENGINEERING PVT LTD CHENNAI ” for granting me permission to carry outProject I also express extend my gratitude sincere for my parents and friends, without whom thisproject would not have been completed also thank God almighty for giving me the strength &confidence to make the report successful MOHAMMED MUZAMMIL.M 4
  5. 5. TABLE OF CONTENTCHAPTER NO TITLE PAGE NO 1 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Need of the Study 15 1.3 Statement of Problem 16 1.4 Company Profile 17 1.5 Industry Profile 21 2 Statement of Objectives 27  Primary Objective 27  Secondary Objective 27 3 Review of literature 28 4 Research Methodology 32 4.1 Research Design 32 4.2 Sample Size 32 4.3 Sampling Technique 32 4.4 Questionnaire Design 32 4.5 Period of Study 32 4.6 Data Collection 32 4.7 Statistical tool 33 4.8 Scope of Study 35 4.9 Limitation of Study 36 5 Data Analysis & Interpretation 37 6 Findings of the Study 66 7 Recommendation and Suggestions 68 8 Conclusion 69 9 Bibliography 70 10 Annexure 72 5
  6. 6. LIST OF TABLES & CHARTSTables:TABLE NO DESCRIPTION PAGE NO 1 Experience of the respondent 37 2 Improvement in working condition 38 3 Feel comfortable with working environment 39 4 Quality of material provided to perform job is good 40 5 New method of Work had been introduced 41 6 Organization had diplomatic future 42 7 The organization has become more positive 43 8 cordial relationship with your sub ordinates 44 9 Appreciation for work 45 10 Knowledge and skill to do your job properly 46 11 Spending time usefully 47 12 Competitive Organization Culture 48 13 feel comfortable with working here 49 14 Leadership abilities 50 15 The work has become more interesting 51 16 proud of working for this organization 52 17 Health insurance and accidents benefits 53 18 Information on management policies 54 19 Grievances Solving 55 20 Organization is concern for social welfare 56 21 Safety measure given by the management 57 6
  7. 7. 22 respondent opinion about the quality of material provided to perform job 58 is good23 Employee Relationship 5924 Comfortability of working environment 6025 Health insurance and accidents benefits 6126 Welfare measures 6227 ranking method 6328 To find the opinion about improvement in working condition is 64 independent of their age.29 To find the opinion about receiving proper appreciation is independent of 65 their age. 7
  9. 9. 1.1 INTRODUCTIONDEFINITIONOrganizational culture is the collective behaviour of people that are part of an organization, it is also formed bythe organization values, visions, norms, working language, systems, and symbols, it includes beliefs and habits Itis also the pattern of such collective behaviours and assumptions that are taught to new organizational membersas a way of perceiving, and even thinking and feeling. Organizational culture affect the way people and groupsinteract with each other, with clients, and with stakeholdersOrganizational culture is defined as a pattern of basic assumptions invented, discovered or developed by a givengroup, as it learns to cope with the problems of external adaption and internal investigation that has worked wellenough to be considered valid and therefore is to be taught to the new members as the correct way to perceive,think, and feel in relation to those problems. Organizational culture is a set of shared understandings, norms,values, attitudes and beliefs of an organization which can foster or impede change.When people join an organization, they bring with them the values and beliefs that they have been taught. Quiteoften, however these values and beliefs are insufficient for helping the individual succeed in the organization.The person needs to learn how the particular enterprise does things.A common misconception is that an organization has a uniform culture. However, at least as anthropology usesthe concept; it is probably more accurate to treat organizations “as if” they had a uniform culture. “Allorganizations have culture, in the sense that they are embedded in specific societal cultures and are part of them.”According to this view, organization culture is a common perception held by the organization‟s members.Everyone in the organization would have to share this perception. However, all may not do so to the samedegree. As a result, there can be a dominant culture as well as subcultures throughout a typical organization.A dominant culture is a set of core values shared by a majority of the organization‟s members. The values thatcreate dominant cultures in organizations help guide the day-to-day behavior of the employees. Important, butoften overlooked, are the subcultures in an organization. A subculture is a set of values shared by a minority,usually a small minority of the organization‟s members. Subcultures typically are a result of problems orexperiences that are shared by members of a department or unit. Subcultures can weaken and undermine anorganization if they are in conflict with the dominant culture and overall objectives. Successful firms, howeverfind that this is not the case always. Most subcultures are formed to help the members of a particular group dealwith the specific day-to-day problems with which they are confronted. The members may also support many, ifnot all, of the core values of the dominant culture. 9
  10. 10. Changing the attitudes about the organizations is one of the basic changes of today world. Today worldbelongs to the organizations. Human being is the founder of all organizations. This means that human is the mostvaluable source of the organizations. Organizational culture means all common beliefs in an organization. Thenmore and deeper common beliefs may result in more powerful culture and more different beliefs may result inlittle common aspects and weaker organizational culture.According to the recent researches it is possible to specify seven major specifications including theorganizational culture which are:1- Innovation2- Risk acceptance3- Pay attention to details4- Pay attention to the result5- Pay attention to people6- Team making7- Change, Fixedness.Followings are different factors with basic roles in creation of an organizational culture:A: Founders: It means the founders of an organization who will make final decisions about the nature of theestablished organization and/or further goals. Therefore they have a basic and critical role.B: Environment: Environment has a critical and indirect role in creation of an organizational culture. It mayspecify any organizational policies and manner of finding them. Any organizations with lack of compatibleculture without organizational necessities and surrounding environment of organization will never find anysuccess and finally will be ruined.C: Organizational personnel: Any election of non-compatible persons with organizational culture, primarymethods Created by the founder and /or any persons who may not accept the primary culture of the organizationespecially master people and/or managers may finally resulted in changing of the organizational culture. For thispurpose it is necessary to appoint any people for the organization and its activities who are in compatible with it. 10
  11. 11. FUNCTIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE:These are the functions being served by the organization  Sense of identity  Sense – making device  Reinforcing the values in organization  Control mechanism for shaping behaviorSENE OF IDENTITY:Culture provides a sense of identity to the members and enhances their commitment towards the organization.SENSE MAKING DEVICECulture in the organization provides the employees to interpret the meaning of the organizational events.VALUE REINFORCEMENT:Values in the organization can be reinforced by the cultural activities.CONTROL MECHANISM:In shaping the behavior of members in the organization culture plays the big role.CULTURAL PERPECTIVES:  THE STRONG PERSPECTIVE  THE FIT PERSPECTIVE  THE ADAPTATION PERSPECTIVETHE STRONG PERSPECTIVE:The strong culture facilitates performance with the intensity visible to the outsiders.It states that organizationwith strong culture performs better than other organizations.THE FIT PERSPECTIVE:Fit perspective argues that the culture of the organization is valid, if it fits the industry or firm‟s strategies. It isuseful in explaining short term performances. 11
