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  • 1. University of Portsmouth Business SchoolUnit Document forThe Marketing EnvironmentU16794Presented byTom Chapman, Richard Christy,Dr David Williams, Malcolm Stewart &Sarah TurnbullOctober 2010 1
  • 3. AbstractThe marketing environment introduces students to the broader external environment in whichbusinesses operate and the academic underpinning they will need to be successful studentswhilst within the University framework. Students need to be introduced to the concepts ofdebate and critical thinking; they need to understand the processes involved in the study ofthe marketing subject and the relationship between various marketing elements or units ontheir chosen programmes as well as the linkages that can be made with the broader externalenvironment. In addition to a clear appreciation of the marketing context, students arerequired to understand the facilities and technologies available to them to produce academicwork fit for assessment and realise the motivation behind extending ones own knowledgeoutside the classroom through dedicated time management and teamwork as well as a selfinitiated exploration of the subject material initially presented by the academic team.Aims 1. To enthuse students in the subject of Marketing. 2. To develop an integrated understanding of both academic and periodical information sources. 3. To provide an understanding of the various systems facilitated by the University to assist students with their studies. 4. To instil an appreciation of the differences between Further and Higher Educational teaching approaches as well as the dedication and effort required in order to be successful at University.Learning Outcomes (LO):On successful completion of this unit, students should be able, at threshold level, to: 1. (LO1) Collect information from a variety of sources and communicate their findings in an appropriate format. 2. (LO2) Work as a member of a group or team to enable the researching, preparation and delivery of an oral presentation on an organisation. 3. (LO3) Describe and classify various elements of marketing in both an academic and industry context. 4. (LO4) Report on and recognise the importance of the external environment in which organisations operate.Syllabus OutlineThe topics covered in the unit will include: 1. Academic and Periodical Marketing Resources. 2. Team working and Time Management Skills. 3. Interpreting information. 4. Report Writing and Presentation Skills. 5. The Marketing Process. 6. The changing environment. 7. The value of money. 8. The art of communication.Scheduled Activities (Hours)11 (2 hours) Seminar / Workshops 3
  • 4. Learning and Teaching StrategyThe unit will be delivered through a series of 2 hour workshops during which time the tutor willuse small case studies based on both real company examples that have current mediaattention and academic articles to elicit debate and discussion between nominated groups ofstudents.The later part of the workshop will be used by the tutor to facilitate the progression of theassessment strategy and guide students in their own quest for knowledge surrounding anotherorganisation of their choice chosen in the initial stages of the unit as well as providing apertinent opportunity for the tutor to instigate formative feedback and encouragement to thegroup.In addition to this students will be expected to manage and drive their own investigations fortheir assessment outside of scheduled activities.Support will also be provided in line with eLearning strategies through the use of either Victoryor another environment to facilitate discussion between Seminars as well as individual studentgroups and tutors. Online training assistance will also be provided to students in the basics ofMicrosoft Office and Academic / Periodical resources and management of sources.Recommended TextBaines, P. Fill, C. & Page, K., 2008, Marketing, OUP (ISBN: 9780199290437)Seely, 2002, Writing Reports, Oxford University Press (ISBN: 0-19-866283-1)Billingham, J, 2003, Giving Presentations, OUP (ISBN: 0-19-860681-8)Additional Materials will be posted on is also a forum for debate and discussion available at register on the site and post any questions or comments there to allowcommunication between different student groups and lecturing staff. As part of theregistration process you are required to enter a username. The username can bewhatever you wish and as such it is strongly suggested that it is not your real nameor your email address to maintain your anonymity. You may also sign in using yourfacebook or twitter account details.You need to purchase the recommended texts and you are expected to read theappropriate chapters in the recommended text prior to each session.Secondary TextsSecondary texts and additional reading materials will be introduced throughout the unit as andwhen appropriate. 4
  • 5. AssessmentThe assessment is designed to demonstrate that the student has met the learning outcomes(LO) of the unit.Assessment for this unit consists of 100% coursework in the form of a group prepared (LO2)Marketing Report (LO1) & Presentation (LO1, LO2) that considers the following:“Three-quarters of UK university heads who took part in a survey think public spending cutswill lead to the disappearance of some institutions. But almost none of those asked think theirinstitutions will fail, the poll for PA Consulting adds.” BBC News 05/08/2010 - and evaluate the marketing activities used in the UK Higher Educationsector. In light of the above quote, recommend ways in which Portsmouth BusinessSchool should compete with the numerous alternatives available to prospectivestudents in the future. (LO4)This is a word-processed report with an maximum length of 2,000 words (excludingreferences and appendices). The group will also present the findings of their report for 15minutes.To complete this assessment successfully each member of the Group must work totogether as a team (LO2) but with accountability and responsibility for specific roleswithin the project including; • Project Manager • Editor • Research Co-ordinator • Technical Support - IT and Electronic Resources • Presentation Coordinator(Whilst all members of the team will be responsible for the finished and submitted output ofthe assessment, there will inevitably be individuals within the group who have skill and abilitiesthat are better suited to certain project roles. It is up to the group to identify and allocatetasks accordingly. THIS IS NOT A CASE OF 4 PEOPLE EACH INDIVIDUALLY WRITING 500WORDS AND THEN SUBMITTING AS A 2000 WORD DOCUMENT)It is important that you use news, periodical and other academic references in yourreport & presentation (LO1, LO2, LO3). Merely quoting & reproducing the corporate PRmessages copied from an organisation’s website is not sufficient: the key to this report is inthe intelligent use of academic and periodical references (LO1, LO3), used in conjunction withthe research of an organisation operating in a difficult and uncertain climate (LO4) as well asthe structure and presentation of your findings in order to demonstrate at threshold level thatyou can communicate effectively in a format appropriate to the discipline and report practicalprocedures in a clear and concise manner (LO1, LO2).You should structure your report as follows:Structure • Title Page - The precise title of the report is to be typed on the cover. Below this the statement, “Submitted for the attention of {your seminar / workshop tutors name}. In partial fulfilment of the requirements for the {your degree programme} (e.g. BA (hons) in Marketing / BA (hons) Marketing with Psychology), University of Portsmouth”. Below this should be the name of the unit and the student number for each member of the group. The names of individual students should NOT be on the report. • Executive Summary - a summary of the key points from the whole report, usually about ½ page long. • Contents Page 5
  • 6. • List of Tables & Figures • List of Abbreviations • Introduction • The main body of the report - ‘main body’ is not a title you should use, the group should decide the titles of the headings used within the document. The document SHOULD NOT be written in the ‘first person’ such as “I think…” or “we think…”. The document should be written in the third person. • Conclusions • Recommendations • References - in Harvard APA format • Appendices - These may include tables, schedules, documents or long explanatory notes, which have been referred to in the text but which, if included there, would break the continuity of the argument. All appendices should have a title and the source should also be given if appropriate. Titles of appendices should be the same as those used in the text. It is also important when preparing the report to make sure that material is not included in the text, which should be placed in an appendix and vice versa. The Appendices are not a ‘dumping ground’ for pertinent material which would have been included in the main report if the indicative word length was greater. • Group Timetable and Meeting Reports (see Appendix 1 & Appendix 2)Format • Page - A4, with 1in (2.54cm) margins, top, bottom, left and right • Font - ‘Verdana’ size 10 • Paragraphs - should be numbered, ‘justified’ and have 1.5 line spacingReferences / SourcesEach group is expected to use a minimum of, • 1 Marketing Text Book • 10 News or Periodical Articles • 5 Academic Journal ArticlesIn addition to the standard format report above, each group will also submit a copyof all the references used in the report. Those references should be filed clearly usingHarvard APA alphabetically A-Z. The copy of references / sources may be submittedon disc in an electronic format. • Books - where a book is referenced the group are required to submit a photocopy of the front cover. • Printed Journal articles and News - in the case of printed Journal and news articles the first page should be copied and submitted. • Electronic Journal articles and News - in the case of information sourced electronically then a full copy of the article or page of the website should be included.Literary Quality and EditingIn addition to the quality of content, students are expected to achieve a high standard ofpresentation. The work must be effectively and neatly arranged and written clearly and lucidly- free from major spelling and punctuation errors.Responsibility for the finished report rests entirely with the group and therefore every aspect(including typing) must be carefully checked and thoroughly edited. A careless reportcontaining numerous spelling, punctuation and typing errors will lose marks in terms ofacademic scholarship.The Marketing Report deadline is on Friday 10th December 2010.The submission date for coursework is Friday 10th December 2010, and should behanded in to the Undergraduate Centre in Richmond Building on or before that date. 6
