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introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
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introduction to information technology

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  • 1. Institute of Product Design & ManufacturingUniversiti Kuala Lumpur
  • 2. Introduction to Computers Computer hardwareInput, Output & peripheral devices History of computers
  • 3. Basic Components of a Computer SystemWhat is computer?An electronic device that can accept data (input),process the input to useful information (process)according to a set of instructions, store theinstructions and the results of processing (storage),and produce the information (output).
  • 4. Basic Components of a Computer SystemOther definition:-• A machine that can be programmed to accept data (input), process it into useful information (output), and store it away (in secondary storage device) for safekeeping or later reuse• Process is directed by software but performed by the hardware
  • 5. Information Age• Evolving more rapidly than Industrial Age• Will continue into the current century
  • 6. Cornerstones of our Economy Forging a Computer-Based Society:• Land• Labor• Capital• Information
  • 7. JobsForging a Computer-Based Society:• From physical to mental• From muscle-power to brain-power
  • 8. A Computer in Your Future• Where used? – Bank withdrawal – Supermarket – Drive the car• Do I need a Personal Computer? – Campaign: One Home, One PC – Many more use at work• Will I use a computer in my future career? – Almost every job will involve use of a computer Video: Future of Information Technology
  • 9. Computer Literacy• Awareness – Importance – Versatility – Pervasiveness in our society• Knowledge – What are computers – How do computers work – Terminology• Interaction – Use some simple computer applications
  • 10. Is computer literacy enough?• Need to be computer literate to manipulate a computer• Need to be computer fluent on computer concepts as a basis to build deeper knowledge• Computer fluency make one able to continue follow developments as computers continue to evolve
  • 11. Basic Information Technology Concept• Information technology - the use of modern technology to aid the capture, storage, retrieval, analysis, and communication of information.• The various methods of delivering information are by the use of data, text, image, and voice for personal or organization needs.
  • 12. History of Computers • Man from centuries ago used a physical unit or sets of units to represent numbers or quantities. • A number or a quantity can be represented by a physical thing, whether it is: a pebble an electrical relay a transistora mark on a bit of paper a bead of wire a mechanical gear wheel a vacuum tube
  • 13. The Nature of ComputersCharacteristics Results• Speed • Productivity• Reliability • Decision making• Storage capability • Cost reduction
  • 14. Where Computers Are Used: Graphics Graphs and charts Animated graphics Visual walk-through
  • 15. Where Computers Are Used: Education• Teaching and testing aid• Learning by doing• Computer-based instruction
  • 16. Where Computers Are Used: Retailing• Bar codes for pricing and inventory• Shipping
  • 17. Where Computers Are Used: Energy• Locate oil, coal, natural gas, and uranium• Monitor the power network• Meter reading
  • 18. Where Computers Are Used :Law Enforcement• National fingerprint files• National files on criminal• Computer modeling of DNA
  • 19. Where Computers Are Used: Transportation • Cars • Run rapid transit systems • Load containerships • Track railroad cars • Monitor air traffic
  • 20. Where Computers Are Used: Money • Record keeping • Banking by phone • Credit cards
  • 21. Where Computers Are Used: Agriculture• Billing • Feed combinations• Crop information • Livestock breeding and performance
  • 22. Where Computers Are Used: Government• Forecast weather• E-government• Process immigrants• Taxes• Registration: birth, identity, car etc.
  • 23. Where Computers Are Used: The Home• Educational tool• Record keeping• Letter writing• Budgeting• Drawing and editing pictures• Newsletters• Connecting with others
  • 24. Where Computers Are Used: Health and Medicine• Monitor patients• Electronic imaging• Diagnose illnesses• Tele-health
  • 25. Where Computers Are Used: Robotics• Perform jobs that are dangerous for humans• Factory work
  • 26. Where Computers Are Used: The Human Connection• Assist the disabled• Assist athletes by monitoring their movements
  • 27. Where Computers Are UsedThe Sciences Connectivity• Research • Communication• Simulation • Telecommuting
  • 28. Where Computers Are UsedTraining Paperwork• Airline pilots • Junk mail• Railroad • Term paper engineers • Record keeping
  • 29. Computers are all around!• Grocery store• Schools• Libraries• Bank• Mail• MallsWe interact with computers everyday!
  • 30. What computers can’t do yet? Complex human activitiesWhat else? Can you think of others?