  12. 12. THE ADAPTATION PERSPECTIVE:The cultures that help organizations adapt to environmental change are deeply associated with excellentperformance. It encourages confidence and risk taking capacity among the employees.A FEW DIMENSIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTUREVIGILANCEPrior to pondering whether or not to communicate an ethical, compliance, or legal concern, an employee mustfirst be in a position to detect violations. "What are the standards in this organization?" "What is my role inupholding these standards?" Accordingly, the first step in supporting employee communication and reportingbehaviors is to influence a culture that promotes not only awareness of an organizations commitment tointegrity, but a shared understanding of organizational standards. A look out for threats to organizationalintegrity also must be cultivated among organization members.Thoughtful attention to training employees on the values and standards outlined in the organizations code ofconduct will facilitate awareness building. However, the most fundamental and powerful values of anorganization are not written down and exist only in the shared norms, beliefs, and assumptions reflected in theorganizations culture. These norms, beliefs, and assumptions guide how organization members think and act.The organizational culture informs members how to relate to each other and to outsiders, how to analyzeproblems, and how to respond to situations encountered in the organization. To promote a shared understandingof which "code" to follow, the formal code of conduct or the unwritten code of culture, the dynamics oforganizational culture on an employees ability to accurately interpret the ethical standards of the organizationmust be addressed.To support a culture of vigilance, employees also must be educated on the relationship between organizationalintegrity and the organizations strategic positioning. Employees who observe wrongdoing may not report itbecause they cannot fully estimate the resulting damage. Therefore, the organization should ensure employeesare in a position to identify the potential consequences of ethical, compliance, and legal breaches, includingopportunity costs and harm to the organization, its reputation, and stakeholders. 12
  13. 13. ENGAGEMENT:The cultural dimension of engagement is multifaceted and complex. Engagement is concerned withorganizational and individual factors that contribute to a personal state of authentic involvement in theorganization. Organizational processes used to recruit, orient, socialize, and manage employees influenceengagement. Employee‟s sense making, psychological contracts, and perceptions of fairness in organizationaldealings influence the degree of authentic involvement by them. Managing these organizational processes andindividual perceptions to facilitate high degrees of organizational commitment and identification encourages aculture of engagement that supports internal whistle blowing.If an organization member is not committed to high ethical standards there may be a tendency to rationalizequestionable behavior as a common or even necessary practice in performing job duties. On the other hand, if anemployee has high ethical standards that are not supported by the organization, there is a tendency for theemployee to experience internal conflict. Such conflict will arise when organizational demands on employees areinconsistent with personal or professional values. The result is decreased commitment and an unwillingness toexert effort on behalf of the organization.Once employees enter the organization, socialization methods, including training on ethical standards can beused to deepen employee commitment to organizational values and norms.CREDIBILITY:A culture of engagement that supports organizational commitment and identification, however, may not besufficient for prompting employee disclosures. An employee will also seek to "test" the organizationscommitment to integrity. Leadership behavior is a key determinant of employee perceptions and beliefs.The most powerful strategy that can be relied upon to facilitate credibility is employee belief in espoused ethicsand values including organizational expectations for employee disclosure, attending to and monitoringcongruence in the organizational culture. The role of leadership is central to this strategy.Aligning leadership behaviors with formal policies and consistent modeling of espoused values are importantpractices for fostering credibility. Demonstrating personal commitment to organizational values builds trust andcreates a safe environment for employees to come forward and report concerns. 13
  14. 14. ACCOUNTABILITY:Accountability for communicating knowledge of wrongdoing will be carefully judged by employees. "Is it myjob to report?" "Isnt this someone elses responsibility?" "Why should I get involved? After all, I am not the onlyone aware of what is going on here." Again, values, beliefs, and norms embedded in the organizational cultureand picked up by employees will influence employee reflections.IMPORTANCE OF ORGANIZATION CULTURE A common platform where individuals work in unison to earn profits as well as a livelihood forthemselves is called an organization. A place where individuals realize the dream of making it big is called anorganization. Every organization has its unique style of working which often contributes to its culture. Thebeliefs, ideologies, principles and values of an organization form its culture. The culture of the workplacecontrols the way employees behave amongst themselves as well as with people outside the organization.  The culture decides the way employees interact at their workplace. A healthy culture encourages the employees to stay motivated and loyal towards the management.  The culture of the workplace also goes a long way in promoting healthy competition at the workplace. Employees try their level best to perform better than their fellow workers and earn recognition and appreciation of the superiors. It is the culture of the workplace which actually motivates the employees to perform.  Every organization must have set guidelines for the employees to work accordingly. The culture of an organization represents certain predefined policies which guide the employees and give them a sense of direction at the workplace. Every individual is clear about his roles and responsibilities in the organization and know how to accomplish the tasks ahead of the deadlines.  No two organizations can have the same work culture. It is the culture of an organization which makes it distinct from others. The work culture goes a long way in creating the brand image of the organization.The work culture gives an identity to the organization. In other words, an organization is known by its culture. 14
  15. 15.  The organization culture brings all the employees on a common platform. The employees must be treated equally and no one should feel neglected or left out at the workplace. It is essential for the employees to adjust well in the organization culture for them to deliver their level best.  The work culture unites the employees who are otherwise from different back grounds, families and have varied attitudes and mentalities. The culture gives the employees a sense of unity at the workplace.Certain organizations follow a culture where all the employees irrespective of their designations have to step intothe office on time. Such a culture encourages the employees to be punctual which eventually benefits them in thelong run. It is the culture of the organization which makes the individuals a successful professional.  Every employee is clear with his roles and responsibilities and strives hard to accomplish the tasks within the desired time frame as per the set guidelines. Implementation of policies is never a problem in organizations where people follow a set culture. The new employees also try their level best to understand the work culture and make the organization a better place to work.  The work culture promotes healthy relationship amongst the employees. No one treats work as a burden and moulds himself according to the culture.  It is the culture of the organization which extracts the best out of each team member. In a culture where management is very particular about the reporting system, the employees however busy they are would send their reports by end of the day.  Role of Communication and Relationship for a Healthy Organization Culture The ideologies, principles, rules and policies of an organization form its culture. The ways the employees interact amongst themselves and with others outside the organization contribute to the culture of the workplace. The culture gives an identity to the organization and makes it distinct from others.  Communication and relationship play an important role in a healthy organization culture. Effective communication is essential for a positive culture at the workplace. Transparency in communication is mandatory at all levels for better understanding of work and better bonding among individuals. Culture is simply the result of the interaction amongst the employees working for a considerable period of time in the organization. A better employee relation promotes a positive culture whereas conflicts and disagreements spoil the ambience and spread negativity all around at the workplace. Communication plays an important role in increasing the comfort factor amongst the employees. 15