  • 7. We aim to make marked assignments available for collection by Monday 24thJanuary 2011. Marks should be on the Student Portal shortly afterwards. If there isan unavoidable delay in completing the marking process, a message will be placedon the Unit Victory site to inform you of the delay and indicating when work will beavailable for collection.Presentations will take place during week 12 of Semester 1 (13/12/2010)Students must submit one paper copy and one electronic copy (MS Word format) of theMarketing Report. Failure to submit a valid electronic copy will result in failure of theassignment.The electronic copy may be submitted to an online plagiarism checking service for comparisonagainst Internet content and individual submissions including those submitted by studentsin the current and previous years.In accordance with the University’s Assessment Regulations, work submitted after thepublished submission date, but within two weeks of the due date or the end of the semester(which ever is the sooner) will be marked. The mark awarded will be capped at the unit passmark of 40% but the uncapped mark will also be shown on the work. Work submitted laterthan two weeks will be marked but a mark of zero will be recorded. Where an ExtenuatingCircumstances Form is submitted and accepted, then assessment penalties may be waived.The REFERRAL AND DEFERRAL REQUIREMENTS consist of an individual 2000 wordessay issued at the start of the referral period (04/07/2011 - 22/07/2011).Students must submit one paper copy and one electronic copy (MS Word format) of theReferral / Deferral. Failure to submit a valid electronic copy will result in failure of theassignment. 7
  • 8. Assessment Marking CriteriaThe criteria used to assess the Marketing Report will be:Description & Evaluation of the UK Higher Education Sector (20%)Use of academic concepts and theories (20%)Academic Scholarship (40%)Class Presentation (20%)Marking CriteriaDescription & Evaluation of the UK Higher Education Sector (20%) Description of the UK Higher Education Market Breadth and depth of information Higher Education / University marketing activities Use of supporting materialsAdditional Marking Notes:There are two likely / expected approaches to this assessment which may be taken by thestudent groups. The first is a general ‘overview’ of marketing activities following the corestructure of the Marketing L1 unit (U16690). The second approach is likely to involve a level ofconcentration or focus on a particular area of the unit or activity in which case there will needto be justification for the topic area of choice in light of the Higher Education market so thatthe marker is able to understand the choices made and the students are able to ‘sit’ thechosen area within the broader marketing environment. Either approach is equally valid,however, concentrating on one particular area will require the student group to present anddescribe activities at a more detailed level in these circumstances.Questions that may assist when judging the submitted piece of work:Has there been good use of secondary sources? • Mintel Reports • Financial Reports • Periodicals • Other accepted sources available via the libraryDoes the report show a clear understanding of the market?Poor answers will lack a range of objective and credible sources, restating corporate marketingliterature with little attempt to broaden information from a range of materials.Mid range answers will set the scene but lack either a rational structure or be limited in scopein terms of secondary sources.Good Answers will display a range of the above points demonstrating a true understanding ofthe market and the issues it is facing in light of changes to funding.Use of academic concepts and theories (20%) The extent to which academic materials have been incorporated Depth of reading and application Relevance of the contentAdditional Marketing Notes:As a Level one unit operated in conjunction with Marketing L1 (U16690) and other units,students will have been introduced to numerous different models and frameworks. In manycases it is unlikely that all will be presented. With this in mind however, it is likely, due to thenature of the unit and the attention they were given that certain key models are likely to beincorporated. It is also possible (and encouraging) that other models may be used that havebeen introduced by other units on the student’s degree programmes. This section is looking fora clear theoretical underpinning that enables the student to interpret and evaluate asobjectively as they can, market activities. 8
  • 9. There should be reference to journal and periodical or news articles as well as specificpertinent passages from the core text. The students may well make reference to othermarketing textbooks.Although this is a reasonably ‘hands on’ assessment, academic theory should not be ignored.To rely solely on content from lecture slides is really insufficient for all but the lowest range ofmarks.Given the maximum word limit, large descriptive passages about a particular model should beleft to the appendices, if included at all. Discussion or debate and argument surrounding thechoice of a model and its ease of application however is welcomed as it demonstrates what,why, & how a model or framework was implemented.Academic Scholarship (40%) Logical reasoning, analysis and debate Quality and depth of appraisal and interpretation of both the market and academic / periodical / news materials The logic and rationale for the adopted structure The clarity of the points made Correct use of Harvard referencing styleAdditional Marketing Notes:Moving forward through the assessment the students will have to bring together both theacademic, objective observation and application of their chosen methods in order to determinewhat the market has done / is doing.The important element to judge is how the answer was arrived at with clear thoughtprocesses, structure, and synthesis of both the underpinning theory and its practicalapplication. Excellent answers will also demonstrate an appreciation for the less ‘fun’ elementsof academia such as the Financial position of organisations, the effects of and on of HumanCapital in the organisation, as well as resources and capabilities of the organisation.This is a report and a marketing assessment and as such, the way in which the document ispresented (marketed to the reader) is important. Is there a clear structure, with pagesnumbered and contents pages etc.? Is there good use of pagination and white space? Thereshould be careful but full use of diagrams and where applicable pictures used in explanationand assessment of activities. There should be no doubt in the readers mind, where they are inthe document, what the market does / has done.Due to the nature of the report, and the amount of information that is likely to come from theInternet, the use of Harvard APA at this level of study is vital.Class Presentation (20%) Structure / Time keeping Use of support materials and technology Content Contribution of all membersThe ability to present is a vital component of both business and academic employability. Eachgroup will be given 15 minutes in which to present the findings of their report followed by anopportunity to answer any questions that the marker may have. Presentations will follow astrict time limit and as such those groups that present too quickly are likely to receive lowermarks than those who use the time most effectively. Short presentations (10 minutes or less)clearly will not have used the time sufficiently; however presentation will be stopped at 15minutes and only content presented will be marked so those groups that run out of time willnot be in a position to present full findings and may receive a low mark accordingly.It is vital therefore that groups practise their presentation timings and familiarisethemselves with the various technologies and presentation aids available to them.ALL members of the group are expected to contribute during the presentation. 9
  • 10. Programme of Work: Workshop & Seminar SessionsWeek Week Workshop Topic Reading No. Com Unit Introduction / Team working and Time 1 27/09 Unit Handbook Management Skills Academic and Periodical Marketing Resources / 2 04/10 Harvard Referencing Leaflet Harvard Referencing 3 11/10 Plagiarism / Assessment: Project Planning Appendix 4 Billingham (2003), Seely 4 18/10 Report Writing and Presentation Skills (2002) 5 25/10 Interpreting information - Case: Wikipedia Wikipedia Case study Case: The Independent Review of Higher Higher Education Funding and 6 01/11 Education Funding and Student Finance Student Finance Case 7 08/11 Case: Political Environment Political Case Study Chapleo (2007) & Tauber 8 15/11 Journal Review/ Assessment Workshop (1972) 9 22/11 SWOT Analysis / Assessment Workshop SWOT notes Billingham (2003), Seely 10 29/11 Optional Group Assessment Workshop (2002) 11 06/12 Presentation Rehearsal / Preparation 12 13/12 Class Presentations 10
  • 11. Individual Class Information Week 1 Unit Introduction / Team working and Time W/b 27/09/10 Management SkillsEssential Reading Aim To introduce The Marketing Environment Unit and the importanceUnit Hand book of teamwork and time management skills that are necessary not only for this unit but for academic study in general.At the end of the session, students should; 1. Understand the assessment requirements of the unit 2. Know who the other members of their group are. 3. Have familiarised themselves with Google docs and the associated technologies available to them to assist with their assessment requirements 4. Produced a generic group timetable of academic and social / work commitments of group members to enable them to plan study time outside the classroom environment. 5. Have identified areas for their own development in order to successfully orchestrate their assessment report.Relevant articlesWorkshop Activity 1. Introduction to The Marketing Environment Unit and associated Assessment - Marketing Report & Presentation. 2. Allocation of working groups 3. Discussion of Google docs 4. Production of working group timetable 5. Introduction and familiarisation with Group Meeting Report Form. 6. Introduction to learning contractIn your own time for the next workshop 1. In preparation for the next workshop read the unit handbook. 2. Decide as a group what responsibilities each member will have and the reasons why. 3. Visit the University of Portsmouth’s Library Website area for marketing subjects - Within your groups prepare a list of questions or areas you would like clarified to assist you with finding information about your chosen organisation. 4. Visit and try to find out how to reference different types of sources. What would be the correct way to reference a quotation from your core Marketing L1 (U16690) textbook compared to a television programme?Online Learning Resources 11