  • 31. Computer System People Software Hardware
  • 32. People• Computer programmer – person who writes programs• Users or End-users – make use of the computer’s capabilities
  • 33. Software• Programs• Set of instructions that directs the hardware to do a required task and produce the desired results
  • 34. Hardware:Basic Components of a Computer
  • 35. Computer Components1. Input Devices - examples: keyboard and the mouse - data entered on the keyboard and temporarily stored in the computer’s memory and displayed on the monitor2. System Unit - contains the electronic circuits that cause the processing of data to occur - consists of central processing unit, memory, (RAM and ROM) and other electronic components - CPU has a control unit and arithmetic/logic unit - RAM temporarily stores data and program instructions when they are processed
  • 36. Computer Components – cont.4. Output Devices - most commonly used output devices are monitor and printer - Monitor :commonly as CRT or Flat Panel Display - Printer: Dot-Matrix, Ink-Jet etc.5. Secondary Storage Devices - also known as auxiliary storage devices - stores instructions and data when they are not being used by the system unit - Examples : floppy disk and hard disk drive
  • 37. How a Computer System Works Storage InformationData Input Process Output
  • 38. How a Computer System Works – cont.Software- The instructions needed to direct the computer to complete specific tasks.• The CPU follows the step-by-step instructions in a program to complete the tasks from user.• Operating system is the system software that controls the basic, low-level hardware operations and file management.
  • 39. Computer Configuration and ClassificationMicrocomputers- Also known as personal computers- Physical sizes : palmtop, desktop and tower case- Cheaper and smaller in sizeMinicomputer- Also known as departmental computers- Physical sizes : small to large cabinets- Support business application
  • 40. Computer Configuration and Classification – cont.Mainframe- Large computers with the capability to process data at millions of instructions per second.- Physical size : partial to full room of equipmentSupercomputer- Most powerful and expensive computers- Vast quantities of data manipulation- Physical size : full room of equipment- No. of users : hundreds of users
  • 41. Central Processing Unit (CPU)- It is the heart of the computer, that is the microprocessor chip.- A highly complex, extensive set of electronic circuitry that executes stored program instructions.- CPU perform three main tasks :- • Perform arithmetic operations • Perform logic operations • Retrieval and storage of data
  • 42. CPU – cont.- CPU consists of two main units :- 1. Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) - arithmetic operations e.g. +, -, x, / - logic operations e.g. >, >=, ==, <,<= 2. Control unit - fetches instructions from memory - decode/translate instructions - executes the processing tasks - stores result in memory
  • 43. CPU – cont. What happens in a CPU?- CU fetches instructions - ALU executes from memory arithmetic/logic- CU decodes/translates instruction instructions, directs -ALU stores results into necessary data to ALU memory
  • 44. CPU – cont.Memory - also known as primary storage, primary memory,main storage, internal storage, and mainmemory - Consists of RAM and ROM 1. RAM (Random Access Memory) - volatile; means the data exists only when power is ON - two types of RAM, dynamic and static 2. ROM (Read Only Memory) - non-volatile; means data permanently stored in and cannot be changed
  • 45. Function of Computer SystemData handling I Input P Process O Output S Storage
  • 46. Processing: Batch vs. Interactive• 2 types of information processing – Batch processing – Interactive processing : Real time
  • 47. Input devices• Accept data or commands and convert them to electronic form• Getting data into the computer – Typing on a keyboard – Pointing with a mouse – Scanning with a wand reader or bar-code reader – Terminal
  • 48. Output devices• Convert from electronic form to some other form• May display the processed results• Usable information Monitor or screen Printer • Text • Black and white • Numbers • Color • Symbols • Art • Photographs • Video
  • 49. Input and Output Devices1. Input devices - Common type of devices used are the keyboard and the mouse - Standard type of keyboard is the QWERTY which has 86 keys (basic) and 101-102 keys (enhanced). - Mouse is a pointing device for effective use of computer interface. Trackball and touch pad are also considered as pointing devices.
  • 50. Input and Output Devices – cont.Digitizer - A pad with a pen-like stylus. - The tablet sends electronic signals to the computer, displaying the image drawn.