  16. 16. HOW DID ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE STARTWhile organizational cultures developed in different ways, the process usually involves some version of thefollowing steps:  A single person (founder) has an idea for a new enterprise  The founder brings in one or more other key people and creates a core group that shares a common vision with the founder  The founding core group begins to act in concert to create an organization by raising funds, obtaining patents, incorporating, locating space, and building.  At this point, others are brought into the organization and a common history begins to be builtMost of today‟s successful corporate giants in all industries basically followed these steps. Three well-knownrepresentative examples are Motorola, McDonald‟s and Wal-Mart.McDonald’s:RayKroc worked for many years as a salesperson for a food supplier. He learned how retail food operations wereconducted. He also had an entrepreneurial streak and began a sideline business with a partner. They soldmultimixers, machines that were capable of mixing up to six frozen shakes at a time. One day Kroc received alarge order for multimixers from the McDonald brothers. The order intrigued Kroc and he decided to look in onthe operation the next time he was in their area. When he did, Kroc became convinced that the McDonald‟s fastfood concept would sweep the nation. He bought the rights to franchise McDonald‟s units and eventually boughtout the brothers. At the same time, he built the franchisee on four basic concepts: quality, cleanliness, service andprice. In order to ensure that each unit offers the customer the best product at the best price franchisees arerequired to attend McDonald University, where they are taught how to manage their business. Here they learnthe McDonald cultural values and the proper way to run the franchisee. This training ensures that the franchiseesall over the world are operating their units in the same way. Kroc died several years ago, but the culture he leftbehind is still very much alive in McDonald‟s franchisees across the globe. In fact, new employees receivevideotaped messages from the lateMr. Kroc. 16
  17. 17. Wal-Mart: Sam Walton, founder of Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., opened his first Wal-Mart store in 1962. Focusing on thesale of discounted name brand merchandise in small town markets, he began to set up more and more stores inthe Sun Belt. At the same time, he began developing effective inventory control systems and marketingtechniques. Today, Wal-Mart has not only become the largest retailer but also one of the biggest firms in thecountry. Although Sam died a few years ago, his legacy and cultural values continue. To ensure that these valuesget out to all the associates, the company has a communication network worthy of the Pentagon. It includeseverything from a six-channel satellite system to a private air force of numerous planes. Everyone is taught thisculture and is expected to operate according to the core cultural values of hard work, efficiency and customerservice.LEVELS OF CULTURE:  ARTIFACTS  VALUES  BASIC ASSUMPTIONSARTIFACTS:Artifacts are the most visible and accessible level of culture. It is symbol of culture in the physical and socialwork environment of the organization.Artifacts of culture are:  PERSONAL ENACTMENT  RITES AND CEREMONIES  STORIES AND LEGENDS  RITUALS  SYMBOLSPERSONAL ENACTMENT:Personal enactment is a behavior that reflects the value of organization, through the examination of the behaviorof organization members. 17
  18. 18. CEREMONIES AND RITES:Set of activities that are enacted time and again on important occasion.It provides the opportunity to reward andrecognize the employees whose behaviors are according to the values of the organization. Rites to theemployees can be awarded as  Rites of passage  rites of renewal  Rites of integration  Rites of conflict reduction  Rites of degradationsRITES OF PASSES:Rites of passes show the changed status of individuals in the respected organization.Retirement dinnerRITES OF RENEWAL:Rites of renewal show the holistic changing in organization by enhancing the dedication towards learning andgrowth.RITES OF INTEGRATION:It emphasize on the commitment of the employees by uniting diverse group within the organization. Companyfunction, annual picnic, cultural fest are the rites of integration in the organization.RITES OF COFLICT REDUCTION:Its primal objective is to dwindle the disagreements and keep up with the positive environment inside theorganization by satisfying the tangible and intangible needs of the employee. Grievance hearing, negotiation ofunion contracts is rite of conflict reduction.RITES OF DEGRADATION:It is basically punishment oriented and organization people may be punished visibly if they don‟t follow theorganizational norms. Ribbon of shame, demotion in the organizational post, reduction in salary can be under therites of degradation. 18
  19. 19. STORIES AND LEGENDS:Stories are the most effective way to reinforce the organizational values. it give meaning and identity to theorganizations and very helpful in orienting new employees.Stories can be delivered in different ways  Stories about the boss  Stories about getting fired  Stories about company details  Stories about employees  Stories about rulesRITUALS:Rituals are unwritten and shows the way the employee follow the things to be done in the organization. Theseare the everyday organizational practices repeated over and over.SYMBOLS:Symbols are again one important artifact of the organization which communicates about the organizationalculture by unspoken messages.VALUES:Values reflect a person‟s underling believes in the organization, it is often consciously articulated both inconversation and the company‟s mission statement or annual report. a firm‟s values and how it promotes andpublicizes them can also affect workers feeling about their job and themselves.ASSUMPTIONS:Assumptions are deeply held believes that guide behavior and awakens the members of the organization how toperceive and go about the things. 19
  20. 20. LEADERS ROLE IN SHAPING CULTURE:  WHAT LEADERS PAY ATTENTION TO  HOW LEADERS REACT TO THE CRISES  HOW LEARERS BEHAVE  HOW LEADERS ALLOCATE REWARDS  HOW LEADERS HIRE AND FIRE PEOPLEORGANIZATIONAL SOCIALIZATION:Another process that perpetuates culture is the way it is handed down from generation of employees. Newcomerslearn the culture through organizational socialization – “The process by which newcomers are transformed fromoutsiders to participating, effective members of the organizations”. The process is also a vehicle for bringingnewcomers into the organizational culture.STAGES OF THE SOCIALIZATION PROCESSThe organizational socialization process is generally described as having three stages:  Anticipatory Socialization.  Encounter.  Change and Acquisition.ANTICIPATORY SOCIALIZATIONThe first stage encompasses all of the learning that takes place prior to the newcomer‟s first day on the job. Itincludes the newcomer‟s expectations. The two concerns at this stage are:  Realism.  Congruence.Realism is the degree to which a newcomer holds realistic expectations about the job and about the organization.One thing newcomers should receive information about during entry into the organization is the culture.Information about values at this stage can help newcomers begin to construct a scheme for interpreting theirorganizational experiences. There are two types of Congruence between an individual and an organization:Congruence between the individual‟s abilities and the demand of the job, and the fit between the organization‟svalues and the individual‟s values. Value Congruence is particularly important for organizational culture. It is alsoimportant in terms of newcomer adjustment. 20