  • 12. Notes:In your designated groups of 4 or 5 (if necessary) use Appendix 1 on page 31 to enter thecommitted times for all members of the group to determine when your are all free to meetoutside of class time to work on the assessment for this unit. The timetable ranges for all 7days of the week from 9am to 9pm and should include external commitments such as parttime work / sports and even social events. If on completion, there appears to be no slotavailable by all members then it is expected that something WILL HAVE to be sacrificed soconsider social commitments in light of this.Each Group should also familiarise with Appendix 2: Group Meeting Report which should beused to record the meetings of the group over time and the actions and responsibilities of eachmember.Appendix 3: Group Contact Details on page 33 allows each member of the group to recordother members details for reference should they need to. 12
  • 13. Week 2 Academic and Periodical Marketing Resources / Harvard W/b 04/10/10 ReferencingEssential Reading Aim To familiarise students with the range of marketing resourcesHarvard Referencing available and assist with the process of referencing those materials inLeaflet (available online, the correct way for current and future assessments.see below)At the end of the session, students; 1. Should be familiar with a range of available reference materials 2. Should be able to reference those materials in the correct way in assessments.Relevant articlesWorkshop Activity 1. Introductions by each group on their chosen responsibilities. 2. Review / Question and answer session on sources of information from the library website. 3. Harvard APA Citation and Referencing exercise 4. Introduction to Academic Articles, Databases & Endnote WebIn your own time for the next workshop 1. Read Appendix 4: Plagiarism: the pandemic of Universities or an accepted component of Higher Education on page 34 and prepare answers in your groups to the questions that follow it.Online Learning Resources and referencing exerciseIn order to achieve good grades, you must not only learn well, you must also be able tocommunicate your learning in such a way that those who mark your work can be satisfied thatyou have mastered what you have studied.In the early stages of your course, this may entail little more than demonstrating that you canrecall some basic concepts and related terminology, but you will soon find that you are beingasked to show that you can exercise judgement, develop arguments and draw conclusionsfrom relevant evidence.During your course, you will be asked to present work in a variety of formats that may includeshort and long exam answers, essays, reports, oral presentations, video presentations andweb pages. Though each format imposes its own disciplines, there are some general principlesthat you should strive for in all the work that you present for assessment. In particular, youshould aim always to produce work that is relevant, authoritative and convincing.These important attributes are largely derived from the way in which you make use of the 13
  • 14. work of others. It is not possible for you to discover from your own first-hand observation allthat you will learn at the Business School. Instead, you will benefit from the fact that manyhundreds of people have devoted many years to reaching a better understanding of thebusiness world. You will draw upon their work and possibly extend it in due course. In orderto do so, you must learn to be critical of other people’s ideas. Not all are of equal merit; somemay simply be wrong; some may not have stood the test of time; some may be right in onecontext but not in others. Then you must learn to present your synthesis of their ideas in away that will stand up to the same sort of critical scrutiny.Consider the following statements about an imaginary medication called Brand A: 1. “Brand A is the best.” (from the manufacturer’s TV advertisement) 2. “Celebrity Sue Superstar always uses Brand A.” (from an article in a celebrity magazine) 3. “500 of our readers preferred Brand A to Brand B.” (from an article in a popular health and lifestyle magazine) 4. “After a six-month clinical trial involving 500 patients, 60% recovered completely and 30% showed partial relief from symptoms. In 10% of cases, there was no improvement or some deterioration in the condition. Of the 500 patients in the placebo control group, 5% showed partial relief from symptoms, 85% deteriorated and 10% died.” (from an article in a medical journal)The statements may all be true, but are they equally convincing? Which is most persuasiveand why? Which would you include in an academic argument advocating Brand A? How wouldyou then ensure that readers of your argument found it convincing?You should by now be starting to appreciate the value of making effective use of the work ofothers by judiciously selecting it as evidence to support your own report. It is important thatyou know how to cite and reference the sources of evidence in accordance with good academicpractice, so that your readers are able to locate them easily and confirm that they agree withyour interpretation. This will add authority to your work and enable you to avoid the risk ofcommitting plagiarism.The referencing system used in the Portsmouth Business School is the Harvard Format APAStyle.An interactive introduction to Harvard Format APA Style referencing can be found inReferencing@Portsmouth at guidance can be found inBibliographic References: Harvard Format – APA Style. This is available as a free booklet fromthe University Library and at,68727,en.pdf (Rather than typing the full URL, try entering ‘Harvard’ in the search tool on theUniversity home page).Imagine that a lecturer has asked you to write a short report on an organisation of your choiceand the way the recession has affected it’s marketing. The lecturer has suggested that you usea range of source available to you such as newspapers, periodical articles and articles fromjournals or a website.What would be the correct way to reference a quotation from your core textbookcompared to a television programme? 14
  • 15. Week 3 Plagiarism / Assessment: Project Planning W/b 11/10/10Essential Reading Aim To understand what plagiarism is and how it can be avoided. ToAppendix 3 page 33 review progress on the assessment and group work being carried out in additional to classroom time.At the end of the session students; 1. Should be able to define plagiarism in their own words and understand the seriousness with which it is treated within the academic environment. 2. Should have a clear plan of action in terms of the assessment deadline and other academic commitments.Relevant articlesWorkshop Activity 1. Discuss the questions relating to Appendix 5: Plagiarism: the pandemic of Universities or an accepted component of Higher Education on page 35 2. Review / feedback within groups progress with the assessment coursework. 3. Use the session to record an Appendix 2: Group Meeting Report and a list of actions as outlined on page 32 4. Introduction to MS Word and Document Templates, Styles and Formatting 5. Introduction to News and Periodical Article SourcesIn your own time for the next workshop 1. Collate all materials so far for the assessment and bring them with you to the next workshop. 2. Prepare a template document in a word processor with the underlying headings you propose to use for the report in the correct format as specified in the assessment criteria. 3. Prepare a short (4 PowerPoint slides) of the group’s findings so far, which can be presented to the class.Online Learning ResourcesNotesThe purpose of the workshop is to elicit debate surrounding the issues associated withplagiarism and the availability of Turnitin software to ‘assist’ with the learning process.It is also an opportunity time permitting for discussion of assessment progress and issues thatthe groups may be having. 15
  • 16. Week 4 Report Writing and Presentation Skills W/b 18/10/10Essential Reading Aim To allow student the opportunity to present in a class environmentBillingham (2003), Seely and receive feedback on style and manner of presentation before any(2002) formal assessment later in the semesterAt the end of the session, students should be able to; 1. Understand the skills required for effective presentations 2. Identify area for personal development in presentation skillRelevant articlesWorkshop Activity 1. Introduction to the Marketing Report. Short class presentations of progress so far. 2. Feedback and debate of presentation styles and the use of visual aids 3. Review of working group progress and feedback from seminar tutor and other groups.In your own time 1. Read the articles below regarding Wikipedia and prepare your thoughts to following statement. “Wikipedia is an acceptable online resource for researching our coursework.”Online Learning ResourcesNotesApart from short presentations by each group at the front of class and generic feedback fromtutors on all presentations, groups should work together to assess and debate progress so faron their chosen organisations, to develop / highlight areas of good practice and areas forfurther attention.Any issues surrounding the use of IT and software applications need to be highlighted toenable the unit co-ordinator to produce podcasts that are relevant and specific to group needsrather than a “Microsoft Word for Dummies” trying to cover all aspects but with little applicablecontent for the students concerned. 16
  • 17. The Daily Telegraph (London)February 12, 2009 ThursdayWikipedia war over Titians age follows Commons clashBYLINE: Jon SwaineSECTION: NEWS; Pg. 2 A CONSERVATIVE Party worker edited the Wikipedia entry about Titian yesterday, minutesafter David Cameron sought to embarrass Gordon Brown over the artists age. Last month Mr Brown attempted to explain that the present financial crisis wasunprecedented by alluding to the artist, "who reached the age of 90, and completed nearly100 paintings. The Prime Minister noted that the artist "said at the end of it, Im finally beginning to learnhow to paint, and that is where we are. At Prime Ministers Questions Mr Cameron said: "The Prime Minister never gets his factsright: he told us the other day he was like Titian aged 90. The fact is, Titian died at 86. Four minutes after the end of PMQs yesterday the entry for the artist - which stated thatthe artist lived between 1485 and 1576, indicating Mr Browns statement could have beencorrect - was changed to give the date of his death as 1572. The editors IP address - theunique numbers identifying internet users - belonged to a computer in Conservative CampaignHeadquarters. A Tory party spokesman said: "An over-eager member of staff took it upon himself to putright an incorrect entry. There is no academic consensus on the dates. Contemporary scholars believe Titian wasborn some time in the late 1480s, while the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, amongothers, states he died in 1576.The Independent (London)August 27, 2009 ThursdayFirst Edition 17
