COMPUTER HISTORY<br />
Äýýð ¿åä...<br />Blaise Pascal<br />Pascal Machine<br />Gottfried Leibniz<br />Àíõ 1623 îíä Ãåðìàíû ýðäýìòýí Âèëüãåëì Øèêà...
Punchcard áóþó àíõíû ñàíàõ îé<br />19-ð çóóíû ýõýýð Ôðàíöûí çîõèîí á¿òýýã÷ Æîçåô Ìýðè Æàêóàðä (Joseph-Marie Jacquard) àíõí...
Îð÷èí ¿åèéí êîìïüþòåðèéí ýõëýë<br />Àíãëèéí ìàòåìàòèê÷ ×àðëüç Áýéááèæ (Charles Babbage) 1820-èîä îíû ýõýýð Äèôôåðåíñ Ýíæèé...
ENIAC<br />UNIVAC<br />1936 îíäÀíãëèéíìàòåìàòèê÷ ÀëàíÒþðèíã (Alan Turing) àíõíûäèæèòàëêîìïüþòåðèéíñàíààãäýâø¿¿ëæ, îíîëûã ¿...
ÒÐÀÍÇÈÑÒÎÐ ÁÀ ÊÎÌÏÜÞÒÅÐ<br />1948 îíä Áýëë Òåëåôîí Ëàáîðàòîðèåç (Bell Telephone Laboratories)-ä Àìåðèêèéí 3 ýðäýìòýí òðàíç...
ÒÐÀÍÇÈÑÒÎÐÛà ÕÝÍ ÇÎÕÈÎÂ?<br />Âîëüòåð Õàóçåð Áðàòòàéí (Brattain, Walter Houser ) 1902-1987, Õÿòàäûí Ñèàìåí õîòîä òºðñºí. Í...
ÌÈÊÐÎÑÕÅÌ ÁÀ ÌÈÊÐÎÏÐÎÖÅÑÑÎÐ<br />1960-ààä îíû ñ¿¿ëýýð õýäýí àðâààñ õýäýí çóóí òðàíçèñòîðûã öàõèóðûí íýã ÿëòñàí äýýð óðãóóë...
FDD (Floppy Disk Drive) connector<br />DDR (Double Data Rate) DIMM slot<br />IDE1 (Integrated Drive Electronics) Port<br /...
ÝÕ ÕÀÂÒÀÍ ÄÝÝÐÕ ÑËÎÒÓÓÄ ÁÀ ÇÀËÃÓÓÐÓÓÄ<br />
Ýíýõ¿¿ êàðò íü AGP slot-ä ñóóðèëàãäàíà. Ýíý slot íü 64 áèòýýð ìýäýýëýë äàìæóóëíà.<br />Ýíý êàðò  íü ISA slot-ä ñóóðèëàãääà...
DDR SDRAM ñàíàõ îé<br />Pentium 4 CPU<br />SDRAM, CPU ñóóðèëóóëàõ ñóóðèíóóä<br />
Óÿí äèñêèéí òºõººðºìæ<br />Õàòóó äèñêèéí òºõººðºìæ<br />Õàòóó äèñê õîëáîã÷ êàáåëü<br />Óÿí äèñêèéí òºõººðºìæ õîëáîã÷ êàáåë...
Ôèðìèéí òàíèëöóóëãà<br />Ýõ õàâòàíãèéí òóõàé ìýäýýëýë<br />Ïðîöåññîðèéí òóõàé ìýäýýëýë<br />Ñàíàõ îéí òóõàé ìýäýýëýë<br />...
BIOS<br />Òºõººðºìæ¿¿äèéã òàíüæ äóóñààä õýðýâ àñóóõààð òîõèðóóëàãäñàí áîë õýðýãëýã÷èéí ñèñòåìä íýâòðýõ íóóö ¿ãèéã àñóóíà. ...
¯éëäëèéí ñèñòåì áîë êîìïüþòåðèéí ¿íäñýí ïðîãðàìì õàíãàìæ þì. ¯éëäëèéí ñèñòåìã¿é áîë êîìïüòåð àìüã¿é öîãöîñòîé àäèë. Êîìïüþ...
Äýëãýöèéí èõýíõ õýñãèéã ýçýëæ áóé ýíý òàëáàðûã Desktop áóþó øèðýýíèé òàâöàí ãýæ íýðëýíý.<br />Ýäãýýð ä¿ðñ¿¿äýýð èëýðõèéëñý...