  21. 21. ENCOUNTERThe second stage of socialization, encounter, is when newcomers learn the tasks associated with the job, clarifytheir roles, and establish new relationships at work. This stage commences on the first day at work and is thoughtto encompass the first six to nine months on the new job.TASK DEMANDTask demand involves the actual work performed. Learning to perform tasks is related to the organization‟sculture. In some organization‟s, newcomers are given considerable latitude to experiment with new ways to dothe job, and creativity is valued.ROLE DEMANDRole demand involves the expectations placed on newcomers. Newcomers may not know exactly what isexpected of them or may receive conflicting expectations from other individuals. The way newcomers approachthese demand depends in part on the culture of the organization.INTERPERSONAL DEMANDInterpersonal demand arises from relationships at work. Politics, Leadership style, and group pressure areinterpersonal demand. All of them reflect the values and assumptions that operate within the organization.CHANGE AND ACQUISITIONIn the third and final stage of socialization, change and acquisition, newcomers begin to master the demands ofthe job. They become proficient at managing their tasks, clarifying and negotiating their roles, and engaging inrelationship at work. The end of the process is signaled by newcomers being considered by themselves andothers as organizational insiders.OUTCOMES OF SOCIALIZATIONNewcomers who are successful socialized exhibit good performance, high job satisfaction, and the intention tostay with the organization. In addition, they should exhibit low levels of distress symptoms. High levels oforganizational commitment are also marks of successful socialization. Successful Socialization is also signaledby mutual influences When socialization is effective, newcomers understand and adopt the organizations valuesand norms. This provides employees a context for interpreting and responding to things that happen at work.Newcomers adopt the company‟s norms and values more quickly when they receive positive support fromorganizational insiders. 21
  22. 22. SOCIALIZATION AS CULTURAL COMMUNICATIONSocialization is a powerful cultural communication tool. While the transmission of information about culturalartifacts is relatively easy, the transmission of value is more difficult. The communication of organizationalassumption is almost impossible. The primary purpose of socialization is the transmission of core values to new organizationmembers. Newcomers are exposed to these values through the role models they interact with, the training theyreceive, and the behavior they observe being rewarded and punished.ACCESSING ORGANIZATIONAL CULTUREAlthough some organizational scientists argue for assessing organizational culture with quantitative methods,others say qualitative methods yield better results. Quantitative methods such as questionnaires are valuablebecause of their precision, comparability and objectivity.ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE INVENTORYThe OCI focuses on behaviors that help employees fit into the organization and meet the expectations ofcoworkers. Using Maslow‟s motivational need hierarchy as its basis, it measures twelve cultural styles. The twounderlying dimensions of the OCI are task/people and security/satisfaction. There are four satisfaction culturalstyles and eight securities cultural styles.KILMANN-SAXTON CUKTURE-GAP SURVEYThe kilmann- saxton culture-gap survey focuses on what actually happens and on the expectations of others inthe organization. Its two underlying dimensions are technical/human and time. With these two dimensions, theactual operating norms and the ideal norms in four areas are assessed. The areas are task support task innovationsocial relationships and personal freedom.TRIANGULATIONA study of a rehabilitation centre in a 400-bed hospital incorporated triangulation to improve inclusiveness andaccuracy in measuring the organizational culture. Triangulation has been used by anthropologists, sociologistsand other behavioral scientists to study organizational culture. Its name comes from the navigational technique ofusing multiple reference points to locate an object. 22
  23. 23. 1.2 NEED OF THE STUDY People are affected by the culture in which they live. Similarly, an individual working for anyorganization with a firmly established culture will be taught the values, beliefs, and expected behavioursof that organization. There is at least some sound evidence that variations in cultural values may have asignificant impact on employee turnover and possibly employees‟ job performance. Hence the study oforganizational culture is important for the understanding and practice of organizational behavior 23
  24. 24. 1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Human resource is the vital resources among all other organizational resources. Without the effectiveorganizational culture, an organization cannot achieve its goals. Protecting and maintaining the human resource by providing various welfare measures is the pivotal role of any management. Organizational culture plays a crucial role in the development of the organization. The employee‟s job satisfaction and motivation are also closely linked with social welfare. Organization culture in the area human resources management has attracted many research all over the world. There are many studies related to this area. In this study, an attempt has been made to study the effectiveness of organization culture measuresprovided by ETA ENGINEERING PVT LTD. The main aim of study is to study the level of employee‟ssatisfaction towards the organization culture measures of the company. 24
  25. 25. 1.4 COMPANY PROFILEETA Engineering Pvt. Ltd., the Indian operations of M&E was established in 1994. Headquartered at Chennai,it has branches at New Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Cochin, and Pune. Incorporated in 1994, ETAEngineering undertakes HVAC projects, Electro-mechanical projects & services (EMPS) and Mechanical,Electrical and Plumbing (MEP) work including BMS, Internal Electrification and Sub-station Works meetingInternational Standards. ETA Engineering has two manufacturing plants with capacity to manufacture a widerange of Ducted Split, Chillers & Air Handling Units. ETA Engineering is a subsidiary of ElectromechanicalTechnical Associates Ltd, Mauritius, owned by Emirates Trading Agency LLC, Dubai, which is part of Dubai-based industrial conglomerate, the ETA Group, which includes the ETA-ASCON Group of companies and theETA-Star Group of companies.ETA ASCON, Dubai is a multi-faceted group having a turnover in excess of USD Six Billion with diverse areasof expertise in activities such as Builders & Constructions, Engineering – Electromechanical & Elevator Works,Advanced Fire Fighting, Shipping & Trading, High Voltage transmission, Desalination, Powder coating, Retail& Leisure Business, Tours & Travels, Facilities Management, Automobiles, Environment, Manufacturing, etc.,ETA Engineering Pvt. Ltd. is a Company registered in India having it‟s registered office in Chennai andBranch offices at Ahmedabad, Bengaluru, Bhopal, Chandigarh, Chennai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Jaipur,Kochi, Kolkata, Mumbai, Mysore & Pune.ETA Engineering has state-of-art Manufacturing Facilities at Sriperumbudur, 40 Kms outside Chennai city &Pondicherry. The Company manufactures & markets full range of Air-conditioning products including Air-Cooled & Water cooled Scroll Chillers, Air Handling Units, Fan Coil Units, Ducted Splits, Floor MountedPackaged, Unitary type Self Contained Packaged Air conditioners, DC- Inverter & Digital VRF (VariableRefrigerant Flow), Cassettes, High-wall Splits & Window Air conditioners. These are ideally suitable forinstallation in applications such as Bank, Hospitals, Office premises, Shopping / Commercial Complexes,Restaurants, Retails outlets etc. The Company has been consistently driven by belief in Global Quality Standardas a norm.We thrive for raising the Quality Standard in all our Operations, be it Projects, Products, Services &Manufacturing.ETA Engineering is the only Indian Manufacturer of Air Handling Units to achieve prestigious EuroventCertification. It is also One of the 6 Companies Globally to achieve UL Accreditation for it‟s AHU‟s. Itproduces Cooling & Heating Coils which are ARI Certified. The entire Range of Ducted Splits is CE Certified.ETA Engineering has large number of Dealers as Channel Partners for offering ETA Range of Products withCooling Solutions to Customers. 25