  • 18. Why has Wikipedia changed editorial policy, and will it improve the website?; The bigquestionBYLINE: AMOL RAJANSECTION: COMMENT; Pg. 32 Why are we asking this now? Wikipedia, the online encyclopaedia launched by American entrepreneur Jimmy Wales in2001 with the idealistic intention of being an online repository of all human knowledge,announced this week that it would have to abandon one of its founding principles. To combat agrowing amount of vandalism on the website, a two-month trial is being initiated wherebyentries will be edited before they go up on the site. Previously, any user was allowed to make -almost - any change to any entry: this was hailed as part of the democratising power of theinternet. But a sharp increase in false information - particularly in relation to people still alive -has forced a rethink. What exactly will the new editors do? The new policy is referred to as "flagged revisions". It allows editors to adjudicate (mainlythrough reference to other news sources) on changes made to the pages of a living person.The flagged revisions will be rolled out over the next fortnight, and Wikimedia, the non-profitorganisation that runs the website, will monitor users responses over the trial period. A team of "experienced volunteer editors" will oversee amendments to such pages,Wikimedia representatives said. "We are no longer at the point where it is acceptable to throwthings at the wall and see what sticks", said Michael Snow, chairman of the Wikimedia board.And Mike Peel, its UK spokesman, clarified the intention: "Anyone can continue to edit thesearticles, but the work of inexperienced editors with less than three days experience will besubject to review by more experienced editors", he said. "This is our attempt to create a bufferto ensure that editors do not commit acts of vandalism." How did the Wikipedia work before? Wales has been feted as a brilliant business mind and social innovator for tapping into apopular impulse to add to public knowledge that few people knew existed, and even fewerpublicly predicted. Wikipedia still works largely by allowing anybody to login as a user and clickon an "Edit this page" tab at the top of an entry. From there its simply a case of makingchanges and saving them, albeit according to a policy on "biographies of living persons". Anychanges are then filed under the "Edit history" of the page, and the IP address - a numberedidentity that shows where the change has been made from - is also kept on record. Pages thatcontain unverified information are highlighted. In terms of sheer scale, the existence of Wikipedia has helped popularise the notion thatthe internet is awash with seemingly infinite information. There are limits to how reasonablethis view is, of course, and certainly Wikipedia is far from infinite. But with more than threemillion English language articles alone, covering anything from different species of caterpillarto the cast of minor Australian television shows, and with some entries running to severalthousand words, the volume of information is extraordinary. Since all of it has to be sourced,and therefore accounted for in some way, much of it is reliable. And, given it is one of the mostpopular websites in the world, with around 65 million users each month, its utility is difficult tounderestimate. There are 10 million registered users worldwide on the English language pages,and, in all, there are around 13 million articles in 260 languages. What errors forced the rethink? It is ironic that the changes should be announced the same day that Ted Kennedy died,given the controversy over an article about the Senator from last year, when he was takengravely ill at President Obamas inauguration, but survived, inaccurately reported his death.That was the most high-profile error but there have been countless others, only some of whichcome to public attention. Robbie Williams was briefly described as "eating hamsters for a livingin and around Stoke". Vernon Kay was listed dead from a yachting accident, causing thetelevision presenter to ring panicked relatives. David Beckham was said to keep goal for an18th-century football team; Tony Blair, an update from February 2006 reported, kept postersof Hitler on his bedroom wall. Last September, singer Miley Cyrus was falsely described as 18
  • 19. having died in a car crash, much to the dismay of her fans, while the village of Denshaw inGreater Manchester was described as "the home to an obese population of sun-starved, sheep-hurling yokels with a brothel for a pub and a lingering tapeworm infection". And when David Cameron admonished Gordon Brown in Prime Ministers Questions for notknowing the date of the painter Titians death, he in fact got the date wrong himself, only forsome ambitious Tory apparatchik to be exposed changing the Titian entry online in a bid toprotect his leader, which in turn drew further attention to Camerons faux pas. Havent they been doing that for a while? "Flagged revisions" have already been in operation on the German version of the websitefor over a year. And representatives of Wikimedia have been playing down the significance ofthis change, claiming it is only a slight extension of a policy that is already in place, andtherefore not a wholesale re-evaluation of its founding philosophy. To some extent this is true:the website did employ editors already, and demands that information be well sourced, andedit histories be comprehensible, shows a commitment to reliability from the outset. On theother hand, this weeks announcement does suggest that the presumption on certain articleshas changed. So numerous have the errors on the pages for living persons become that thepresumption is now one of incorrect information that needs to be checked. Ultimately, Wikipedia embodies a play-off between accuracy and accessibility. In the past,managers of the website have appeared to prize the latter ahead of the former. The latestchanges dont reverse this inclination, but do suggest a willingness to compromise. This wontassuage the most trenchant critics of the website, but it may go some way to convincing themthat its pioneering founders dont have a blatant disregard for history. Wont this put people off from contributing? Inevitably, imposing restrictions on the freedom with which contributors can edit pages willinhibit some from doing so. The new policy seems to suggest that while all editors are equal,some are more equal than others. Wikipedia executives can (and do) argue that given this newprocedure applies only to a very small range of pages, theres no need to think that millions ofother contributors - who take care on updating entries relating to butterfly migrations, ortheories of time travel, for example - would be in any way disincentivised. Theories suggestingthis may be the beginning of the end of Wikipedia therefore seem premature, and not leastbecause the website has just received $2m (£1.24m) from a philanthropic fund set up by eBayfounder Pierre Omidyar, to help expand its network of new restrictions on editing pages make Wikipedia a better resource? Yes... • Errors relating to the entries on people that are still alive will not get published on the page • By sending a signal to users about accuracy, those tempted to vandalise other pages may be put off • The system has been a success in Germany and any new editors could be used to check other entries too No... • The vast majority of pages are not subject to the restrictions imposed on pages about living people • Erecting barriers to users could put off people who might otherwise have edited entries, or added new ones • The new measures contradict Wikipedias founding principles, where accessibility was paramount 19
  • 20. Week 5 Interpreting information W/b 25/10/10Essential Reading Aim To assist students in the evaluation of different information sourcesWikipedia Case study and their use / acceptability in the academic context.At the end of the session, students should be able to; 1. Understand a range of different sources available to them. 2. Assess the applicability of different sources in an academic contextRelevant articlesWorkshop Activity 1. Wikipedia Case study. 2. Discussion of alternative resourcesIn your own time for the next workshop 1. Read the case study supplied in class on the economic climate and prepare answers the stated questions.Online Learning ResourcesNotes,In addition to the Wikipedia case, the unit co-ordinator will also distribute a case studyregarding the The Independent Review of Higher Education Funding and Student Finance foruse in wk 6. 20
  • 21. Week 6 Case: The Independent Review of Higher Education W/b 01/11/10 Funding and Student FinanceEssential Reading Aim Consider the marketing environment in the context of theEconomic Climate Case Independent Review of Higher Education Funding and StudentStudy Finance and the effect that is has on Higher Education marketing.At the end of the session, students should be able to; 1. Understand that organisations do not work in isolation 2. Appreciate numerous factors and key individuals that affect the trading conditions in which organisations operateRelevant articlesWorkshop Activity 1. Case study analysis. 2. Application of key economic factors affecting chosen organisation 3. Identification of evidential sources of information to assist with the point aboveIn your own time for the next workshop 1. Read the case study supplied on class on the political environment & national statistics and prepare answers the stated questions.Online Learning ResourcesNotes,The unit co-ordinator will also make distribute a case study regarding the political environmentfor use in wk 7. 21
  • 22. Week 7 Case: Political Environment / Case: National Statistics W/b 08/11/10Essential Reading Aim Consider Marketing concepts in the context of the broader politicalPolitical Environment environment and the effect that is has on organisational marketing.Case StudyAt the end of the session, students should be able to; 1. Describe the key differences in political arguments offered by individuals in the UK 2. Understand the use of statistical information to justify an argument or perspectiveRelevant articlesWorkshop Activity 1. Case study analysis. 2. Application of key Political factors affecting chosen organisation 3. Identification of evidential sources of information to assist with the point aboveIn your own time for the next workshop 1. Update assessment and collate any questions you may have for the tutor. 2. Locate and read the following journal article Tauber, E. M. 1972. Marketing Notes and Communications. Why Do People Shop? Journal of Marketing. 36, 46 - 59. 3. Locate and read the following journal article Chapleo, C. 2007. Barriers to brand building in UK universities? International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing. 12, 1, 23-32.Online Learning Resources 22