  • 51. Input and Output Devices – cont.Input devices– cont. Source data automation the use of special equipment to collect data at the source and send it directly to the computer. OCR Images MICR Bar code Hand Written
  • 52. Input and Output Devices – cont.2. Output devices - most common devices are monitor displays andprinters - Two types of display; flat panel display and CRT display (Cathode Ray Tube) - Two categories of printers; impact and non-impact printers
  • 53. Input and Output Devices – cont.Displays1. Flat Panel - commonly used in laptop, notebook - examples of flat panel; LCD, Gas Plasma2. CRT - produce best images for computers - two types of display; monochrome and color - monochrome; displays one color (green oramber) - color; four types:
  • 54. Input and Output Devices – cont.Displays – cont. Resolution Standard Graphic Add-on-Boards (by pixels) CGA (Color Graphic Adapter) 640 x 200 EGA (Enhanced Graphic Adapter) 640 x 350 VGA (Video Graphic Array) 640 x 480 SVGA (Super Video Graphic Array) 1024 x 768
  • 55. Input and Output Devices – cont.Printers Two types of printers (according to printing methods) Impact printers -use a physical contact with the paper to produce an image -e.g. dot matrix printer and line printer Non-impact printers -Place images on a paper without physically touching it -e.g. thermal, inkjet, laser printer
  • 56. Can you think of any other input/output devices?
  • 57. The ProcessorCentral Processing Unit (CPU)• Converts data to useful information• Interpret and execute instructions• Communicate with input, output and storage
  • 58. Two Types of Storage• Secondary storage long-term storage• Primary storage or memory temporary storage
  • 59. Memory / Primary Storage• Temporary storage• Holds input to be processed• Holds results of processing• Contains the programs to control the computer and manipulate input into output• Volatile
  • 60. Secondary Storage• Long-term storage• Non-volatile
  • 61. Secondary Storage Examples• Magnetic disks – read and written by magnetic disk drive – Hard disk – Diskette• Optical disks – read and written by optical disk drives – CD-ROM – DVD-ROM• Magnetic tape – read and written by magnetic tape drives – Primarily used for back-up
  • 62. Magnetic Disk
  • 63. Secondary Storage• It is needed because – Main memory stores data temporarily – Main memory space is limited Benefits of secondary storage  Space  Reliability  Convenience  Economic
  • 64. Computer System• Computer – CPU – Memory• Peripheral equipment – Connected to the computer by a cable – Input, output, storage
  • 65. Computer Network• Definition – A system that uses communications equipment to connect computers and their resources.• Types – Local area network (LAN) – connects computers in close proximity – Metropolitan are network (MAN) – connect computers between buildings in the same geographic area – Wide are network (WAN) – connects computers over great distances
  • 66. Home Connectivity• Connect home PC to other computers• Use modem to convert signals between electronic (computer) and analog (voice) formats
  • 67. Internet• Collection of networks• No ownership• No central source for services available• No comprehensive index of what information is available Connects Everyone! Individuals Libraries Businesses Research labs Organizations Government
  • 68. Getting Connected• User’s computer must connect to a server• Server must communicate using TCP/IP• The user can purchase access to a server from an ISP (Internet Service Provider)
  • 69. Internet – What Can You Do?• WWW – World Wide Web• FTP – File Transfer Protocol• E-mail• UseNet• IRC – Internet Relay Chat• Bulletin Boards
  • 70. World Wide Web• Browser – program that allows the user to move around and explore the Internet• Use the mouse to point and click on text and graphics• Web page• Web site• Home page
  • 71. Classifications of Computers• Use the computer that fits your needs• Based upon – Size – Speed – Cost – Portability – Number of simultaneous users supported – Available software – Typical use
  • 72. Personal Computers• Other names – PC – Microcomputer – Home computer• Categories – Low-end functional – Fully powered – Workstations – Net computer or net box (Web TV)• Desktop Models
  • 73. Notebook Computers• Portable – Lightweight – Fits in a briefcase – Battery operated• Laptop – Larger – Heavier• More expensive that desktop models
  • 74. Handheld Computers• Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) – Scheduling – Addresses – Handwritten input – May offer wireless e-mail and fax• PDA Phone – More power than PDA – Cellphone, GPS, MP3/MP4, Camera, Video, TV, Radio etc. – Runs various type softwares, serving various applications
  • 75. Other Types of ComputersMainframes – High speed – More expensive – Used to process large amounts of data quickly – Support multiple users – Does server tasksSupercomputers – Fastest speed – Most expensive
  • 76. Operating System and Its FunctionWhat is a software?- The instructions needed to direct the computer to complete specific tasks.- Software can be categorized into two types :-
  • 77. Operating System and Its Function – cont. System Software - program controlling the actual operations of the computer equipments - the operating system tells computer how to perform functions such as load, store, execute application program, transfer data between I/O devices and main memoryApplication Software- program that tells a computer how to produce information- examples of application software : Business, scientific, educational programs and etc.