  26. 26. Company has a well Structured After Sales - Service & Spares management for it‟s Dealers & Customers.ETA Engineering is rated as the biggest turnkey Electro - Mechanical Contractor in the country and offerselectro mechanical services to meet the needs of demanding clients. ETA has supported a wide array of projectsthat include Software Campuses / Parks, Offices, Business establishments, Hotels, Hospitals, Schools,Commercial Complexes, Industries, Marriage Halls, etc. We have participated in projects for large AirConditioning Systems involving imported equipment manufactured to international standards. We ensure muchsuperior quality of equipment and workmanship with advanced engineering skills. We have full-fledged team ofqualified engineers and technical staff in the air-conditioning and electrical divisions to carry out large turnkeyprojects. ETA Engineering has consistently provided clients with timely and high value service, competitivelypriced without sacrificing quality.The Entire Company is certified for ISO 9001: 2008 by LRQA.ETA Engineering is also a founding member of Indian Green Building Council (I.G.B.C)Accreditations fromThe division offers electromechanical services to hotels, commercial buildings, hospitals, industries, IT parksetc.It has executed many projects in different parts of India. Notable among the prestigious projects are:CHENNAI:  Tidel Park.  Standard Chartered Bank.  American International School.DELHI:  Delhi Metro Rail.  SAB Shopping Mall.  National Institute of Immunology. 26
  27. 27. MUMBAI:  ICICI.  National Stock Exchange.  Colgate Palmolive.  Reliance Corporate Office.BANGALORE:  WIPRO office.  The Forum shopping Mall.  Leela Palace Hotel.HYDERABAD:  ICICI Knowledge Park.  HSBC Bank.  GE Capital.KERALA:  Kerala Institute of Medical Science.  Le Meridien Hotel.PUNE:  Osho Commune International.  Rubby Hall Clinic.DELHI METRO PROJECT:Electrical & Mechanical (E&M) services are being provided to more that 4km of underground tunnels andstations for the prestigious Delhi Metro Rail Project, part of the Mass Rapid Transport System.MISSIONOur Mission is to provide Quality M.E.P services for our Customers by meeting customer requirements in design, time schedule , prompt after sales service and thereby achieving total Customer loyalty & repeat business. 27
  28. 28. VISIONTo be the No.1 and the preferred Mechanical, Electrical, Plumbing and Fire Fighting contractor as well asManufacturers of HVAC Equipments and Allied Products in IndiaVALUES  Customer Care  Quality Workmanship  Team Work  FlexibilityQUALITY POLICYWe are committed to be the preferred organization in M & E contracting as well as manufacturing of HVACEquipment and Allied Products by meeting customer requirements through continual improvement of QualityManagement System to Achieve Satisfaction of all stake holders.QUALITY OBJECTIVES  To strive for Continual Improvement in all our activities.  To focus on timely completion of job.  To support employees through training and teamwork.  To achieve results to enhance stake holders need and expectations. 28
  29. 29. 1.5 INDUSTRY PROFILEETA Engineering Pvt. Ltd. is a wing of ETA ASCON group of companies from Dubai. Since 1973 ETAASCON has diversified in various fields of Business and now stands as a conglomerate globally, having itsoffices in around 22 countries. ETA started its contracting division in India in the name of ETA Engineeringaround 1994. In few years ETA realized the market potential for the HVAC products in India and started itsmanufacturing facility in the year 1998.The manufacturing facility was started in Pondicherry with state of the art technologies and manufacturingprocess with a joint venture with M/s Noviar of Italy for Air handling Units and M/s Century of Korea for ScrollChillers, Screw Chillers and Package Units. Within few years of starting the manufacturing facility atPondicherry, ETA products acceptability level rose multi folds with the clients for its performance and qualitystandards. Due to the rise in the market demand for ETA products, a second plant was started at Chennai in theyear 2004 to manufacture Ducted Splits and Floor mounted package unit.In less than three years after the start of Chennai plant ETA wanted to have a world class manufacturing facilityto take their products globally, since the demand for exports were more due to the technology behind theproduct.By 2008, ETA inaugurated a world class facility for manufacturing, with highly automated machineries and testfacilities for products, which Indian HVAC industry was never exposed to at Sriperumbadur near Chennai. Within a year of start of the facility ETA leaped to great heights by claiming various International accreditations forthe products and started leading the industry on the quality standards.MEP CONTRACTING:Branch Offices of the Company undertake Projects of various types involving HVAC, Electrical, Plumbing,Electro Mechanical Contracts and MEP Contracts. Each Branch Office is equipped with Engineers to undertakeDesign, Estimation, Planning, Procurement, Installation, Commissioning, Testing and After Sales Service. Theentire Operation of the Company is covered through well documented Method Statements.The Company uses most modern Techniques to enhance the effectiveness of its Project Management capabilityincluding related Drawing and Design activities. It undertakes MEP Services to reduce the coordination andconflicts between various Services and its Agencies to avoid rework and delays.The success of good coordination depends on excellent Coordinated Drawings where there are no clashesbetween Services. ETA has experienced Engineers to take up these Coordinated Drawings using the mostmodern Building Information Modeling (BIM) Software. 29
  30. 30. The experience of handling International Contracts of Mega size gives ETA the added advantage of bringing themost modern Concepts, Processes and Methods to India in Projects .COMMERCIAL PROJECTSBANKS LocationICICI Bank MumbaiDena Bank MumbaiUBS HyderabadOFFICESNational Stock Exchange MumbaiEMC Sqare BangalorePrestige Cyber Towers ChennaiEcospace Business Park HyderabadEurospace Business Park KolkataMCD Civic Centre DelhiHICC HyderabadIT / ITESMahindra Satyam HyderabadWipro Technologies HyderabadGoogle Omega HyderabadSoftsol HyderabadHCL Technologies HyderabadComputer Science Corporation HyderabadConvergys HyderabadANANTH Oracle HyderabadGE Capital HyderabadORACLE HyderabadCAPGEMINI HyderabadAccenture HyderabadComputer Associates HyderabadGENPACT HyderabadSatyam HyderabadValue labs Hyderabad 30
  31. 31. Yahoo @ Begmane Tech Park BangaloreWipro BangaloreAccenture ChennaiPrestige Cyber Towers ChennaiTECCI PARK 1 ChennaiWipro CDC 5 & 6 ChennaiWipro ChennaiSouth City Pinnacle KolkataRETAILS – MALLS & MULTIPLEXESBig Shopping Centre MumbaiGold Souk Mall DelhiMega Sports Complex KolkataGVK One Mall HyderabadCentral HyderabadCMR Central Mall HyderabadIshanya Mall PuneJMD Galleria DelhiForum Value Mall BangaloreHOSPITALSBL Kapoor memorial Hospital New DelhiMonash IVF KVM Kinder Hospital CochinHOTELSTrident Hotel MumbaiITC Grand Maratha Sheraton MumbaiNovotel Hotel HyderabadHighland Star Hotel CochinSTUDIOSYashraj Film Studios MumbaiSun TV Network ChennaiAUTOMOBILEMumbai International Airport Mumbai 31
  32. 32. INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTSBUILDERSBelicia Tower ChennaiUB city BangaloreAIRPORTSDelhi International Airport DelhiMumbai International Airport MumbaiOberoi Flight Services CochinMETRO RAILDelhi Metro (D.M.R.C) DelhiTELECOMMUNICATIONSAirtel ChennaiSPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONES (SEZ) OWER PLANTSPritech Park BangalorePharmaceuticalsBiological Events ltd HyderabadINDUSTRIAL PROJECTSELECTRONICS / SEMICONDUCTORSanmina Sci Technology ChennaiSCI SAMINA ChennaiBYD Electronics ChennaiAllisonTransmission ChennaiFACTORYAreva ChennaiAreva T & D limited ChennaiCoca Cola Plant HyderabadNokia ChennaiUNIPRES Chennai 32