  • 23. Week 8 Journal Review / Assessment Workshop W/b 15/11/10Essential Reading Aim This week looks at journal articles and their contribution toTauber (1972) organisations operating outside the academic environment.At the end of the session, students should be able to; 1. Appreciate the limitations of research articles 2. Assess reference materials in light of the aboveRelevant articlesWorkshop Activity 1. Identify the key points or arguments raised by the author in the article Tauber, E. M. 1972. Marketing Notes and Communications. Why Do People Shop? Journal of Marketing. 36, 46 - 59 2. To what extent does the journal assist marketing decisions in the business world today? 3. To what extent do you agree with the following quote, “grocery shopping is a customary activity of the housewife. Attempts to eliminate "food shopping" through home delivery and telephone order have to date been relatively unsuccessful. Apparently, the process of grocery shopping has positive utility for a large segment of women who view it as an integral part of their role.” Tauber 1972, page 47 4. Highlight the key points made in the article Chapleo, C. 2007. Barriers to brand building in UK universities? International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing. 12, 1, 23-32. 5. Continuing development of the Assessment Report.In your own time 1. Read the notes below regarding “The SWOT Analysis”. In your groups prepare a SWOT analysis of the University of Portsmouth Business School for discussion next week.Online Learning ResourcesNotesRead the following explanation of the SWOT Analysis taken from Have, S., Have, W.; Stevens,F.; van der Elst, M. 2003. Key Management Models. FT Prentice Hall.SWOT AnalysisThe big ideaAny company undertaking strategic planning will at some point assess its strengths andweaknesses. When combined with an inventory of opportunities and threats in (or evenbeyond) the companys external environment, the company is effectively making what is calleda SWOT analysis: establishing its current position in the light of its strengths, weaknesses,opportunities and threats. 23
  • 24. When to use itThe first step in carrying out a SWOT analysis is to identify the said strengths, weaknesses,opportunities and threats. It is important to note that strengths and weaknesses are intrinsic(potential) value creating skills or assets, or the lack thereof, relative to competitive forces.Opportunities and threats, however, are external factors: they are not created by thecompany, but emerge as a result of the competitive dynamics caused by (future) gaps orcrunches in the market.StrengthsWhat is the company really good at? Do we benefit from an experienced sales force, or easyaccess to raw materials? Do people buy our products (partly) because of our brand(s) orreputation? Strengths are not: a growing market, new products, etc.WeaknessesThough weaknesses are often seen as the logical inverse of the companys threats, thecompanys lack of strength in a particular discipline or market is not necessarily a relativeweakness, providing (potential) competitors lack this particular strength as well.Strengths and weaknesses can be measured in an internal or external audit, for example,through benchmarking (see if you can find any information on a Benchmarking model).Opportunities and threats occur as a result of external macroenvironmental forces such asdemographic, economic, technological, political, legal, social and cultural dynamics, as well asexternal industry-specific environmental forces such as customers, competitors, distributionchannels and suppliers.OpportunitiesAre any technological developments or demographic changes taking place, or could demandfor your products or services increase as a result of successful partnerships? Can you perhapsuse assets in other ways, introduce your current products in new markets or turn R&D intocash by licensing concepts, technologies or selling patents? There are many opportunities. Thelevel of detail and (perceived) degree of realism determine the extent of opportunity analysis.ThreatsYour competitors opportunity may well be a threat to you. Also, changes in regulations,substitute technologies and other forces in the competitive field may pose serious threats to 24
  • 25. your company: lower sales, higher cost of operations, higher cost of capital, inability to makebreak-even, shrinking margins or profitability, rates of return dropping significantly belowmarket expectations, etc.Both opportunities and threats can be classified according to their potential impact and actualprobability, as illustrated below.Listing the SWOT is not as easy as it seems. However, the second step of the SWOT analysis iseven more difficult: what actions should your company take based on its strengths,weaknesses, opportunities and threats? Should you focus on using the companys strengths tocapitalize on opportunities, or acquire strengths in order to be able to capture opportunities?Or should you actively try to minimize weaknesses and avoid threats? SO and WT strategiesare quite obvious. A company should do what it is good at when the opportunity arises andsteer clear of businesses that it does not have the competencies for. Less obvious and muchmore daring are WO strategies. When a company decides to take on an opportunity despitenot possessing the requisite strengths, it must either: • develop the required strengths • buy or borrow the required strengths • outmanoeuvre the competition.Companies that use ST strategies essentially buy or bust their way out of trouble. Thishappens when big players fend off smaller ones by means of expensive price wars,insurmountable marketing budgets, multiple channel promotions, etc. Some companies usescenario planning to try and anticipate and thus be prepared for this type of future threat.The final analysisThe value of a SWOT analysis lies mainly in the fact that it constitutes a self-assessment formanagement. The problem, however, is that elements (SWOT) appear deceptively simple.Actually deciding what the strengths and weaknesses of your organization are, as well asassessing the impact and probability of opportunities and threats, is far more complex than atfirst sight. Furthermore, beyond classification of the SWOT elements, the model offers noassistance with the tricky task of translating them into strategic alternatives. The inherent riskof making incorrect assumptions when assessing the SWOT elements often causesmanagement to dither when it comes to choosing between various strategic alternatives,frequently resulting in unnecessary and/or undesirable delays. 25
  • 26. Week 9 SWOT Analysis / Assessment Workshop W/b 22/11/10Essential Reading Aim This week considers the use of a SWOT analysis and some of theSWOT Analysis Notes difficulties of using what is sometimes seen as a ‘basic’ model.At the end of the session, students should be able to; 1. Appreciate the complexities of carrying out a real SWOT analysis 2. Identify the links between a SWOT and other marketing topics covered in the corresponding Marketing (L1) unit of study. 3. Link the issues highlighted in the SWOT analysis with referenced materials related to the External and Internal operating environmentRelevant articlesWorkshop Activity 1. Continuing development of the Assessment Report. 1. Discussion of SWOT analysis findingsIn your own timeOnline Learning Resources 26
  • 27. Week 10 Assessment Report Workshop W/b 29/11/10Essential Reading Aim To allow students to bring toegther and finalise the content of theirBillingham (2003), Seely assessment report and facilitate formative feedback from tutors(2002)At the end of the session, students should be; 1. Comfortable with the presentation, content, style and structure of the report 2. Aware of any further changes that are require to successfully present their findings of their assessment coursework.Relevant articlesWorkshop Activity 1. Formative feedback and unit consolidationIn your own time 1. Finalise your reports within your groups in preparation for the assessed deadline.Online Learning ResourcesNotesThis is an optional workshop for students. It is an opportunity for them to make use of thetutor. Tutors are not expected to meet and discuss this unit outside of class time. 27
  • 28. Week 11 Presentation Workshop W/b 06/12/10Essential Reading Aim To allow students to plan and test their presentation content andBillingham (2003), Seely timings and facilitate formative feedback from tutors(2002)At the end of the session, students should be; 1. Comfortable with their presentation content, style and timings 2. Aware of any further changes that are require to successfully present their findings of their assessment coursework.Relevant articlesWorkshop Activity 1. Preparation and testing of presentation format and timings.In your own time 1. Finalise your presentations within your groups in preparation for the assessed presentations.Online Learning Resources 28
  • 29. Week 12 Class Presentations W/b 13/12/10Essential Reading Aim Allow student groups to present their report findings and to be assessed.At the end of the session, students; 1. Will have presented their reports and been assess by the tutorRelevant articlesWorkshop Activity 1. Presentation Assessment 2. Student Feedback QuestionnairesOnline Learning Resources 29
  • 30. AppendicesAppendix 1: Group Time Table Commitments ..................................................................31Appendix 2: Group Meeting Report ................................................................................32Appendix 3: Group Contact Details ................................................................................33Appendix 4: U16794 The Marketing Environment Assessment Contract (2010) ....................34Appendix 5: Plagiarism: the pandemic of Universityies or an accepted component of HigherEducation ..................................................................................................................35 30
  • 31. Appendix 1: Group Time Table Commitments Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday9-10 9-10 9-10 9-10 9-10 9-10 9-1010-11 10-11 10-11 10-11 10-11 10-11 10-1111-12 11-12 11-12 11-12 11-12 11-12 11-1212-1 12-1 12-1 12-1 12-1 12-1 12-11-2 1-2 1-2 1-2 1-2 1-2 1-22-3 2-3 2-3 2-3 2-3 2-3 2-33-4 3-4 3-4 3-4 3-4 3-4 3-44-5 4-5 4-5 4-5 4-5 4-5 4-55-6 5-6 5-6 5-6 5-6 5-6 5-66-7 6-7 6-7 6-7 6-7 6-7 6-77-8 7-8 7-8 7-8 7-8 7-8 7-88-9 8-9 8-9 8-9 8-9 8-9 8-9 31
  • 32. Appendix 2: Group Meeting ReportGROUP: LOCATION:PERSONS PRESENT:DATE OF MEETING: Action / Person Responsible1. meeting report has been produced as a representation of the agreed actions andconversation that took place on the above date. If there are any statements that are notaccurate then these should be brought to the attention of the group immediately. 32
  • 33. Appendix 3: Group Contact Details Name Email Phone 33
  • 34. Appendix 4: U16794 The Marketing Environment Assessment Contract (2010)We the undersigned agree to the following terms below and will adhere to them throughout theduration of the contract • To make an equal contribution to the project and ensure that any contribution is relevant to the project and to the highest quality possible. • To hand in any work within the deadlines set within the assignment. • To attend any meetings that will be arranged, whether these be workshops, lectures or meetings arranged by the group outside of lectures. • To stay in good communication with the rest of the group members and contact the rest of the group within good time with any problems or questions.Name 1 (HEMIS) ……………………………………………………………………………Name 2 (HEMIS) ……………………………………………………………………………Name 3 (HEMIS) ……………………………………………………………………………Name 4 (HEMIS) ……………………………………………………………………………Date: ………………………… 34
