Gait

291
-1

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
291
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
9
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Gait

  1. 1. PARAS AYAZ QURAT-UL-AIN MALIK JAHANZAIB IQBAL
  2. 2. Festinating gait is a type of gait (walking) characterized by a Flexed trunk Legs flexed stiffly at the knees and hip Take short and slow steps while walking  The center of gravity is usually altered because the person cannot stay balanced. Patients with festinating gait also have difficulty stopping their gait after starting.  This is due to muscle hypertonicity.
  3. 3. Parkinsonian gait (or festinating gait, from Latin word [to hurry]) is the type of gait exhibited by patients suffering from Parkinson’s disease (PD). This disorder is caused by a deficiency of dopamine in the basal ganglia circuit leading to motor deficits. Gait is one of the most affected motor characteristics of this disorder although symptoms of Parkinson's disease are varied.
  4. 4.  Bradykinesia  Tremors  Rigidity  Poor balance  Abnormal walking
  5. 5.  PARKINSON’S DISEASE
  6. 6.  TIBIALIS ANTERIOR/ SHORTENING  CALF M/S, GASTROCNEMIUS, SOLEUS /SHORTENING  QUADRICEPS AND HAMSTRING ON THE OTHER HAND SHOW PROLONGED ACTIVATION IN THE STANCE PHASE OF GAIT.  THIS IMPLIES THAT PATIENTS WITH PARKINSON DISEASE HAVE HIGHER PASSIVE STIFFNESS ON ANKLE JOINT.
  7. 7. WITH THE HELP OF DRUG Parkinson’s disease, this would typically involve treatment with L-dopa, which is a precursor of the chemical messenger dopamine, which is deficient in the disease. The brain turns L-dopa into dopamine, thus increasing dopamine levels in the brain. A more drastic medical treatment is deep brain stimulation, in which a device is implanted in the brain to send electrical stimulation to certain parts of the brain, such as areas that control movement. A less drastic medical treatment for festinating gait is exercise and physical gait.
  8. 8. Other forms of treatment are behavioral, such as providing the person with external visual cues (e.g., floor markers) and auditory cues (e.g., sounds) to help regulate movements since the internal regulatory cueing functions of the basal ganglia (which regulate movements) have been compromised. Visual cues have been shown to be much more effective than auditory cues
  9. 9.  Physical therapy and exercise have been shown to have positive effect on gait.  Physiotherapist may help improve gait by creating training program  To lengthen a patients stride length  Broaden the base of support by using tiles, footprints on the ground to improve the foot placement.
  10. 10.  To improve the heel-toe gait pattern  Straighten out a patient posture  Increase arm swing patterns  Walking on treadmill has shown to improve both walking, speed and stride length.
  11. 11.  AEROBIC EXERCISE  MUSCULAR STRENTHENING (CON, ECEN)  FLEXORS EXERCISE  USE OF CORRECT WALKING AIDS SUCH AS WALKING STICK OR WALKING FRAMES.
  12. 12. Alternate Names In-toeing false clubfoot in-toe gait metatarsus adducts metatarsus varus
  13. 13. A pigeon gait, also known as in-toeing, is a condition in which the front of the feet turn inward, leading to a walk which somewhat resembles that of a pigeon. In most cases, pigeon gait affects young children and is caused by abnormal orientation of the thigh, lower leg, or foot
  14. 14.  The immediate cause of a pigeon gait is an inward turning of the feet.  When an individual with inward-turning feet walks, his gait often has a shuffling or waddling quality that, in the eyes of some, resembles the gait of a pigeon this condition is known as in-toeing.
  15. 15.  Feet point inward, as if the toes are touching  Stumbling (severe cases)  Clumsiness
  16. 16.  There are 3 main causes of in toe gait: Metatarsus adducts Tibial torsion Femoral anteversion
  17. 17. 1.The foot: Pigeon toes occur when the foot tends to resemble a kidney, or when the metatarsus adducts has an inward curve at the outer edge of the foot. Metatarsus adducts requires treatment, the nature of which varies depending upon whether the condition is flexible or fixed.
  18. 18.  If conservative measures fail, surgical correction will be necessary, especially in cases of club-foot. The sooner the patient is diagnosed and treated, the better the outlook for the patient  Most flexible cases respond to conservative treatment, which includes passive stretching, bracing, and specialized shoes. The fixed type requires serial plaster casting.
  19. 19. 2. The knee:  When there is an inward twist of the tibia bone, the shin is twisted. This is commonly seen in children learning to walk. Usually the leg straightens out within the first year of life, but some children may continue to walk pigeon-toed until the leg bone is done growing. Surgery may be necessary for children who do not outgrow this condition by the age of ten.
  20. 20. 3. The hip:  In some cases the femoral anteversion has an inward twist at the upper thighbone. The knee caps tend to point inward when the person is walking. Most children show this form of in- toeing between the ages of 2 and 4, after they have begun walking. Typically, a child will outgrow this condition by the age of 8.
  21. 21.  Although this condition sometimes goes away on its own, in some cases, it does not. This causes complications for both the parents and the child.  Shoes are typically the biggest complication. The parents of most pigeon-toed children are unable to find shoes that fit them properly because of the curve of their feet. This can be frustrating, and finding the right shoes can become costly for the parents.  Children who are pigeon-toed may feel embarrassment if they walk differently than other children their age.
  22. 22.  Most diagnoses of metatarsus adducts or true club-foot in infants occur well before they even begin to walk, and these children need immediate treatment.  An infant who does not have metarsus adducts or true club-foot will still appear to in-toe when they begin to walk.  This is normal up to about the age of three, and it is because of the structural difference in the infant’s foot and the changes that have yet to occur in the leg (the tibia) or the femur (ante version).  On the other hand, if the in-toeing continues after about age 3, this is concerning. Therefore, children should be examined regularly by a podiatrist to ensure that the bones are developing correctly and the child’s gait is progressing correctly.
  23. 23.  Most of these conditions are self-correcting during childhood. In the worst cases surgery may be needed.  Most of the time this involves lengthening the achilles tendon. Less severe treatment options for pigeon toe include keeping a child from crossing his or her legs, use of corrective shoes and casting of the foot and lower legs, which is normally done before the child reaches 12 months of age or older.  If the pigeon toe is mild and close to the center, treatment may not be necessary. Ballet has been used as a treatment for mild cases.
  24. 24.  Pigeon-toed feet is a common orthopedic condition in young children. Some examples of exercises to correct pigeon toes;  Step 1  Have your toddler or young child sit up straight in a child-size firm chair.  Children with pigeon toes tend to naturally sit with their legs crossed.  Help your child sit in the chair with her legs uncrossed and feet flat on the floor.  Trace her feet in the correct slightly-outward position onto a piece of paper.
  25. 25.  Step 2  Show your young child how to walk backward.  Have him follow you in the backward walking.  Continue the exercise for up to 10 to 20 minutes or as long as he is able to do so.  This exercise helps to strengthen the hip joints to keep the feet straight while walking. Repeat this exercise regularly during play and walking time.
  26. 26.  Step 3  Place the board of wood on two square pieces of wood or 2 bricks.  Keep the plank only three to five inches above the ground to avoid injury due to falling.  Help your child walk across the full length of the plank two to four times a day and continue this exercise regularly until she is walking normally.  This exercise helps the child place one foot in front of the other correctly, and strengthens the muscles that keep the hip and shin bones aligned.

×