  33. 33. R&DTA has a dedicated R&D team to work on product development. The R&D team works towards to bring inlatest technology on the product to save energy and to be ECO friendly. The factory has the highly automatedtest facilities complying with ASHRAE Standard for the R&D team to make use of it to bring out products withoptimum design to meet various climatic conditions of India.The R&D team is also equipped with software‟s like Pro-E, Auto CADD to build a virtual prototype to bringdown the development period. Other than the 3D software‟s, there are Air handling Unit selection softwarecertified by Eurovent and Coil Selection software certified by AHRI are used by R& D team for the productdesigning.MANUFACTURING EQUIPMENTSPRESS SHOPThe press shop has the latest CNC Turret press from AMADA Japan, to bring out precise sheet metal punchedcomponents. It also has AMADA make CNC bending machine for the sheet metal fabrication. The sheet metalcomponents for all products are fabricated in these machines to keep the tolerance level to the minimum andachieve high productivity and better finish. The press shop also has got a de-coiler and shearing machine.COIL SHOPThe coils manufactured in the facility are AHRI certified. All coils are selected in the AHRI certified softwareand manufactured in the highly automated line having machines imported with the latest technology. The entirecoil line is flexible to produce both ½” and 3/8” tube coils. The coil shop has all machines, which makes thefacility one of its kind and self sustainable. The machines are High Speed Fin press, Vertical Expander,Horizontal expander, Tube straightner cum hair pin bender, Auto Brazing line, Return bend former, O ringformer, O ring insertion machine etc.SYSTEM TUBING.3-Axis CNC controlled system tubing machine imported to form system tubing for the precise dimension andsystem tubing with minimum joints to produce leak free products.BRAZINGThe coils are brazed in an Auto Brazing line to produce strong and fine bond between the copper tubes. Apartfrom the auto brazing line, there are stand alone brazing equipments to carry out brazing operations for nonstandard coils. All these operations are carried out complying with the highest safety level. The coils are leaktested to a pressure of 400PSI to find for any leak and then it is sent to the assembly line. 33
  34. 34. PU FOAM PANELSThe PU injected panels are made from an imported High pressure foaming machine from Canon Italy. Thesemachines give panel with an uniform density for the set value. The panels can be fabricated for any depth. Thefacility fabricates 25mm and 50mm thick panel with a density of 40Kg/m3 for their Air handling Units.ASSEMBLYThe final product is assembled in the conveyor lines with various stages of quality inspection. The conveyor lineimplemented for the Air handling Unit is one of its kinds among the Indian manufacturer. The final product isinspected for all Quality standards and then packed.MANUFACTURING FACILITYThe new facility is spread out in an area of 130,000 Square Feet of land area near Chennai at Sriperumbadur.The new facility has employed around 300Nos of Man power including the management staff. The newmanufacturing facility in houses all modern manufacturing machines like CNC Turret, Auto Brazing, High speedfin press etc to bring out world class products. Also, the facility has the state of the art Test facility for AHU,Chiller & DX products. The manufacturing of products takes place by adapting to the renowned systems like5S, Kanban etc. 34
  36. 36. 2. STATEMENT OF OBJECTIVEPrimary ObjectiveTo assess the organizational culture at “ETA Engineering Pvt Ltd” Chennai Tamil Nadu, and the employees‟attitudes towards the organization.Secondary Objectives  To study the employees opinion towards attitude physical and social structure of the organization.  To assess various attitudes of the employees towards their welfare measures and towards the climate of the organization.  To understand the working environment of ETA Engineering Pvt Ltd. 36
  38. 38. 3. REVIEW OF LITERATURE 1 Litwin & Stringer, (1968) in their study entitled has given a macro perspective of analyzing theorganization. According to them, “Climate can be defined as the perceived attributes of an organization and itssub-systems as reflected in the way an organization deals with its members, groups and issues”. The emphasis ison perceived attributes and the working of sub-systems. This frame work emphasizes on motivational linkagesand seems to be quite relevant for studying organizational climate. 2 Schneider and Barlett(1968,1970) - in their article entitled Individual attribute approach Schneiderand Barlett view organizational climate as perceptual as well as an individual attribute. Climate in this approachis viewed as summary or global perception held by individuals about their organizational environment. Some ofthem are encompassed by the work environment scale developed by Moos in 1994. It includes various broaddimensions like Involvement, Co-worker, Cohesion, Supervisor Support, Autonomy, Task Orientation, WorkPressure, Clarity, Managerial Control, Innovation, Physical Comfort and others. 3 Sociological studies of complex organizations chronicle a long history of analytic concern with thelinkages between wider societal arrangements and the structure and activities of organizations (Perrow, 1986,2002). In fact, it is only in recent decades and among some theorists and empirical researchers that attention hasnarrowed from a focus on institutionally-rich studies of labor unions, schools, firms, government bureaus, socialmovement organizations, advocacy groups, nonprofit agencies, and sundry varied organizations, to a focus onformal organizations as abstract instrumentally-oriented entities operating in environments that are narrowlyconceptualized as material resource spaces. Over the past decade, however, there have been an increasingnumber of calls to revisit the dynamics of organizations and society (e.g. Friedland & Alford, 1991;Scott, 2001;Stern & Barley, 1996; Stinchcombe, 1997).1 Litwin & Stringer , (1968) perspective of analyzing the organization D.M.Pestonjee,Job Satisfaction as a function of Role Stress, Locus ofControl, Participation and Organizational Climate in an Electrical company,2 Schneider and Barlett(1968,1970) -Individual attribute approach the Organisational Efectiveness through HRD-CulturalDynamics,‟JIMS,8:3,December,PP.54-613. (Perrow, 1986, 2002) in the journal of Social Structure and Organizations Revisited, Volume 19, pages 3–36. Copyright © 2002 by Elsevier ScienceLtd. 38
  39. 39. 4 Social sustainability is far more difficult to define. As social issues comprise the legal context of a firm,the assessment shows the extent to which a firm shows compliance to the social standards. In our days,companies make use of the differing social standards, such as wages, working time, extent of labour unionspower and taxes. Porter‟s concept of the comparative advantage of nations (PORTER, M. inBARTLETT/GHOSHAL, 1992) underlines a management approach that builds upon those differences. In thepast decades, the nations of the South mainly provided cheap labour and raw materialAs social standards differ from one country to another, it is difficult to compare the social performance ofnational based companies. The compliance to the legislation in China requires different practices than in the UKor in Ghana. The national limitation of legislation reflects the historical and cultural context of societal values onwhich laws are built upon. Mere compliance to national standards is therefore not a sufficient criterion to assessa company‟s social performance 5 Cultural sustainability introduced a broader scope. The basic requirement is, that a company shouldrespect the culture of its host nation. This comprises, that a business should not interfere and change the culturein order to maximize its profits (HOFFMANN, 1997). 6 The corporate culture is the expression of collective staff attitudes and shared values this enables themto believe in the organization‟s values and goals, and to want to keep working for that organization (Kono &Clegg, 1998). Organizational culture also recognized as a powerful concept that portrays many facets of aworkplace (Stewart, 1996).4 (PORTER, M. in BARTLETT/GHOSHAL, 1992) in the journals of Intercultural assessment of sustainability by Simeon Ries by 2001.5 (HOFFMANN, 1997). A "Corporate architectures for sustainability", International Journal of Operations & Production Management, Vol. 21 Iss: 12, pp.1573 –15856 Kono & Clegg, 1998 Transformations of corporate culture: Experiences of Japanese enterprises. Vol xxi pp 445 Kono, Toyohiro by 1988 39