Ýõëýýä CPU-íèé ñóóðèíû õºø¿¿ðýã ò¿ãæýýã ºðãºæ ñóëëàíà.<br />Ñóóðèíû õºø¿¿ðýã ò¿ãæýýã áóóëãàæ CPU-ã ñóóðèòàé íü áýõëýíý.<br...
ÊÎÌÏÜÞÒÅÐÈÉÍ ÀÆÈËËÀÃÀÀÍÄ<br />ÞÓ ÞÓ ÌÓÓÃÀÀРͪ˪ªËªÕ ÂÝ?<br />
1. Õ¯ÍÈÉ ÁÎËÃÎÎÌÆÃ¯É ÁÎËÎÍ ÁÓÐÓÓ ¯ÉË ÀÆÈËËÀÃÀÀ<br />Êîìïüþòåðèéí äîòîîä ñèñòåìèéí ïðîãðàìì õàíãàìæèéí çîõèîí áàéãóóëàëòûã ...
ѪЪà ͪ˪ªË˯¯Ä ¯¯ÑÝÕ ØÀËÒÃÀÀÍÓÓÄ<br />Ìàíàé óëñûí øóãàìûí õ¿÷äýë 220Âîëüò, 50Ãö äàâòàìæòàé áàéäãèéã òà á¿õýí ìýäýõ áèëýý...
ÀÍÕÀÀÐÀË ÒÀÂÜÑÀÍÄ ÁÀßÐËÀËÀÀ. <br />ÀÌÆÈËÒ Õ¯ÑÜÅ!<br />
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  1. 1. COMPUTER HISTORY<br />
  2. 2. Äýýð ¿åä...<br />Blaise Pascal<br />Pascal Machine<br />Gottfried Leibniz<br />Àíõ 1623 îíä Ãåðìàíû ýðäýìòýí Âèëüãåëì Øèêàðä (Wilhelm Schikard) íýìýõ ¿éëäýë õèéäýã, ìºí ëîãàðèôì òàáëèö àøèãëàí ¿ðæ¿¿ëæ õóâààäàã ãèíæýýð õîëáîãäñîí 11 á¿ðýí áà 6 õàãàñ õ¿ðäòýé ìàøèíûã çîõèîæýý.<br />Ôðàíöûí ôèëîñîôè÷, ìàòåìàòèê÷, ôèçèê÷ Áëåéç Ïàñêàë (Blaise Pascal)1642 îíä áàãàíààñ áàãàíàíä òîî çýýëýõ, ñàíàõ çàð÷ìààð òîîã íýìäýã õàñäàã ìàøèíûã àíõ çîõèîæýý. Òýðýýð ýíý ìàøèíàà 50 øèðõýã õèéñýí áîëîâ÷ ãîëäóó áàÿ÷óóäûí ãýðò ¿çìýð áîëîí õóâèðñàí áàéíà.<br />Õîæèì 17-ð çóóíû Ãåðìàíû íýðò ìàòåìàòèê÷ Ãîòôðèéä Ëèáíåö (Gottfried Leibniz) Ïàñêàëèéí ìàøèíûã òîî ¿ðæ¿¿ëäýã ìàøèí áîëãîñîí áàéíà.<br />
  3. 3. Punchcard áóþó àíõíû ñàíàõ îé<br />19-ð çóóíû ýõýýð Ôðàíöûí çîõèîí á¿òýýã÷ Æîçåô Ìýðè Æàêóàðä (Joseph-Marie Jacquard) àíõíû òîðãî íýõäýã ìàøèíû õýýã ñàíóóëäàã í¿õòýé êàðò çîõèîæ óëìààð íýõìýëèéí ìàøèíûã íü á¿òýýæýý. Ò¿¿íèéã íàñ áàðàõ ¿åä Ôðàíöûí Ëèîí õîòîä ò¿¿íèé á¿òýýñýí 30 ìÿíãà ãàðóé íýõìýëèéí ìàøèí àæèëëàæ áàéñàí áàéíà. ªíººäºð ìàíàé õèâñíèé ¿éëäâýðèéí õèâñ íýõäýã ìàøèí ÿã ýíý çàð÷èìààð àæèëëàäàã.<br />