  • 78. Operating System and Its Function – cont.Definition of OS :- A set of programs that control and supervise acomputer system’s hardwarePurposes of OS :- • To manage the hardware for efficient utilization of computer resources • To interface between a user/an application program with the hardware
  • 79. Operating System and Its Function – cont.• OS is made up of 2 programs; Service ProgramControlProgram
  • 80. Operating System and Its Function – cont.1. Control program - three main functions Resource allocation allocate processor time, primary storage, input and output devices Job management to monitor, schedule and control programs for its efficient processing Data management -managing access to data for input of information to printers, disks/displays - all hardware components activities are controlled by the supervisor program
  • 81. Operating System and Its Function – cont.2. Service programs - provides services to the user/programmer - services include language-translator programs and utility programs - language-translator program converts instructions from English-like language to machine-language to be executed by the computer - utility program performs loading, saving, copying, keeping track of files stored on a disk, preparing a formatted disk
  • 82. Operating System and Its Function – cont. La m ngu ra Da og ag Pr ta e t. M Tr gm ty gm a ili ns bM t. Ut la Jo to r Supervisor lo cation rce Al Resou s Se r vice Other
  • 83. What an Operating System does?1. Checks the functionality of the computer’s hardware. It generates an error message (by messages or beeps) if any components are found faulty.2. Then the OS control programs will load the supervisor program into the computer’s memory – booting3. Once the supervisor control program in memory, the system displays the prompt sign (C:>), indicating that it is ready to work
  • 84. MS-DOS DOS is the supervisor program of the computer It does all the followings • Interface to peripherals – How to interpret input, how to process data, and how to produce output • Application launcher – Most programming software, games etc. use DOS prompt to run application • Utility provider – Manage disks and files, prepare disks for storage, copy files to a disk, to move or rename files, and to delete files
  • 85. MS-DOS – cont.• Using DOS prompt to get command from user• Examples for DOS operation • DOS version/prompt type • Modify date/time • File and directory contents • Clearing a DOS screen • Going to subdirectory and back to root directory • Searching for specific files • Copy files from A drive / C drive
  • 86. TYPES OF OS Microsoft Windows (98, 2000, XP, Vista) Mac OS (X) Linux OS (Hundreds of even thousands of distros ex: Red Hat, Ubuntu, Mandrake etc. Visit http://distrowatch.com/ for listing of Linux OS) Unix OS etc.
  • 87. TYPES OF BROWSERS Mozilla Firefox Internet Explorer Opera Safari Flock Konqueror FlockFirefox is gainingPopularity over IE
  • 88. Low and High Level LanguagesProgramming Language- a set of written symbols that instruct the computer hardware to perform certain tasks- can be categorized as Low level Language and High Level Language Low Level Language - Language that has the tendency towards specific, delicate machine syntax - Machine Language and Assembly Language
  • 89. Low and High Level Languages – cont. Low Level Language – cont.Machine Language- consists of entirely 1’s and 0’s that only the computer understands- depends on different, specific hardware designs- it executes very fast, but is time consuming and difficult to understand- only programmer who has the knowledge of the computer architecture is able to understand the language
  • 90. Low and High Level Languages – cont. Low Level Language – cont.Assembly Language- also considered as Low Level Language because it still needs specific knowledge of hardware- it differs from machine language because of it uses mnemonic in spite of 1’s and 0’s to represent the operation codes- mnemonic code is an alphabetic abbreviation that is easy to remember- it produce programs very efficient, less storage usage and the execution is much faster
  • 91. Low and High Level Languages – cont. High Level Language- instructions resemble human language and mathematical notation- no detail knowledge of computer hardware and internal operation of a computer- easier to learn because of the English-like language rather than understanding machine codes and instructions- E.g. FORTRAN, COBOL, BASIC, Pascal, C/C++
  • 92. Assembler, Compiler and Interpreter Assembler Compiler/Interpreter(Source code) (Object code)
  • 93. Assembler, Compiler and Interpreter – cont. Compiler- the source code will remain unchanged after the conversion but can be updated and changed, then compiled again- after it is compiled, then the object code can be executed-example of HLL program uses compiler is the C and C++ Interpreter- the interpreter will translate a program one line at a time, executing each line of the program after it is translated- if an error should occur during execution, the error must be rectified or solved before it can proceed to the next line- example of HLL program uses interpreter is the BASIC
  • 94. Importance of Backup – cont. Data is exposed to several threats.