  40. 40. 7 Charan, Ram (2001) Dialogue, not products, business models or operational strengths constitutes anorganizations most enduring competitive advantage. Anyone can copy your services. No one can duplicate yourculture of incisiveness and creativity, or your ability to honestly inquire, discuss and make intellectually rigorousdecisions. Functional dialogue can only take place within a culture characterised by openness, candor,informality and closure. Openness ensures the outcome is not predetermined. Candor means it is „OK‟ to speakthe unspeakable. Informality promotes candor and reduces defensiveness. Closure means that at the end of ameeting everyone knows who has to do what by when. The author acknowledges that this is not easy. “Theleader must exercise inner strength by repeatedly signaling which behaviors are acceptable and by sanctioningthose who persist in negative behavior. If less sever sanctions fail, the leader must be willing to remove theoffending player from the group.”8 Detert, J. R., Schroeder, R. G. & Mauriel, J. J. (2000) A organisation‟s cultural characteristics can inhibit ordefeat a quality or re-engineering effort before it even begins. For example, people working withinorganisational cultures biased against overt conflict may be uncomfortable challenging long-established rules, ora short-term quarterly-profit-oriented culture may make it difficult for people to extend their vision to re-engineerings longer time horizons. The authors “review existing culture frameworks and organize them throughqualitative content analysis into a set of eight overarching, descriptive dimensions of culture.” Organisationalcultures vary depending on how they value data versus „gut feel‟ as a legitimate basis for decision-making(dimension #1 - Basis of Truth and Rationality). Cultures vary in terms of the nature of their time horizons (#2 -short-term or long-term). In some cultures, it is assumed that people are naturally motivated and do not needelaborate control systems (#3 – motivation) or vice versa. Ideas about peoples‟ desires for stability versuschange/innovation/personal growth (dimension # 4) also vary across cultures. The fifth dimension theyidentified (orientation to work, task, and coworkers) relates to the importance of work to life as a whole and towork/life balance. Whether or not people work best alone or collaboratively in groups, and ideas about thecentralisation versus decentralisation of control, coordination, and responsibility are the sixth and seventhdimensions. The final dimension they identified has to do with whether the organisational culture is focusedmore internally on people and process, or externally on customers and competitors.7 Charan, Ram (2001). Conquering a culture of indecision. Harvard Business Review, April, Vol. 79, # 4, pp. 75-82.8 Detert, J. R., Schroeder, R. G. & Mauriel, J. J. (2000). A framework for linking culture and improvement initiatives in organizations. The Academy ofManagement Review, Vol. 25, # 4, 850-863. 40
  41. 41. 9 There are past study that proved the strong relationship between organizational culture and organizationalcommitment. Boon and Arumugam (2006) was proved in their study that all dimensions in organizationalculture have a strong relationship with organizational commitment. While study from Rashid et al. (2003) alsoshowed that there is a significant correlation between corporate culture and organizational commitment amongmanagers in public listed company10 Organizational Culture refers to a system of shared meaning held by members that distinguishes theorganization from other organizations. This system of shared meaning is actually a set of key characteristics thatthe organization values (Robbins and Sanghi, 2007).Organizational culture is a descriptive term which is concerned with how employees perceive the characteristicsof an organization‟s culture, not with whether or not they like them. This appraisal of the organization on itscharacteristics gives a composite picture of the organization‟s culture. This picture in turn becomes the basis forfeelings of shared understanding that members have about the organization, how things are done in it, and theway members are supposed to behave (Robbins and Sanghi, 2007).9 Boon and Arumugam (2006) Sunway Academic Journal 3, 99–115 (2006)10 Robbins, S. P. and S. Sanghi Organizational Behavior, Pearson Education, New Delhi, 2007. 41
  43. 43. 4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGYThe objective of the current study is accomplished by conducting a market research. The marketResearch process that will be adopted in the present study consist of the following stages: .4.1 Research design Research designs are concerned with turning the research question into a testing project. The researchdesign has been considered as a “blueprint” for research. Here the descriptive research design is used.4.2 Sample size:A Sample of 50 respondents was taken into consideration for my study and the data was collected.4.3 Sampling techniqueTo study the project a simple random sampling technique under lottery method is used4.4 Questionnaire DesignA questionnaire is being framed for collecting the appropriate data required for collecting the information basedon 4 variable physical factor, social factor, climate factor, welfare factor.5 question framed to test each variable4.5 Period of studyThe period of study for the study was a course of 4 months.4.6 Data Collection Collection of data was done by  Questionnaires  InterviewSource of Data The data collected for this project work was from two sources 1. Primary Source 2. Secondary Source.Primary Source: 43
  44. 44. Primary data is collected from managers, employees of ETA ENGINEERING PVT LTD,CHENNAI,Some data was also collection employees by using structured questionnaire.Secondary Source: The secondary data was collected by company website, books and internet, Wikipedia.4.7 Statistical tools used: For the purpose of analysis CHI-SQUARE, PERCENTAGE RANKING methods are used forcalculations and the result were interpreted. These methods are used to minimize the error of data collected.Graphs were used to represent the data for the better and accurate interpretation of result.Statiscal tools used for analysis are as follows:  Weighted Average  Chi-square.  Ranking Method.Weighted Average: Mean in which each item being averaged is multiplied by a number(weighted) based on the item‟srelative importance. The result is summed and the total is divided by the sum of the weighted averages are usedextensively in descriptive statistical analysis such as index numbers, Also called weighted mean.Chi square Analysis: The chi square test is one of the most widely used non-parametric test in statistical work. It makes noassumption of population being sampled. Chi square is a statistical test commonly used to compare observeddata with expected data to obtain according to a specific hypothesis. Identify “goodness to fit” between theobserved and expected.Were the deviation between observed and expected result of chance, or were they due to other factors. Howmuch deviation can occur before the investigator, must conclude that something other than chance is at work,causing the observed to differ from the expected. The chi-square test is used for testing the null hypothesis,which states that there is no significant difference between the expected and observed result. 44
  45. 45. Ranking Method. A ranking is a relationship between a set of item such that. For any two items , the first is either „rankedhigher than‟ ranked lower than‟ or „ranked equal to‟ the second. In the mathematics. this is known as weak orderor total preorder of objects. It is not necessarily a total order of object because two different objects have sameranking. The ranking themselves are totally ordered for example, materials are totally preordered by hardness,while degree of hardness are totally ordered. 45