  4. 4. Îð÷èí ¿åèéí êîìïüþòåðèéí ýõëýë<br />Àíãëèéí ìàòåìàòèê÷ ×àðëüç Áýéááèæ (Charles Babbage) 1820-èîä îíû ýõýýð Äèôôåðåíñ Ýíæèéíü (Difference Engine) õýìýýõ ìåõàíèê êîìïüþòåð çîõèîñîí áºãººä 10òûí 20 îðîíòîé òîîã íýìæ õàñàõ ÷àäâàðòàé áàéæýý.<br />Òýðýýð óã ìàøèíàà ñàéæðóóëæ Àíàëèòèê Ýíæèéíü (Analytical Engine) ãýäýã ìàøèí çîõèîæ áàéñàí ÷ äóóñãàæ ÷àäààã¿é áàéíà. Ýíý òºñºë íü àíõíû ïðîãðàììûí äàãóó àæèëëàäàã ìàøèí áàéñíààðàà êîìïüþòåðèéí æèíõýíý ºâºã ýöýãò òîîöîãääîã áàéíà. <br />Ò¿¿íèé äîòíûí íàéç, øàâü Àóãóñòà Àäà Áàéðîí ãýã÷ òýð ¿åèéí öººõºí ýìýãòýé ìàòåìàòèê÷äûí íýã àíõ Àíàëèòèê Ýíæèéíü ìàøèíû ïðîãðàìì÷ëàõ àðãà ç¿éã çîõèîæ áàéñíààðàà àíõíû ïðîãðàììèñò ãýæ òîîöîãääîã áà õîæèì ò¿¿íèé äóðñãàëä Àäà õýìýýõ êîìïüþòåðèéí ïðîãðàìì÷ëàëûí õýë ãàð÷ýý.<br />
  5. 5. ENIAC<br />UNIVAC<br />1936 îíäÀíãëèéíìàòåìàòèê÷ ÀëàíÒþðèíã (Alan Turing) àíõíûäèæèòàëêîìïüþòåðèéíñàíààãäýâø¿¿ëæ, îíîëûã ¿¿äæýý. ÈéìäÒþðèíãèéíìàøèíãýæíýðëýãäñýíàíõíûýëåêòðîíìàøèíûçàãâàðîäîî ÷ êîìïüþòåðèéíîíîëäõýðýãëýãääýãáàéíà. <br />1890-ýýä îíäÀìåðèêìéíçîõèîíá¿òýýã÷ ÕåðìàíÕîëëåðèò (Herman Hollerith) íýõìýëèéíìàøèíûöîîëñîíêàðòûãýëåêòðîíìàøèíààðóíøèõñàíààãàíõãàðãàæíýâòð¿¿ëñýíýýðìåõàíèêòºõººðºìæèéíõóðäûã 3-4 äàõèííýìýãä¿¿ëæýý. ÕîëëåðèòèéíÒàáóëåòèíãÌàøèíêîìïàíèíü ººð 2 êîìïàíèòàéíýãäýæÊîìïüþòèíã-Òàáóëåòèíã-ÊàóíòèíãÌàøèíêîìïàíèáîëæ ºðãºæñºíáà 1924 îíäÈíòåðíýøíëÁèçíåñÌàøèíçÈíêîðïîðýéòåä (IBM Inc.) áîëæíýðýý ººð÷èëæýý. <br />Õîæèìýíýõ¿¿ êîìïàíèáèäíèé ºìíº áàéãàà IBM PC ïåðñîíàëüêîìïüþòåðèéãîëíîîð ¿éëäâýðëýõçàìíàëèéã ¿¿äñýíáààëäàðòÁèëëÃýéòñèéíáàÿæèõçàìûãíýýñýíáèëýý.<br />Àìåðèêèéíôèçèê÷ ÆîíÌàóêëè (John Mauchly) Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) ãýäýãìàøèíûãñàíàà÷èëæ 1945 îíäçîõèîíá¿òýýãýýä 1946 îíäíèéòýäòàíèëöóóëæýý. Ýíýìàøèííüõàìãèéíàíõíûá¿ðýíòºãñýëåêòðîíòîîöîîëîíáîäîõìàøèíáîëñîíáºãººä 167 ì.êâòàëáàéä 27 òîííæèíòýé 18 ìÿíãàíýëåêòðîíëàìïá¿õèéòºõººðºìæáàéñàíáàíýãñàðä 2000 ëàìïûãíü 6 òåõíèê÷ ñîëüæçàñâàðëàäàãáàéæýý. Ýíýìàøèíûãîëçîðèóëàëòíüöýðãèéíçîðèóëàëòòàéáàéñàíáààòîìûíáºìáºãçîõèîíá¿òýýõ, ïóóæèíãèéíáàëëèñòèêçàìûíòîîöîîããàðãàõàäõýðýãëýãäýæáàéñàíáàéíà. <br />Óíãàð-Àìåðèêèéíìàòåìàòèê÷ ÆîíôîíÍîéìàí (John von Neumann) 1945 