  • 95. Importance of Backup – cont.Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS)How does UPS works?- it is connected in series with the computer system- when power is interrupted, this result the UPS to function as a backup supply of power to the computer system- depends on the type of UPS, it will operate in 20 minutes or more- it is advisable to backup important data within the time limit to prevent any lost of data
  • 96. Importance of Backup – cont.Components of UPS- one rectifier (charger) to convert AC to DC and to fully charge the battery- one battery to supply DC power to the inverter and the supported time are based on the number and size of batteries- one inverter to convert DC to AC- one static bypass switch to control the load from/to the power source to/from the battery and allows certain load to transfer tolerances needed by the computer and its peripherals
  • 97. The Computer Virus CrisisThe elements of a computer virus :1. A set of instructions - a program being made to disrupt or interfere other programs2. Deliberately created - purposely created by humans or by itself3. Actively propagates - reproducing itself4. Infects other programs - contaminate or polluting different types of programs5. Able to do harm - can cause damage to others6. Able to evolve - developing, growing and changing in programs or systems
  • 98. The Computer Virus Crisis – cont.What are the damages of the virus to a computer system :1. Creates garbage in your computer system that takes up space in the memory and into your diskettes2. Messing up files in their normal standard and altering some of the files3. Messing up the FAT (File Allocation Table) which contains information of where are the other datas stored on your disk4. Messing up the boot sector that can restrict your computer from being able to execute at all
  • 99. The Computer Virus Crisis– cont.Types of anti-virus softwareThe Computer Virus Industry Association (CVIA) in the USAhas developed three basic categories of anti-virus software. To prevent initial To identify and infection remove viruses To detect infection
  • 100. COMPUTER NETWORKINGNetwork : Computers connected together to communicate amongthemselves. Resource Sharing File Sharing Communication PCs’ Administration and Security
  • 101. COMPUTER NETWORKING –cont.- Computer network technology can be classified by the distance the network technology is designed to span- There are three types of networking : Local Area Network (LAN) Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) Wide Area Network (WAN)
  • 102. COMPUTER NETWORKING –cont.Local Area Network (LAN) - Relatively small refers to the transmission media and computer hardware - The area is not exceeding 10 KM - It only uses one type of transmission medium - It share resources within building or campus
  • 103. COMPUTER NETWORKING –cont.Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) - The network is larger compared to LAN - The area covers a city of 10 to 100KM - It requires efficient hardware and transmissionmedia to cover these areas
  • 104. COMPUTER NETWORKING –cont.Wide Area Network (WAN)- The network is larger than MAN and LAN- It interconnect LAN of opposite sides of country or around the world- It covers huge geographical area in the world
  • 105. Modem Local Area Network Modem Router Multiplexer Host ComputerLocal Area Network Front end Processor Multiplexer
  • 106. LAN COMPONENTSEvery LAN is made up of a standard set of components:
  • 107. LAN TOPOLOGIESTopology: The physical connection amongcomputers within a network- the topology is the configuration of the hardware and shows which pairs of nodes can communicate-there are three common types of topologies :- Star topology Ring topology Bus topology
  • 108. Star Ring Bus
  • 109. LAN PROTOCOLSProtocol : A set of rules to access the networkto send data. Two common LAN protocols
  • 110. TRANSMISSION MEDIATransmission Media : The physical medium used for transmission. Twisted Types of TM Pair Cable Microwave Transmission Coaxial Cable Satellite Fiber Optic Transmission Cable
  • 111. TRANSMISSION MEDIA - Twisted Pair CableJacket Copper wire conductor Colour-coded insulation
  • 112. TRANSMISSION MEDIA – Coaxial Cable InsulationOuter plastic covering Inner conductor
  • 113. TRANSMISSION MEDIA – Fiber Optic Cable Optical fiberProtective outersheath Glass covering Strength wires
  • 114. TRANSMISSION MEDIA – Microwave
  • 115. TRANSMISSION MEDIA – Satellite
  • 116. ANY QUESTIONS OR ADDITIONS?

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