  • 35. Appendix 5: Plagiarism: the pandemic of Universities or an accepted component ofHigher EducationAbstractPlagiarism is an area of academic discipline that has been given considerable attention by bothresearchers and the popular press. Many have suggested ways in which it can be prevented,deterred and detected, however, the recommendations of that attention rarely appear withinthe working constraints of the Higher Educational environment. The document seeks to reviewcurrent findings and recommendations from the research and compare them with theexperiences of a new lecturer with a view to implementing changes in process and resources.The findings of this document suggest that although plagiarism is clearly unacceptable, highereducation does accept its occurrence through either apathy, lack of time, technical expertise orfinancial resource constraints.IntroductionThere is no doubt that Higher Education has undergone a number of changes in recent years,and continues to change. Higher Education is no longer the place for a limited minority ofpeople based on social group or income; it is being actively pushed as a natural progressionfrom Further Education that all should have the opportunity to pursue if they wish. Theresulting increase in student numbers could be seen by differing parties as either good or bad;but in essence the market that employs people from this resource pool have an ever wideningchoice of candidates. This must inevitably increase the competition for graduate jobs placingincreased pressure on students to out perform their peers and distinguish themselves(Bennett, 2005). It has also resulted in larger class sizes, reduced contact time with studentsand arguably less control (Ashworth et al, 1997).As with any organisation or business, changes in technology have led to the increasedavailability of information and the birth of the Internet in particular has enabled ‘the many’ toobtain information from numerous sources very efficiently regardless of geographical boundaryor time differences.Since joining Higher Education as an Academic the author has noticed significant interest inthe area of plagiarism largely through the external media and some formal encounters in theworkplace. According to Underwood & Szabo (2003, 475) "academic dishonesty in thistechnology-rich environment is a critical issue for Higher Education". It would appear, on initialinspection that, plagiarism may be a cause for concern from an academic standpoint whichmay require some form of change to take place at the University of Portsmouth, BusinessSchool. If the literature is correct and, on average 30% of assessments are plagiarised(Bennett, 2005; Underwood & Szabo, 2003; Zobel & Hamilton, 2002), clearly, many studentswithin the business school would appear to ‘getting away with it’ largely due the availability ofthe Internet (Wood, 2004) and the University processes in place to deal with the issue.Plagiarism may rightly be of concern to those graduate employers who shortlist candidates onthe basis of degree classification, because if the classification of the degree is based onperformance in assessments and those assessments are plagiarised then the student may wellhave "little competence in the subject material" (Zobel & Hamilton, 2002, 23) or lack “theacademic skills of analysis and evaluation…” therefore being unable “… to synthesise ideas orengage in rational argument.” (Bennett, 2005, 137). Also, “people who admitted to cheatingwhile at university have been found to be more likely to commit dishonest acts in employment(Sims, 1995)” (Bennett, 2005, 137). 35
  • 36. Aims & ObjectivesIt naturally follows that the topic of plagiarism requires further investigation to establish itssignificance within the teaching and learning environment. In order to do this it is necessary toanswer a number of questions. Those questions are as follows: • Why do students plagiarise assessments? • How do students plagiarise assessments? • Is plagiarism a problem at the Portsmouth University Business School? • What strategies or procedures are in place within the University framework to counteract plagiarism? • What (if any) additional measures should be taken to reduce plagiarism? • Is plagiarism an academic ‘crime’ or is it an inevitable element of modern higher education that should be accepted?Literature ReviewIt is not unusual for a literature review to start by engaging in a discussion surrounding thedefinitions of key terms or phrases such as what is meant by plagiarism as in the case ofAustin & Brown (1999), Bennett (2005), Ercegovac & Richardson (2004), Gibelman & Gelman(2003), Lampert (2004), Park (2003) Rosamond (2002), Saltmarsh (2004) and Woessner(2004).The definition used in the context of this document is taken from the University ofPortsmouth’s Glossary of Terms which states that, Plagiarism occurs when one person submits another’s assignment as his or her own work, or when a student uses the ideas or words of another writer without crediting that person. (University of Portsmouth | glossary of terms, 2006)The definition provided by the University of Portsmouth highlights the same issues that theother definitions do, but a detailed discussion surrounding a definition does not give anindication as to why plagiarism takes place.It is clear from the literature that the underlying reasons for students plagiarising their workcan be placed in two distinct but related camps. One lies firmly with the students themselvesand the other lies with the Universities, the frameworks and procedures they employ to either,deter, detect or deal with the issue of plagiarism.Wood (2004, 238) suggests that students plagiarise partly because they do not understand theterm ‘paraphrase’ and receive mixed messages about what is and is not their work. There donot apply the attention to detail required to source and reference material properly. They donot generally place a value on their own work and as a consequence place little value on othersin terms of referencing. They are unable to critically evaluate anything giving equal weight toall sources. An alternative view is held by Zobel & Hamilton (2002, 24) is that as the copyingof items such as software and music is acceptable in the broader environment, copying hasbecome acceptable in assessment work and that; students find the authoritative figures oflecturers unapproachable relying on friends for assistance. The sharing of accommodation withother students produces little ‘policing’ by the family unit or those that would stop theindividual. Zobel & Hamilton (2002) continue to cite other influences such as part timeemployment and other activities leaving little time for academic work as students more andmore are, having to support themselves through the academic process; not wanting to appearat a lower academic level than their peers, a view supported by Currie (1998, 2) who states copying reflects less, an intentional violation of a cultural code than a survival measure in the face of perceived difficulties or deficiencies Currie, (1998, 2) 36
  • 37. Although Currie (1998) is primarily considering the viewpoint from an ‘international student’perspective, all international students should have passed the necessary English requirementsto gain entry to the University programme in question.Plagiarism may also be due to increased levels of competition between students as they battlefor the best marks possible in anticipation of entering a job market that expects 2:1 pass ratesor above. (Ashworth et al, 1997; Bennett, 2005; Park, 2004)It is important however, to understand to some extent that plagiarism happens becauseuniversities allow it to happen. Plagiarism is too often treated arbitrarily, or with benign neglect. Its time departments developed some proper professional processes to track it down and punish it. (Zobel & Hamilton, 2002, 23)A viewpoint substantiated by Underwood & Szabo (2003) who rightly point out that, if there islittle chance of getting caught and the value of passing is high then students are more likely todo it, suggesting that students do not know if the staff are able to spot plagiarism or if theyare interested in spotting it. This does not take account of the enormous time it takes to proveplagiarism. the problem may have grown at least partly because of higher academic loads and simply imposing further expectations on busy teaching staff would not succeed… … a major cause of cheating has been lack of effective deterrence. . (Zobel, 2002, 23-24)Lack of staff contact with students, large class sizes, an increase in group learning /assessment strategies and the introduction of modularisation or ‘unitisation’ is also blamed(Bennett, 2005; Ashworth et al, 1997).Essentially cheating (which plagiarism is) is no longer seen as a ‘big deal’ (Groark et al, 2001).There are various methods that students use to plagiarise. Paper mills, cutting and pastingfrom other sources, asking assistance through internet channels such as newsgroups or chatclients, methods which, are only constrained by the ability of the student concerned (Austin &Brown, 1999, 22). Briggs (2003) however, argues that plagiarism in a ‘humanities’ setting isoften very different from that in a more scientific setting such as computer science, suggestingthat plagiarism should be considered from both a moral and ethical perspective.Accepting that plagiarism does happen due to a number of factors, rather than a singular evil,does not make it acceptable if students are to be assessed on academic content or research isto be valued. Once any organisation - small, independent journal or major university - decides to investigate, it immediately confronts questions of what type of evidence will be required to prove or disprove the allegation, whether such evidence exists and can be obtained, and who should be required to supply or obtain it’ (LaFolette 1992). (Zobel & Hamilton, 2002, 28)The initial stages of detection and the collation of evidence are largely left to the individualtutor concerned. 37