îíäìàòåìàòèê, öàãóóð, ýäèéíçàñàã, ãèäðîäèíàìèêèéíáîäëîãóóäûãáîäîõçîðèóëàëòààðàíõíûýëåêòðîíòîîöîíáîäîõìàøèí Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC) –èéãçîõîíá¿òýýæýý. ÝíýìàøèííüÀéêåíûìàøèíààñÿëãààòàéíüöîîøèíýçàð÷èìäýýðàæèëëàæáàéñàíáàñàíàõáàéãóóëàìæäààïðîãðàììõàíãàìæààõàäãàëäàãàíõíûýëåêòðîíêîìïüþòåðáàéæýý. <br />¯¿íèéäàðààÌàóêëèãèéí Universal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC) çîõèîíá¿òýýãäñýíáºãººä 1951 îíäàíõíûèéììàøèíÀìåðèêèéíÕ¿íÀìûíá¿ðòãýëèéíÒîâ÷îîíäàøèãëàãäàæýõýëñýíáà 1957 îíä 46 èéììàøèíàæèëëàæáàéæýý. Ýíýòîîöîîëîíáîäîõìàøèíûãàíõíûîëíîîð ¿éëäâýðëýãäýíõóäàëäàãäñàíêîìïüþòåðãýæ ¿çäýã.<br />1930-ààä îíû ñ¿¿ëýýðÀìåðèêèéíìàòåìàòèê÷ ÕîâàðäÀéêåíÀé-Áè-ÝìäàæèëëàæáàéõäàààíõíûòîîöîîëîõýëåêòðîíìàøèíáîëîõÌàðê-I-èéãçîõèîæýý. Ìåõàíèêòîîöîîëîíáîäîõìàøèíûìåõàíèêýëåìåíò¿¿äèéãöàõèëãààíñîðîíçîíðåëåéí¿¿äýýðîðëóóëæçîõèîíá¿òýýñýíáàéíà. ÕàðèíÀéêåííýëýýäõîæóóýëåêòðîíëàìïûãàøèãëàíõî¸ðòûíòîîãáîëîâñðóóëàõàðãûãíýâòð¿¿ëæýý. ÒýðýýðàíõÕàðâàðäûíÈõÑóðãóóëüäêîìïüþòåðèéíòóõàéõè÷ýýëîðóóëæýõýëñýíáàéíà. Ýíý ¿åýñêîìïüþòåðèéíøèíæëýõóõààíõºãæèæýõýëñýíãýæ ¿çäýã.<br />20-Ð ÇÓÓÍÛ ÝÕÝÍ ¯ÅÈÉÍ ÖÀÕÈÌ ÒÎÎÖÎÎËÓÓÐ ÁÓÞÓ ÊÎÌÏÜÞÒÅЯ¯Ä<br />
  6. 6. ÒÐÀÍÇÈÑÒÎÐ ÁÀ ÊÎÌÏÜÞÒÅÐ<br />1948 îíä Áýëë Òåëåôîí Ëàáîðàòîðèåç (Bell Telephone Laboratories)-ä Àìåðèêèéí 3 ýðäýìòýí òðàíçèñòîðûã çîõèîæýý. Òðàíçèñòîð íü ýëåêòðîí ëàìïûã á¿ðýí îðëîõ õàãàñ äàìæóóëàã÷ ýëåìåíò áºãººä öàõèëãààí ã¿éäëèéã íýýæ õààäàã ýëåêòðîí ò¿ëõ¿¿ð þì. Ýíýõ¿¿ øèíý ýëåìåíò íü òóõàéí ¿åèéí íàéäâàðã¿é àæèëëàãààòàé ëàìïíû äýðãýä öàõèëãààí ýð÷èì õ¿÷ ìàø áàãà õýðýãëýäýã, îâîð õýìæýýãýýðýý õýäýí àðàâ äàõèí áàãà áàéñàí çýðýã îëîí äàâóó òàëààðàà õóâüñãàë áîëñîí áàéíà.<br />
  7. 7. ÒÐÀÍÇÈÑÒÎÐÛà ÕÝÍ ÇÎÕÈÎÂ?<br />Âîëüòåð Õàóçåð Áðàòòàéí (Brattain, Walter Houser ) 1902-1987, Õÿòàäûí Ñèàìåí õîòîä òºðñºí. Íîáåëèéí øàãíàëò Àìåðèêèéí ôèçèê÷.<br />Æîí Áàðäååí, (John Bardeen) 1908-1991, ÀÍÓ-ûí Ìàäèñîí õîòîä òºðñºí, Íîáåëèéí øàãíàëò Àìåðèêèéí ôèçèê÷,<br />Óèëëèàì Áðýäôîðä Øîêëè (Shockley, William Bradford) 1910-1989, Àíãëèéí íèéñëýë Ëîíäîí õîòîä òºðñºí, Íîáåëèéí øàãíàëò ôèçèê÷<br />