  46. 46. 4.8 SCOPE OF THE STUDY It is necessary for any management to ensure that employees are satisfied with their job, For the benefitsof the organization, A study on organization culture measures helps the management to understand the attitude ofthe employees towards their job. It tells how the people feel about their relationship with an industry, and theirwelfare of job. It scientifically contributes towards employee‟s productivity and morale. The present study has made an attempt to measure the organization culture In ETA Engineering PvtLtd. This study has been conducted with 50 employees in the study area. This study mainly concentrates onstudying the organization culture measures provided by the company, This study can be further related tomeasure organization culture, employee job satisfaction, and labour turn over of the company. Fordevelopment and better satisfaction of the employees, the company must concentrate on thedissatisfied area. 46
  47. 47. 4.9 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY The study was restricted to ETA ENGINEERING PVT LTD CHENNAI. This could have given rise to a unique perception of the culture. Since there has been a gap of a few months between data collection and the consolidation of the report, the findings might not accurately reflect the current attitudes and perceptions of the employees, as these could have changed over time. Some of the respondents were hesitated to express their opinion about organization culture measures due to fear of management The survey is based on the opinion of the employees, which may be biased. Period of study is too short and hence it is a major limitation. 47
  49. 49. DATA ANALYSIS AND INTRERPRETATION TABLE NO 1 EXPERIENCE OF THE RESPONDENT S.no Experience No of Respondent Percentage 1 Less than 2 years 7 14% 2 2-3 years 20 40% 3 3-6 years 18 36% 4 6 yrs above 5 10% Total 50 100.0CHART: 25 20PERCENTAGE 15 10 5 0 Less than 2 years 2-3 years 3-6 years 6 yrs aboveINFERENCE:It is stated from the above table that most of the respondents have 2-3 years experience. 49
  50. 50. TABLE NO 2 IMPROVEMENT IN WORKING CONDITION S .no Opinion No of Respondent Percentage 1 strongly agree 7 14% 2 Agree 21 42% 3 Neutral 19 38% 4 Disagree 2 4% 5 strongly disagree 1 2% Total 50 100.0CHART: 25 42% 20 38% PERCENTAGE 15 10 21 19 14% 5 7 4% 2 2% 1 0 strongly agree agree neutral disagree strongly disagree IMPROVEMENT IN WORKING CONDITIONINFERENCEFrom the above table stated that 42% of respondent agree that there is improvement in working condition. And2% of them disagree, that there is no improvement. 50
  51. 51. TABLE NO 3 FEEL COMFORTABLE WITH WORKING ENVIRONMENT. S.no Opinion No of Respondent Percentage 1 Strongly agree 8 16% 2 agree 31 62% 3 neutral 11 22% 4 Disagree 0 0% 5 Strongly disagree 0 0% Total 50 100.00CHART: 35 30 25 PERCENTAGE 20 15 10 5 0 strongly agree agree neutral disagree strongly disagree COMFORTABLE WITH WROKING ENVIRONMENTINFERENCE:62% of respondents are comfortable with the current working environment. 51
  52. 52. TABLE NO 4 QUALITY OF MATERIAL PROVIDED TO PERFORM JOB IS GOOD S.no Opinion No of Respondent Percentage 1 strongly agree 8 16% 2 agree 26 52% 3 neutral 13 26% 4 disagree 3 6% 5 strongly disagree 0 0% Total 50 100.0CHART: 30 25 20 PERCENTAGE 15 10 5 0 strongly agree agree neutral disagree strongly disagree QUALITY OF MATERIALINFERENCE:From the above table it is stated that 52% of respondents felt that the company is providing quality material toperform their jobs well. 52
  53. 53. TABLE NO 5 NEW METHOD OF WORK HAD BEEN INTRODUCED S.no Opinion No of Respondent Percentage 1 strongly agree 3 6% 2 agree 13 26% 3 neutral 26 52% 4 disagree 7 14% 5 strongly disagree 1 2% Total 50 100.0CHART 30 25 PERCENTAGE 20 15 10 5 0 strongly agree agree neutral disagree strongly disagree NEW METHOD OF WORK HAD BEEN INTRODUCEDINFERENCEFrom the above table it is stated that 52% of the respondents neither satisfied nor dissatisfied with the newmethodologies introduced in the organization 53
  54. 54. TABLE NO 6 ORGANIZATION HAD DIPLOMATIC FUTURE S.no Opinion No of Respondent Percentage 1 strongly agree 7 14% 2 agree 23 46% 3 neutral 20 40% 4 disagree 0 0% 5 strongly disagree 0 0% Total 50 100.0CHART 25 20 PERCENTAGE 15 10 5 0 strongly agree agree neutral disagree strongly disagree ORGANIZATION HAD DIPLOMATIC FUTUREINFERENCEFrom the above table it is stated that 46% of the responded are agree that their organization had diplomaticfuture. 40% of the respondents are neutral. 14% of the respondents are strongly agreed. That the organization haddiplomatic Future 54
  55. 55. TABLE NO 7 THE ORGANIZATION HAS BECOME MORE POSITIVE S.no Opinion No of Respondent Percentage 1 strongly agree 9 18% 2 Agree 24 48% 3 Neutral 15 30% 4 Disagree 2 4% 5 strongly disagree 0 0% Total 50 100.0CHART 30 25 20 PERCENTAGE 15 10 5 0 strongly agree agree neutral disagree strongly disagree ATTITUDE TOWARDS WORK BECOME POSITIVEINFERENCEFrom the above table it is stated 48% of the responded agree attitude towards your work become positive 30%of responded are neutral. 18% of the responded are strongly agree. 4% are disagree. 55
  56. 56. TABLE NO 8 CORDIAL RELATIONSHIP WITH YOUR SUB ORDINATES S.no Opinion No of Respondent Percentage 1 strongly agree 11 22% 2 agree 27 54% 3 neutral 12 24% 4 disagree 0 0% 5 strongly disagree 0 0% Total 50 100%CHART 30 25 PERCENTAGE 20 15 10 5 0 strongly agree agree neutral disagree strongly disagree RELATIONSHIP WITH SUB ORDINATESINFERENCEFrom the above table it is stated 54% of the respondents are agree that they have cordial relationship with theirsub ordinates. 24% of responded are neutral. 22% of responded are strongly agree 56
  57. 57. TABLE NO 9 APPRECIATION FOR WORK S.no Opinion No of Respondent Percentage 1 strongly agree 10 20% 2 Agree 18 36% 3 Neutral 17 34% 4 Disagree 5 5% 5 strongly disagree 0 0% Total 50 100.0CHART 20 18 16 14 PERCENTAGE 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 strongly agree agree neutral disagree strongly disagree RECIEVE PROPER APPRIECIATIONINFERENCEFrom the above table it is stated that 36% of the respondents are receiving proper appreciation for their work34% of respondents fell neutral.10% of respondents are strongly agree.5% of the responded are disagree. 57
  58. 58. TABLE NO 10 KNOWLEDGE AND SKILL TO DO WORK PROPERLY S.no Opinion No of Respondent Percentage 1 strongly agree 15 30% 2 agree 30 60% 3 neutral 5 10% 4 disagree 0 0% 5 strongly disagree 0 0% Total 50 100.0CHART 35 30 25 PERCENTAGE 20 15 10 5 0 strongly agree agree neutral disagree strongly disagree KNOWELDGE AND SKILL TO DO JOB PROPERLYINFERENCEFrom the above table it is stated 60% of the respondents are agree that they have knowledge and skill to do jobproperly. 30% of responded are strongly agree that they have knowledge and skill .10% are neutral. 58
  59. 59. TABLE NO 11 SPENDING TIME USEFULLY S.no Opinion No of Respondent Percentage 1 strongly agree 9 18% 2 agree 34 68% 3 neutral 6 12% 4 disagree 1 2% 5 strongly disagree 0 0% Total 50 100.0CHART 40 35 30 PERCENTAGE 25 20 15 10 5 0 strongly agree agree neutral disagree strongly disagree YOU SPEND TIME MORE USEFULLY THAN BEFOREINFERENCEFrom the above table it is stated 68% of the respondents are agree that they are spend time more usefully thanbefore. 18% of respondents are strongly agree. 12% of respondents are neutral. 59
  60. 60. TABLE NO 12 COMPETITIVE ORGANIZATION CULTURE S.no Opinion No of Respondent Percentage 1 strongly agree 5 10% 2 agree 24 48% 3 Neutral 18 36% 4 Disagree 3 6% 5 strongly disagree 0 0% Total 50 100.0CHART 30 25 20 PERCENTAGE 15 10 5 0 strongly agree agree neutral disagree strongly disagree ORGANIZATION CULTURE IS COMPETIIVEINFERENCEFrom the above table it is stated 48% of the respondents say that their organization culture is competitive. 36%of respondents felt neutral. 8% of responded are strongly agree the organization culture is competitive. 60
  61. 61. TABLE NO 13 FEEL COMFORTABLE WITH WORKING HERE S.no Opinion No of Respondent Percentage 1 strongly agree 10 20% 2 Agree 29 58% 3 Neutral 9 18% 4 Disagree 0 0% 5 strongly disagree 2 4% Total 50 100.0CHART 35 30 25 PERCENTAGE 20 15 10 5 0 strongly agree agree neutral disagree strongly disagree FEEL COMFOERTABLE WORKING HEREINFERENCEFrom the above table it stated that 58% of the respondents feel comfortable working in the organization. 20% ofthe respondents strongly feel comfortable. 18% are neutral. 61
  62. 62. TABLE NO 14 LEADERSHIP ABILITIES S.no Opinion No of Respondent Percentage 1 strongly agree 4 8% 2 Agree 35 70% 3 neutral 10 20% 4 disagree 0 0% 5 strongly disagree 1 2% Total 50 100.0CHART 40 35 30 PERCENTAGE 25 20 15 10 5 0 strongly agree agree neutral disagree strongly disagree LEADERSHIP ABILITIESINFERENCEFrom the above table it is stated that 70% of the respondents are agree that they are happy with their ownleadership abilities.20% of respondents feel neutral. 62