  • 38. Schneider (1999) notes, ‘the real sticking point is time. Tracking down a plagiarist’s sources can take days, sometimes weeks - time that professors can ill afford at the end of a semester, when papers start flooding in.’ (Zobel & Hamilton, 2002, 29) The time, stamina, and simple willingness of professors to do such cross-checking is open to question. (Gibelman & Gelman, 2003, 240)Academics may not and, in many cases do not have the resources or in some cases the skillsrequired to prove plagiarism through finding original text. (Larkham & Manns, 2002; Zobel &Hamilton, 2002)It is clear that as the use of the Internet becomes more widespread and its influence becomesmore imposing, that other software solutions inevitably ‘come to the rescue’ of bale aguedacademics, however, the use of detection software could be seen to undermine the trustrelationship between the student and lecturer (Wood, 2004), assuming one exists in the firstplace.The detection of plagiarism should really be the last line of defence. Best practice would dictatethat prevention and deterrent is surely better than detection (Gibelman & Gelman, 2003). AsSutherland-Smith, (2005, 83) states, "plagiarism is a multi-layered phenomenonencompassing a spectrum of human intention." and as such it is reasonable to suggest that arange of measures are necessary to limit its popularity. Surprisingly however, Bear F. Braumoeller and Brian J. Gaines found that although verbal and written warnings not to plagiarize had a negligible effect on rates of plagiarism, plagiarism detection sotware, such as EVE and WordCHECK, proved to be successful in discouraging students from plagiarizing. (Ercegovac, Z. & Richardson, 2004)Clearly the introduction of plagiarism detection procedures supported by a range of penaltieshas reduced the amount or plagiarism in some cases, but, those procedures and penaltiesmust remain consistent across a broad number of academics with differing opinions andmethods which is where problems can arise (Zobel & Hamilton, 2002; Briggs, 2003).The literature surrounding the ‘policing’ or prevention of plagiarism is reasonably clear in termsof the methods and practices suggested by various authors. Zobel & Hamilton (2002), Austin &Brown, (1999), Scribner (2003), Hyland (2001), Groark et al (2001), Gibelman & Gelman(2003), Ercegovac, Z. & Richardson (2004), Lampert (2004), Park (2003) and Briggs (2003)suggest a recipe of measures to reduce the problem (see Table 1). The measures takensingularly and with little preplanning might have little impact, but if taken together the resultscould be enormous. 38
  • 39. Measure Author"promotion of appropriate study practices". Zobel & Hamilton (2002), Gibelman & Gelman, (2003)Require students to submit additional information Zobel & Hamilton (2002), Austin & Brown, (1999)such as photocopies and proof of literature searchmethods, rough draftsensure electronic submission to enable easy Zobel & Hamilton (2002)checkingLet them know its happening and know the Zobel & Hamilton (2002), Gibelman & Gelmanconsequences (2003)Limit the references that the student can use so that Austin & Brown (1999)it limits the possibility of plagiarism, testunderstanding and argument.Encourage the use of bibliographic software and Austin & Brown (1999)introduce tests in class after submission to recallknowledge to the written paper.Use Plagiarism Detection software Ercegovac, Z. & Richardson (2004)Ensure a consistent response Briggs (2003), Gibelman & Gelman (2003)Hyland justifies cultural difference and stresses the Hyland (2001)need for one to one formative feedback rather thanrelying on written communication"Research by Donald McCabe has indicated that Groark et al (2001, 43)there is an inverse correlation between the rate ofplagiarism and the emphasis on academic integrityby institutions or instructors."“The universitys policy on academic dishonesty Austin & Brown (1999, 23)should be specific and direct, should define academicdishonesty and should provide a process forhandling charges of academic dishonesty. Theuniversity should publish the policy and distribute itwidely to both students and faculty. Copies of thepolicy should be posted on the university web site, inthe library, student centers, dorms, and otherprominent places.”Introduce Honour codes and instil ethical practice Gibelman & Gelman (2003), Austin & Brown (1999), Ercegovac, Z. & Richardson (2004), Groark et al (2001, 43), Lampert (2004), Park (2003) Table 1: Plagiarism Prevention & DetectionTable 1 highlights the fact that there is no singular accepted method to prevent plagiarism.Janowski (2002, 28) states that, “Plagiarism has always existed; the Internet has just made itfaster and easier”, a view supported by (Eastment, 2005). Carroll (2005, 4) suggests that“most students fail to comply with regulations due to confusion or ignorance” but also acceptsthat some students that do understand and “do it anyway”. Briggs (2003, 19) takes this view astep further suggesting that plagiarism is a ‘complex issue’, the complexities of which have notbeen fully considered.Howard (1995, 788) states the copy and paste methodology is a “pedogogical opportunity, nota juridical problem” and “To treat it negatively as a problem to be cured or punished, wouldbe to undermine its positive intellectual value thereby obstructing rather than facilitating thelearning process.”. This is view that would not appear to be upheld by other research or theexperiences of the author.Ethical codes of conduct, is an area which has received some attention but this causessignificant problems for Academics when a minority would appear to ignore the values they aremeant to be advocating. Expressions of outrage about student cheating are obviated by behavioural role modelling of academic conduct (or misconduct). “Do as I say, not as I do,” is a poor model of ethical behavior. (Gibelman & Gelman, 2003, 246) 39
  • 40. Gibelman & Gelman (2003) rightly highlight that external media attention has focused not onlyon students plagiarising but also on the plagiarist activities of some Academics. Academics alsoplagiarise (Jones, 2001; Kock, 1999) and plagiarist activity solicits media attention. Plagiarismclearly is of public interest, a straightforward search of the BBC News website highlights thisfact (see Appendix 1: BBC News Articles linked with Plagiarism).Plagiarism at the University of PortsmouthThe University of Portsmouth has clear guidelines in relation to plagiarism set out in Hand Bookof Student Regulations (2005).Although the University clearly define what plagiarism is and the procedures that should befollowed, little consideration is given to the time it takes to prove plagiarism. Although theUniversity does have a number of measures at its disposal the Hand Book of StudentRegulations (2005, 6) states, “Serious or repeated acts of plagiarism will result in therequirement to appear before a disciplinary panel and a potentially substantial penalty, whichmay include exclusion from the University.”This statement can be (and probably is) interpreted in two ways; either as an insight into theseriousness of the issue or alternatively, ‘it is Ok to plagiarise at least once’ or at worse ‘don’t’get court more than twice’. The seriousness of the offence is not defined and is therefore opento interpretation and differing methods of judgement by academics. Something that goesagainst all the recommendations from previous research highlighted earlier.During the course of the last year the author has carried out a small scale enquiry intoplagiarism within the Human Resource Management and Marketing Department. The enquiryhas largely taken the form of informal discussions with other Academics as well as thediscussion of plagiarism at Marketing Subject Group Meetings. In additional to this the authorpurchased a piece or plagiarism detection software (EVE) and signed up for an online service( to check assessments as the department does not at this time providethose facilities. In addition to scanning documents for checking the author also checked all PostGraduate Dissertations submitted electronically to the department for 2005 in Marketingsubjects.The results (although not unsurprising) showed that a number of students had plagiarised theirdissertations. This does not suggest in anyway that the lectures concerned would not havespotted such plagiarism but the consensus from the lecturers was that it was certainly quickerand saved a significant amount of time in ‘proving beyond any reasonable doubt’ that thedissertation was plagiarised.In addition to this the author was at the receiving end of a dissertation from a student that hebelieved was plagiarised. The document was scanned by the I.T. department (176 pages) anduploaded to an online plagiarism checking service. The plagiarism service found nothingsuspicious. Convinced that the dissertation was plagiarised, largely because it was ‘too good’given his knowledge of the student concerned, the author made further investigations. Aftertrying to contact persons and companies mentioned in the dissertation the author telephoned anumber of UK university libraries and marketing departments. Finally the author spoke to theHead of the MBA programme at Southampton Solent who recognised the description of thework given as belonging to a student who graduated from that programme a couple of yearsearlier. Unfortunately the library at that institution could not locate a copy of the saiddissertation believing that it had been stolen. Luckily however the Head of Department wasable to obtain a second copy for comparison. The dissertations were identical. It transpiredthat the sister of the Portsmouth student had access to the Southampton Solent librarythrough her employment with the institution although no accusation was made about thisconnection. The student who consistently denied any plagiarism was subsequently excludedwithout graduating from her degree.This case does show that one should not rely on one technology, but it also shows the timeand effort required to prove such a case.There is considerable consensus that International students plagiarise more readily that home 40
  • 41. EU students often because of cultural differences in education. This may be the case some ofthe time, but it may also be the case that they are just not as good at plagiarising compared toother students.The author has made a concerted effort to advertise the fact he uses plagiarism checkingsoftware to the students he has contact with. This has resulted in various reactions rangingfrom students being happy that something is finally being done to one student saying ‘oh,shit!’. More importantly it has resulted in a reduction in the number of plagiarised assessmentshe had had to deal with.There are inconsistencies in the approach taken by the University to assessment. If a studenthands in an assessment after the submission date (without valid reason) but within two weeksthe mark is capped at 40%. After the two week period the mark is 0%. If a student plagiarisesan assessment they may get the mark reduced (something the marker often does anyway) orpossibly an opportunity to resubmit. Rarely do they fail outright, suggesting that to plagiariseis not as serious as late submission?ConclusionsPrime Minister Blair is well known for a delivering a speech that stated that the governmentwould be “tough on crime, tough on the causes of crime” ( It is not unreasonable to regard plagiarism as a crime within HigherEducational boundaries, and conclude that in order to truly deal with the issue it is necessaryto deal with the causes of plagiarism as well as ‘policing’ the consequences. Unfortunately itwould appear that some of the causes highlighted by authors are a direct result of theUniversity framework as much as it is the student. If plagiarism can in some part be attributedto assessment design, unitisation, class sizes, lack of student contact, inconsistent handling byacademics, and a lack or resources to tackle such a problem when it does arise then,universities are essentially guilty of undermining the academic standards they seek to uphold. “Plagiarism is like an infectious disease and can spread rapidly amongst students, if the environment is conducive.” (Balaram, 2005, 1353)Universities (including Portsmouth) have limited budgets and resources. There are goodfinancial reasons why the business school recently built a lecture theatre that can hold 300students at a time. The current university and economic environment ‘is conducive’ and isenabling plagiarism to spread. Resources such as plagiarism detection software, and changesto the culture of education in terms of class sizes and tutor contact time, the encouragementof foreign students who in some cases understand little, and the promotion of unitisation underthe guise of ‘student choice’ may be seen by some as additional costs to the business that canbe ill afforded. Alternatively there may well be essential to the long term survival of everythinga true teacher holds dear. “Plagiarism will certainly never be completely prevented though there will probably always be a stream of media pundits who suggest simple ways to solve the problem.”(Carroll, 2005, 6)RecommendationsThe purpose of this assessment was to answer the following, • Why do students plagiarise assessments? • How do students plagiarise assessments? • Is plagiarism a problem at the Portsmouth University Business School? • What strategies or procedures are in place within the University framework to counteract plagiarism? 41