  8. 8. ÌÈÊÐÎÑÕÅÌ ÁÀ ÌÈÊÐÎÏÐÎÖÅÑÑÎÐ<br />1960-ààä îíû ñ¿¿ëýýð õýäýí àðâààñ õýäýí çóóí òðàíçèñòîðûã öàõèóðûí íýã ÿëòñàí äýýð óðãóóëàí ãàðãàæ àâñàíààð ìèêðîñõåì çîõèîãäñîí áàéíà. <br />Ìèêðîñõåìèéã áóñàä ýëåêòðîíèêèéí ýëåìåíò¿¿äòýé õàâñðóóëàí õýðýãëýâýë ÿìàð÷ òºâºãòýé á¿òýöòýé áàãàæ òºõººðºìæèéã çîõèîí á¿òýýæ áîëäîã.<br />ªíººäºð êîìïüþòåðò íýã ÿëòàñ äýýð 40 ñàÿ õ¿ðòýë òðàíçèñòîð áàãòààñàí ìèêðîïðîöåññîð ãýãäýõ èíòåãðàë ìèêðîñõåì¿¿äèéã àøèãëàõ áîëæýý.<br />Àíõ 1971 îíä 4 áèòèéí Intel 4004 ìàðêèéí ìèêðîïðîöåññîðèéã Intel ôèðìä çîõèîñîíîîñ õîéø ºíººäºð ìèêðîïðîöåññîð 9 äýõ ¿åèéíõýý õºãæèëèéí ò¿âøèíä õ¿ðýýä áàéíà. Ýíý áîë Pentium-IV ìèêðîïðîöåññîð þì.<br />
  9. 9. FDD (Floppy Disk Drive) connector<br />DDR (Double Data Rate) DIMM slot<br />IDE1 (Integrated Drive Electronics) Port<br />IDE2 Port<br />CPU Socket<br />ATX Òýæýýëèéí çàëãóóð<br />AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port) Дэлгэцийн карт суух слот<br />PCI ( Peripheral Component Interconnect) slot<br />CNR (Communications Networking Riser) Slot<br />Áèäíèé õýðýãëýæ áàéãàà Pentium-4 ïðîöåññîðòîé êîìïüþòåðèéí ýõ õàâòàí. ATX (Advanced Technology Extended) Mainboard<br />
  10. 10. ÝÕ ÕÀÂÒÀÍ ÄÝÝÐÕ ÑËÎÒÓÓÄ ÁÀ ÇÀËÃÓÓÐÓÓÄ<br />
  11. 11. Ýíýõ¿¿ êàðò íü AGP slot-ä ñóóðèëàãäàíà. Ýíý slot íü 64 áèòýýð ìýäýýëýë äàìæóóëíà.<br />Ýíý êàðò íü ISA slot-ä ñóóðèëàãääàã áà 16 áèòýýð ìýäýýëýë ñîëèëöîíî<br />Õàðèí ýíý êàðò PCI Slot-ä ñóóðèëàãäàí 32 áèòýýð ìýäýýëýë ñîëèëöîíî. <br />EXPANSION SLOT-óóäàä ñóóðèëàãääàã êàðòóóä<br />Àëèâàà êàðòûã ýõ õàâòàíãèéí Expansion slots áàéðëàõ õýñýãò òóõàéí êàðòûí òààðàõ slot-ä ñóóðèëóóëàõ áà ìàø íÿìáàé, ýâýýð ñóóðèëóóëàõ õýðýãòýé. ßëàíãóÿà AGP êàðòûí àðûí ò¿ãæýýã àíõààð!<br />
  12. 12. DDR SDRAM ñàíàõ îé<br />Pentium 4 CPU<br />SDRAM, CPU ñóóðèëóóëàõ ñóóðèíóóä<br />
