Mbareport writing


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Mbareport writing

  1. 1. Report WritingCol Hamid Hussain Naqvi (retd)
  2. 2. Definition Business Report is an impartial, objective, planned presentation of facts to one or more persons for specific, significant business purpose. 2
  3. 3. Types of ReportsSales Reports Inspection ReportsAnnual Reports Audit ReportsFeasibility Reports Progress ReportsWhite Papers
  4. 4. A Report Is A Text Expression OfResearch You Have Carried Out,Therefore, It Is:IMPORTANT TO GET IT RIGHT! Presentation  Checking Layout  Editing Components  Evaluating Formatting  Referencing Writing Style  Proof reading
  5. 5. Presentation Is importantbecause: It affects the initial impression of the work Good presentation can ensure the examiner or reader can easily see what you have done You need to show that you can present work in a professional manner
  6. 6. Layout Line spacing should be double spaced Margins should be 1.5” top & 1” bottom If bound then a larger margin should be allowed on the left Print on one side of the paper only
  7. 7. Components of Reportsa.Prefatory parts of a Report Cover Page Title Page Letter of Transmittal Table of Contents List of Illustrations Executive Summary
  8. 8. Covering Page Title Authors nameModule Name/submitted to Date of Submission
  9. 9. Title Page Balance the following lines: * Name of the report in all caps (e.g. Final Report) * Receiver’s name, title, and organization * Team name and team members * Date submitted (month/year) No page number on title page (page 1 is executive summary)
  10. 10. Letter of Transmittal Announce the topic and explain who authorized it. Briefly describe the project and preview the conclusions – if the reader is supportive. Close expressing appreciation for assignment, suggesting follow-up actions, acknowledging the help of others, and offering to answer questions.
  11. 11. Table of Contents  Show the beginning page number where each report heading appears in the report (do not put page number range, just the first page number).  Connect headings to page numbers with dots.  Headings should be grammatically parallel  Include major section headings and sub-headings  No page number on TOC page
  12. 12. TABLE OF CONTENTSExecutive Summary........................... 1Introduction ....................................... 2 Background Purpose Scope Research Questions Report OrganizationResearch and Analysis...................... 4 Methodology FindingsConclusions & Recommendations..... 6Appendices........................................ 7 Appendix 1: Survey questions Appendix 2: Client proposal Appendix 3: PowerPoint slides
  13. 13. Executive Summary Include  challenge statement (client focused)  a little background (type of organization, what they do, size, when established)  goals team focused  a little research summary (techniques/sources ) conclusions and recommendations (all, but summarized) This is first page of report (page 1) Typically 1-2 pages
  14. 14. Introduction Background: Provide a full description of the challenge. Purpose: challenge/motivation for report Include significance of challenge Scope: Clarify the scope and limitations of report.
  15. 15. b. Report Body Introduction  Purpose and Scope;Limitations, Assumptions, and Methods Background/History of the Problem Body  Presents and interprets data Conclusions and RecommendationsC . Supplemental Parts References or Works Cited Appendixes  Interview transcripts, questionnaires, and previous reports
  16. 16. PLANANALYZE THE SITUATIONDefine Your Purpose and Develop an Audience ProfileGATHER INFORMATIONDetermine audience needs and obtain the informationnecessary to satisfy those needsSELECT THE RIGHT MEDIUMSelect the best medium for delivering your messageORGANIZE THE INFORMATIONDefine your main idea,limit your scope,select a direct oran indirect approach, and outline your content
  17. 17. WRITEADAPT TO YOUR AUDIENCEBe sensitive to audience needs with a “you” attitude,politeness,positive emphasis and bias –freelanguage.Build a strong relationship with youraudience by establishing your credibility and protectingyour company’s image.Control your style with aconversational tone,plain English and appropriatevoiceCOMPOSE THE MESSAGEChoose strong words that will help you create effectivesentences and coherent paragraphs
  18. 18. Formatting the ReportTitles, sections, paragraphs and numbering needed because:- It divides your work up into logical sections – makes it easier to follow A content page provides reference point, by headings for reader to find what he wants It is easy to cross reference by referring to paragraphs e.g. ‘further clarification is given on this point (paragraph 2.1)’
  19. 19. ● Degree of Heading Numeral-Letter Combination: 1st I.Introduction 2d A. 2d B. 2d C. 1st II. 2d A.Text/ 3d 1.Discussion 3d 2. 2d B. 3d 1. 3d 2. 4th a. 4th b. 5th (1) 5th (2) 19
  20. 20. 1st III. 2d A.Text/ 3d 1.Discussion 3d 2. 2d B. 3d 1. 3d 2. 1st IV. 2d A. 3dh 1. 3d 2. 2d B. 3d 1. 3d 2. 20Terminal 1st
  21. 21. Format Report A REPORT ON COMPUTER CRIME AND THE INTERNET TitleSECTION ONE - LEGAL ISSUES Section Heading1.1 Introduction …………………………….. Sub1.2 Data Protection Act Sections ……………………………..SECTION TWO - CREDIT CARD FRAUD Sub-paragraph Heading2.1 Introduction ……………………………..2.2 Security Issues 2.2.1 Network Security Protocols
  22. 22. Supplemental parts Appendices  Put ‘extra’ material in here – longer explanations of topics discussed in the report – evidence of research used – source data etc. Referencing  This where you refer the reader to other work within the report or its appendices Author Name (Year) Title, PP. (2-5). Glossary  Used to explain any ‘jargon’ or difficult words that needed to be used in the main body of the report
  23. 23. How to Make References1. Author Name (Year) Title, PP. (2-5). 23
  24. 24. Checking Are there any spelling mistakes? Are there any proof errors?  e.g. ‘there’ ‘their’ OR ‘would of’ ‘would have’ Does the writing reflect the heading? Have you used quotes and citations properly? Have you included all your sources in the bibliography Is the format used the correct one?
  25. 25. Editing Does it make sense? Has it got a beginning, middle, end Are you over the word count?  Check sentences to remove wordiness  Is there something that would be more  Appropriately put in an appendix? Rearrange long sentences into 1 or 2 short ones Have you provided evidence for your statements
  26. 26. Evaluating Have you achieved the aims and objectives of the report? Is all your material relevant? Have you checked the marking criteria to see if you have met them? Have you obtained any feedback from a critical reader to see if they have understood the report and whether they have noticed any defects
  27. 27. THANK YOU