  • 42. • What (if any) additional measures should be taken to reduce plagiarism? • Is plagiarism an academic ‘crime’ or is it an inevitable element of modern higher education that should be accepted?Clearly there are a number of reasons as to how and why students (and academics) plagiarisetheir work, reasons that have been highlighted in earlier parts of this document. Clearlyplagiarism is a problem within the Business School. The extent of the problem is still unknownbut given the levels of plagiarism highlighted at other institutions by previous research there isno reason to believe that Portsmouth University is any better at prevention, deterrent, ordetection. The strategies currently in place are minimal, with references made to regulationsand some attempt to educate through the Academic Skills Unit and additional academic Englishsessions for those students that want them. Little or no assistance however, is given to theacademic staff in the detection or collation of evidence to prove plagiarism exists.Plagiarism detection software should be implemented as a matter of urgency. Assessmentprocesses should be changed to facilitate the checking of assessments centrally prior tomarking by a tutor. All students should be told (in no uncertain terms) about the use of suchsoftware and the penalties for plagiarism. Penalties should be imposed such as fines (as in thecase of library books). There should be a code of ethics within the University that students(and academics) adhere to and plagiarists should be named and shamed with notes made onreferences to potential employers. Students should be encouraged to take additional classes inacademic writing and the technologies available to them without it becoming part of theirspecific degree programme.There has been a considerable body of research in recent years conducted around the subjectof plagiarism. A simple search of will produce in excess of 500articles with plagiarism in their title.Howard & Sharp (1983 p6) cited Bell (1999 p2) describe research as, seeking through methodical processes to add to one’s own body of knowledge and, hopefully, to that of others, by the discovery on non-trivial facts and insight.The Microsoft Encarta Online English Dictionary defines research as the, "methodical investigation into a subject in order to discover facts, to establish or revise a theory, or to develop a plan of action based on the facts discovered"Part of an Academic’s role within a university is to work towards publication in a research field.Given the enormous body of knowledge available surrounding the issue of plagiarism it is verydifficult to understand why few appear to have taken sufficient notice of these findings. Itstrongly suggests that plagiarism is accepted unless it’s easy to prove or there is currentinterest from other parties such as the media. It does not however mean that plagiarism is‘acceptable’ in whatever format it takes.ReferencesAshworth, P., Bannister, P., & Thorne, P. (1997). Guilty in Whose Eyes? University StudentsPerceptions of Cheating and Plagiarism in Academic Work and Assessment. Studies in HigherEducation 22(2): 187-204..Austin, M. J. and Brown, L. D. (1999). Internet Plagiarism: Developing Strategies to CurbStudent Academic Dishonesty. Internet and Higher Education 2(1): 21-34..Balaram, P. (2005). Plagiarism: A Spreading Infection. Current Science 88: 1353-1354..Bell, J. (1999). Doing your research project: a guide for first-time researchers in education.3rd ed. Buckingham, Open University Press. 42
  • 43. Bennett, R. (2005). Factors Associated with Student Plagiarism in a Post-1992 University.Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education 30: 137-162..Briggs, R. (2003). Shameless! Reconceiving the Problem of Plagiarism. Australian UniversitiesReview 46(1): 19-23..Carroll, J. (2005). Handling Student Plagiarism: Moving to Mainstream. Brooks ejournal ofLearning and Teaching, 1(2), 1-6. [Electronic Version]!Currie, P. (1998). Staying Out of Trouble: Apparent Plagiarism and Academic Survival. Journalof Second Language Writing 7(1): 1-18.Eastment, D. (2005). Plagiarism. Elt Journal 59(2): 183-184..Ercegovac, Z. & Richardson, J.V. (2004). Academic Dishonesty, Plagiarism Included, in theDigital Age: A Literature Review. College and Research Libraries 65(4): 301-319. [ElectronicVersion], M. & Gelman S. R.(2003). Plagiarism in Academia: Trends and Implications.Accountability in Research 10(4): 229-252..Groark, M., Oblinger, D. & Choa, M. (2001). Term Paper Mills, Anti-Plagiarism Tools, andAcademic Integrity. Educause Review 36: 40-49..Hand Book of Student Regulations (2005) [Electronic Version] Accessed 22/01/2006,10393,en.pdfHyland, F. (2001). Dealing with Plagiarism When Giving Feedback. Elt Journal 55(4): 375-381..Janowski, A. (2002). Plagiarism: Prevention not Prosecution. The Book Report, Oct, 26-28.Jones, E. L. (2001). Metrics Based Plagiarism Monitoring. Consortium for Computing in SmallColleges, Middlebury, VT, Ccsc..Kock, N. (1999). A Case of Academic Plagiarism. Communications- Acm 42(7): 96-104..Lampert, L. D. (2004). Integrating )Discipline-Based Anti-Plagiarism Instruction Into theInformation Literacy Curriculum. Reference Services Review 32(4): 347-355..Larkham, P., & Manns, S. (2002). Plagiarism and its Treatment in Higher Education. Journal ofFurther and Higher Education, 26(4), 339-349.Microsoft Encarta Online English Dictionary:, C. (2003). In Other (Peoples) Words: Plagiarism by University Students-Literature andLessons. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education 28(5): 471-488..Park, C. (2004). Rebels Without a Clause: Towards an Institutional Framework for Dealing withPlagiarism by Students. Journal of Further and Higher Education 28(3): 291-306..Rosamond, B. (2002). Plagiarism, Academic Norms and the Governance of the Profession.Politics 22(3): 167-174..Saltmarsh, S. (2004). Graduating Tactics: Theorizing Plagiarism as Consumptive Practice.Journal of Further and Higher Education 28(4): 445-454..Scribner, M. E. (2003). An Ounce of Prevention: Defeating Plagiarism in the Information Age. 43
  • 44. Library Media Connection 21: 32-35..Sutherland-Smith, W. (2005). Pandoras Box: Academic Perceptions of Student Plagiarism inWriting. Journal of English for Academic Purposes 4(1): 83-95..Underwood, J., & Szabo, A. (2003). Academic offences and e-learning: individual propensitiesin cheating. British Journal of Educational Technology, 34(4), 467-477.(21/01/2006). University of Portsmouth | glossary of terms, M. C. (2004). Beating the House: How Inadequate Penalties for Cheating MakePlagiarism an Excellent Gamble. Ps 37(2): 313-320..Wood, G. (2004). Academic Original Sin: Plagiarism, the Internet, and Librarians. Journal ofAcademic Librarianship 30(3): 237-242..Zobel, J. and M. Hamilton (2002). Managing Student Plagiarism in Large AcademicDepartments. Australian Universities Review 45(2): 23-30.Appendices BBC News Articles linked with Plagiarism(16/01/06). BBC NEWS | Education | Software cannot stop cheating BBC NEWS | Education | Moves to curb coursework cheating BBC NEWS | Education | Coursework copying internet fear BBC NEWS | Education | Blatant copying in coursework BBC NEWS | Education | Teachers ignore coursework cheats BBC NEWS | Education | Moves to curb coursework cheating BBC NEWS | Education | The problem with exam coursework BBC NEWS | Education | Net cheats devaluing coursework BBC NEWS | Education | Features | Mike Baker | Your concerns over coursework BBC NEWS | Education | Features | Mike Baker | Parents need advice overcoursework BBC NEWS | Education | Features | Mike Baker | Where are universities heading? BBC NEWS | England | Public focus on university expansion 44
  • 45. (16/01/06). BBC NEWS | Education | Top head attacks exam coursework BBC NEWS | Education | Epidemic of student cheating? BBC NEWS | Education | Net closes on essay cheats BBC News | Education | Catching the internet cheats BBC News | Scotland | Second university in cheat probe BBC News | Scotland | E-mail cheat student to sue BBC News | Education | Students used e-mail to cheat BBC News | Education | University in Net cheating probe BBC News | Education | Students online: Lying, cheating. BBC News | Education | Software catches the exam cheats BBC News | Education | Homework for cheats BBC News | Education | British students cheat less BBC News | Education | Net teaching: More than a substitute BBC News | AMERICAS | Computer catches university cheats BBC News | EDUCATION | Online shopping for student essays BBC News | EDUCATION | Anti-cheat software to hit UK students BBC NEWS | Education | Quarter of students cheating BBC NEWS | Education | Web checks for student cheating BBC NEWS | Education | Students using the net to cheat BBC News | EDUCATION | Students accused of cheating in ethics essay BBC News | EDUCATION | Essays website to pay students 45
  • 46. 1/hi/education/787707.stm:.(16/01/06). BBC News | EDUCATION | Cheats stay one step ahead BBC News | Education | Legal action against fake degrees BBC News | Education | Student praised for hoax essay BBC NEWS | Education | Essay copying is self-teaching BBC NEWS | UK | The plagiarism plague BBC NEWS | Education | Student plagiarism on the rise BBC NEWS | Education | High costs causing student plagiarism BBC NEWS | Politics | A piece of plagiarism? answers to following: 1. As a group define plagiarism in your own words? 2. Highlight the main points / arguments expressed in the article? 3. What are your own opinions of what has been put forward by the author? 46