  13. 13. Óÿí äèñêèéí òºõººðºìæ<br />Õàòóó äèñêèéí òºõººðºìæ<br />Õàòóó äèñê õîëáîã÷ êàáåëü<br />Óÿí äèñêèéí òºõººðºìæ õîëáîã÷ êàáåëü<br />4. ¯ç¿¿ðèéí çàëãóóðûã Master òºõººðºìæèä, äóíä çàëãóóðèéã Slave òºõººðºìæèä õîëáîíî. <br />3. Ýõ õàâòàíãèéí IDE1 port-ä ÀÒÀ100 êàáåëèéã õîëáîíî.<br />1. Ýõ õàâòàíãèéí FDD port-ä óÿí äèñêèéí òºõººðºìæ õîëáîõ êàáåëèéã õîëáîíî.<br />2. Êàáåëèéí ìóøãèà òîõèðóóëãàòàé òàëûã óÿí äèñêèéí òºõººðºìæèä õîëáîíî.<br />Äèñê õºòëºã÷ òºõººðºìæ¿¿äèéã õîëáîõ<br />
  14. 14. Ôèðìèéí òàíèëöóóëãà<br />Ýõ õàâòàíãèéí òóõàé ìýäýýëýë<br />Ïðîöåññîðèéí òóõàé ìýäýýëýë<br />Ñàíàõ îéí òóõàé ìýäýýëýë<br />Îðîëò ãàðàëòûí òºõººðºìæ¿¿äèéí òóõàé ìýäýýëýë<br />BIOS ROM íü ýõ õàâòàí äýýð CPU-ã äýìæèí àæèëëàäàã Chipset-¿¿äòýé çýðýãöýí áàéðëàäàã.<br />BIOS-îîñ ã¿éöýòãýæ áîëîõ ¿éëäë¿¿ä<br />BIOS<br />Êîìïüþòåðèéí CPU òýæýýëèéí õ¿÷äýëä çàëãàãäàí àññàí õóíãàöààíààñàà ýõëýýä ÏÕ-èéã õàìãèéí ýõíèé çààâàð÷ëàãà èíñòðóêöèýñ ýõëýí ã¿éöýòãýæ ýõýëäýã. Èéíõ¿¿ CPU íü îð÷èí òîéðîíäîî áàéãàà îðîëò ãàðàëòûí òºõººðºìæ¿¿äòýé òàíèëöàæ, ÿìàð ÿìàð òºõººðºìæ¿¿äòýé õàðüöàí àæèëëàõàà òàíüæ àâàõ õýðýãòýé áîëíî. Ýíýõ¿¿ ÏÕ-èéã ¿íäñýí òåõíèêèéí ò¿âøèíèé ÏÕ ãýæ íýðëýõ áºãººä ò¿¿íèéã êîìïüþòåðèéí ýõ õàâòàí äýýð ñóóðèëàãäñàí, áàéíãà ìýäýýëëýý õàäãàëæ áàéäàã ROM (Read Only Memory) õýìýýõ ñàíàõ îéä áàéðëóóëñàí áàéäàã. Ýíýõ¿¿ ÏÕ-èéã BIOS (Basic Input Output System) ãýæ íýðëýíý. (¯íäñýí Îðîëò Ãàðàëòûí ñèñòåì)<br />Ñ¿¿ëèéí ¿åä Êîìïüþòåðèéã àñààìàãö êîìïüþòåðèéí ýõ õàâòàíã ¿éëäâýðëýñýí ôèðìèéí ñóðòàë÷èëãàà ãàðäàã BIOS ýëáýã áîëæýý.<br />BIOS-èéí ¿íäñýí ¿¿ðýã íü óã êîìïüþòåðò ÿìàð òºõººðìæ¿¿ä õîëáîãäñîíûã øàëãàõ, òîõèðóóëàõ ÿâäàë þì. Ýíý äýëãýöèéã õàðàõûí òóëä ñóðòàë÷èëãàà ãàðàõ ¿åä Esc òîâ÷èéã ÿàðàëòàé äàðàõ õýðýãòýé!<br />
  15. 15. BIOS<br />Òºõººðºìæ¿¿äèéã òàíüæ äóóñààä õýðýâ àñóóõààð òîõèðóóëàãäñàí áîë õýðýãëýã÷èéí ñèñòåìä íýâòðýõ íóóö ¿ãèéã àñóóíà. <br />¯¿íèéã Power On Password ãýäýã.<br />Íóóö ¿ãèéã çºâ îðóóëáàë BIOS íü ¿éë àæèëëàãààãàà äóóñãààä Operating System (OS) áóþó ¯éëäëèéí ñèñòåìä ¿éë àæèëëàãààã øèëæ¿¿ëíý.<br />
