Motivating the Workforce Theories for Understanding Workplace Performance
Human RelationsThe study of the behavior ofindividuals and groups inorganizational settings.
The Nature of Human Relations Motivation – The inner drive that directs a person’s behavior toward goals. Morale – An employee’s attitude toward his or her job, employer, and colleagues.
The Motivation Process Need More money for unexpected medical expenses Goal-directed behavior •Ask for a raise •Work harder to gain a promotion •Look for a higher-paying job •Steal Need Satisfaction More money
Worker Satisfaction Nine out of 10 employees of allgenerations say that true success is aboutbeing trusted. Generation X sees an employee reviewas: –The employer being “The Terminator” –“Employees with a Future” –Their greatest psychological need is Security Source: Roper Starch Worldwide and Sally Ring Research from USA TODAY Snapshot, October 3, 2001.
Historical Perspectives on Employee Motivation• Scientific Management (Frederick W. Taylor) Fixed, not fluid Hierarchical leadership Split locations for manufacturing and office work• The Hawthorne Experiment (Elton Mayo) • Western Electric • Changing Conditions • Adaptation
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self- Actualization Needs Esteem Needs Social Needs Security Needs Physiological Needs Source: adapted from Abraham H. Maslow, “A Theory of Human Motivation,” Psychology Review 50 (1943): 370-396.
Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory Hygiene Factors Motivational Company policies Factors Supervision Achievement Working conditions Recognition Salary The work itself Security Responsibility AdvancementFAST FACT:Absenteeism costs a typical large companymore than $3 million a year
McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Theory XManagement view that assumesworkers generally dislike work andmust be forced to do their jobs. Theory YManagement view that assumesworkers like to work and under properconditions, employees will seekresponsibility to satisfy social, esteem,and self-actualization needs.
Theory Z (W. Oiuchi)A management philosophy thatstresses employee participationin all aspects of companydecision making.
How U.S. Companies Use Theory Z • Quality Circles • Participative Management • Employee Involvement • Self-directed Work TeamsFAST FACT:Theory Z lets employees feel organizationalownership, which may produce positive attitudinaland behavioral effects for employees.
Other Motivational TheoriesWhat I What I get back Can I get it?put in Do I want it? Equity Theory Expectancy Theory
Job Design StrategiesJob Rotation Exposes employees to a variety of tasks as they move from one job to another.Job Enlargement Teaches employees new tasks in their present job.Job Enrichment Gives employees more control and authority in their present job, along with additional tasks.
Flexible Scheduling Strategies Flextime Compressed Work Week Job Sharing TelecommutingFAST FACT:59% of companies with more than 5000workers allow job-sharing. Source: Jim Owen, “In Pursuit of Job Sharing,” from http://usatoday.com/careers/features/feat009.htm (accessed June 8, 2001).
The Importance of Motivational Strategies Fosters employee loyalty Boosts productivity Affects all relationships within the organization Influences promotion, pay, job design, training, and reporting relationships
Employee’s Definitions of Success Being trusted to get a job done 91% Having power to make decisions 81% Getting raises 74% Getting promotions 66% Gaining seniority 58%Having the power to make decisions 58%that affect the company Source: Survey of 2,000 adults by Randstad North America, Atlanta as reported ;in Kemba J. Dunham, “The Jungle/Focus on Recruitment, Pay and Getting Ahead,” Wall Street Journal, May 23, 2001, p. B12.
Case Study• Understanding Motivation Theories to Influence Performance• Looking for Results• “Identification” Study • I.D. Positive and Negative • Provide Insight
Case Study Influencing Styles• Supportive• Directive• Problem-Solving
Looking for ResultsYou are a trainer who is teaching a workshop fornew employees who don’t seem to have much ofa work ethic. One of the employees iscomplaining about a problem she is having withan assignment. She has been having difficultygetting to class on time, with her new childcaregiver, her child has been sick and she missed aday at school, she couldn’t afford to fill the child’sprescription, on and on.• What is your role?• Which style of influencing would be most effective? Why?
Looking for ResultsYou are conducting a workshop that requireslearners to pass an end-of-course test as a jobrequirement. A student in your workshopcomplains about a recent unit test you gavesaying that three questions were confusing andshe would have received a passing grade if thequestions had been clearer. Other students in theclass agree with the complaint One studentrecommends you just throw out the whole test.• What is your role?• Which style of influencing would be most effective? Why?
Looking for ResultsYou are a social worker who reviews safety and childcareservices of 100 providers in your county. One of yourresponsibilities is to visit childcare providers to be sureregulations are being followed and at least the minimumsof services are offered. During a home visit, a childcareprovider is reluctant to spend observation time with you soshe can be trained to interact appropriately with children.This is your third visit and you have repeatedly asked theprovider to remain in the room while you model reading tothe children and appropriate child interaction. She onceagain sees your arrival as an opportunity for a welcomebreak from caring for the children.• What is your role?• Which style of influencing would be most effective? Why?