  16. 16. ¯éëäëèéí ñèñòåì áîë êîìïüþòåðèéí ¿íäñýí ïðîãðàìì õàíãàìæ þì. ¯éëäëèéí ñèñòåìã¿é áîë êîìïüòåð àìüã¿é öîãöîñòîé àäèë. Êîìïüþòåðèéí BIOS àæèëëàæ äóóñààä ¿éëäëèéí ñèñòåìèéã àæèëëóóëæ ýõëýõ ïðîöåññèéã BOOT ãýæ íýðëýíý. ¯éëäëèéí ñèòåìèéã ìýäýýëýë õàäãàëàõ äèñêèéí òºõººðºìæ¿¿äèéí àëüíààñ ýõëýõ âý? ãýäãèéã BIOS çààæ ºãíº. ¯¿íä:<br />Floppy drive Hard Disk Drive CD-ROM drive LAN USB <br />ãýõ ìýò÷èëýí çààæ ºãºõ áà õàðèí äýñ äàðààëëûã íü õýðýãëýã÷ óðüä÷èëàí çîõèöóóëæ áîëäîã. ¯¿íèéã Boot Up Sequence ãýäýã.<br />Ýíý ïðîöåññ íü õàìãèéí ò¿ð¿¿íä îëäñîí íýã ë òºõººðºì溺ñºº ¯Ñ-èéã àæèëëóóëäàã. ª. õ. ¯Ñ îëäñîí ë áîë äàðààãèéí òºõººðºìæ ð¿¿ øèëæèõã¿é.<br />Õýâèéí àæèëëàãààòàé êîìïüþòåðèéí ¯Ñ íü ãîëäóó õàòóó äèñêíýýñ õýëýõ íü çîõèìæòîé áàéäàã.<br />OPERATING SYSTEM<br />¯éëäëèéí ñèñòåì íü á¿ðýí àæèëëààä õýðýãëýã÷ àøèãëàõàä áýëýí áîëñîí êîìïüþòåðèéí äýëãýö<br />
  17. 17. Äýëãýöèéí èõýíõ õýñãèéã ýçýëæ áóé ýíý òàëáàðûã Desktop áóþó øèðýýíèé òàâöàí ãýæ íýðëýíý.<br />Ýäãýýð ä¿ðñ¿¿äýýð èëýðõèéëñýí ç¿éëñèéã Shortcut Icon ãýõ áà ýäãýýð äýýð õóãàíûí ñóìààð çààæ ç¿¿í òîâ÷ëóóðûã 2 óäàà äàðâàë ýäãýýð ä¿ðñ¿¿äèéí öààíà õàäãàëàãäñàí ÏÕ-óóä èäýâõæèí àæèëëàæ ýõëýíý.<br />Îäîî àæèëëàæ áàéãàà ÏÕ-óóäûí Shortcut-óóä<br />Ñèñòåìä áàéíãà àæèëëàæ áàéõ øààðäëàãàòàé ÏÕ-óóäûí æàãñààëò Shortcut-óóä. Æèøýýëáýë Norton Antivirus, Òîâ÷ëóóðûí ìîíãîë ¿ñãèéí óäèðäëàãà ã.ì.<br />Ýíý òîâ÷ëóóðûã Start menu ãýäýã. Desktop äýýð áàéõã¿é ïðîãðàììóóäûã áîëîí ñèñòåìèéí òîõèðãîî õèéõ ÏÕ-óóäûã àæèëëóóëàõàä õýðýãëýäýã. <br />Áàéíãà õýðýãëýãääýã ÏÕ-óóäûã õóðäàí îëîõîä çîðèóëàãäñàí shortcut-óóä<br />Äýëãýöèéí äîîä õýñýãò áàéãàà õýñãèéã Task Bar áóþó àæëûí øóãàì ãýíý.<br />Äýëãýöèéí ôîíîíä áàéãàà çóðãèéã Wallpaper áóþó õàíûí öààñ ãýæ íýðëýíý.<br />
  18. 18. Ýõëýýä CPU-íèé ñóóðèíû õºø¿¿ðýã ò¿ãæýýã ºðãºæ ñóëëàíà.<br />Ñóóðèíû õºø¿¿ðýã ò¿ãæýýã áóóëãàæ CPU-ã ñóóðèòàé íü áýõëýíý.<br />CPU-ã ò¿¿íèé ñóóðèíä áàéðëóóëíà. CPU íü çºâõºí íýã òèéøýý ë õàðæ ñóóõààð õèéãäñýí áàéäàã òóë òààðóóëàõ áóëàíã ñàéòàð àíõààð.<br />CPU-íèé õºðãºã÷èéã äàðäàã äàðóóëãûã õî¸ð òàëä íü íýãýí çýðýã æèãä äàðæ áàéõààð áýõëýíý.<br />CPU íü ìàø èõ õàëäàã ýëåìåíò òóë ñýíñ á¿õèé õºðãºã÷ººð õºðãºõ øààðäëàãàòàé. ̺í äóëààí ñàéí äàìæóóëäàã êðåì ò¿ðõýæ ºãíº<br />ÌÈÊÐÎÏÐÎÖÅÑÑÎÐÛà ÑÓÓÐÈËÓÓËÀÕ<br />Õºðãºã÷ ñýíñèéã CPU-íèé äýýðýýñ çºâ áàéðëóóëæ ºãíº.<br />Õàìãèéí ñ¿¿ëä õºðãºã÷ ñýíñíèé òýæýýëèéí çàëãóóðûã ïðîöåññîðûí äýðãýä áàéðëàõ ¿¿ðýíä çàëãàñàíààð ìèêðîïðîöåññîðûã ñóóðèëóóëàõ àæèëàãàà äóóñíà.<br />
  19. 19. ÊÎÌÏÜÞÒÅÐÈÉÍ ÀÆÈËËÀÃÀÀÍÄ<br />ÞÓ ÞÓ ÌÓÓÃÀÀРͪ˪ªËªÕ ÂÝ?<br />
  20. 20. 1. Õ¯ÍÈÉ ÁÎËÃÎÎÌÆÃ¯É ÁÎËÎÍ ÁÓÐÓÓ ¯ÉË ÀÆÈËËÀÃÀÀ<br />Êîìïüþòåðèéí äîòîîä ñèñòåìèéí ïðîãðàìì õàíãàìæèéí çîõèîí áàéãóóëàëòûã ìýäýõã¿é õýðíýý õàìààã¿é îðîëäîæ ººð÷ëºõ.<br />Ñèñòåìèéí ïðîãðàìì õàíãàìæèéã áàéõ ¸ñòîé ãàçðààñ ººð÷èëæ, óñòãàæ áîëîõã¿é! <br />Õóëãàíûã áîëãîîìæã¿é õºäºëãºõ íü ñàíàìñàðã¿éãýýð 纺õ ¿éëäýë õèéæ áîëçîøã¿é!<br />Êîìïüþòåðèéí ýä àíãèóäòàé áóðóó õàðüöàõ íü òýäãýýðèéã ýâäýæ ãýìòýýõ íºõöºë áîëäîã.<br />̺í àíõààðàë áîëãîîìæã¿éãýýñ øèíãýí ç¿éë àñãàõ íü ìàø èõ àþóëòàé!<br />Óóð óöààðàà ýä ç¿éëñýä ãàðãàõ òèéì ÷ àÿòàéõàí çàí àâèð áèøýý.<br />
  21. 21. ѪЪà ͪ˪ªË˯¯Ä ¯¯ÑÝÕ ØÀËÒÃÀÀÍÓÓÄ<br />Ìàíàé óëñûí øóãàìûí õ¿÷äýë 220Âîëüò, 50Ãö äàâòàìæòàé áàéäãèéã òà á¿õýí ìýäýõ áèëýý. Ýíýõ¿¿ øóãàìûí õ¿÷äýë íü öàõèëãààí ñòàíöûí áîëîí äàìæóóëàõ ñèñòåìèéí ¿éë àæèëëàãààíààñ õàìààðàí áàéõ ¸ñòîé ñòàíäàðò õýìæýýíýýñýý ººð÷ëºãäºõ, òàñàëäàõ çýðýã ñºðºã íºëººëë¿¿äèéã áèé áîëãîäîã. <br />Ò¿¿íýýñ ãàäíà õýðýãëýã÷èä áîãèíî õîëáîëò ¿¿ñãýõ, õýò à÷ààëàë ¿¿ñãýõ, öàõèëãààí õ¿÷äýëèéí øóãàìä øóóãèàí ¿¿ñãýã÷ ÷àíàðã¿é òºõººðºìæ àøèãëàõ çýðãýýð ñºðºã íºëººëë¿¿äèéã áèé áîëãîõ òîõèîëäîë ýëáýã áàéäàã.<br />̺í àÿíãà öàõèëãààí áóþó áàéãàëèéí ESD íü øóãàìûí õ¿÷äýëä ìàø íîöòîé íºëººëäºã áºãººä ýäãýýð á¿õ ñºðºã íºëººëë¿¿ä êîìïüþòåð áîëîí áóñàä öàõèì òºõººðºìæ¿¿äèéí ¿éë àæèëëàãààíä íºëººëæ ýâäýæ ãýìòýýõ íü îëîíòàà òîõèîëääîã áàéíà.<br />
  22. 22. ÀÍÕÀÀÐÀË ÒÀÂÜÑÀÍÄ ÁÀßÐËÀËÀÀ. <br />ÀÌÆÈËÒ Õ¯ÑÜÅ!<br />

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