A Report Is A Text Expression OfResearch You Have Carried Out,Therefore, It Is:IMPORTANT TO GET IT RIGHT! Presentation Checking Layout Editing Components Evaluating Formatting Referencing Writing Style Proof reading
Presentation Is importantbecause: It affects the initial impression of the work Good presentation can ensure the examiner or reader can easily see what you have done You need to show that you can present work in a professional manner
Layout Line spacing should be double spaced Margins should be 1.5” top & 1” bottom If bound then a larger margin should be allowed on the left Print on one side of the paper only
Components of Reportsa.Prefatory parts of a Report Cover Page Title Page Letter of Transmittal Table of Contents List of Illustrations Executive Summary
Covering Page Title Authors nameModule Name/submitted to Date of Submission
Title Page Balance the following lines: * Name of the report in all caps (e.g. Final Report) * Receiver’s name, title, and organization * Team name and team members * Date submitted (month/year) No page number on title page (page 1 is executive summary)
Letter of Transmittal Announce the topic and explain who authorized it. Briefly describe the project and preview the conclusions – if the reader is supportive. Close expressing appreciation for assignment, suggesting follow-up actions, acknowledging the help of others, and offering to answer questions.
Table of Contents Show the beginning page number where each report heading appears in the report (do not put page number range, just the first page number). Connect headings to page numbers with dots. Headings should be grammatically parallel Include major section headings and sub-headings No page number on TOC page
Executive Summary Include challenge statement (client focused) a little background (type of organization, what they do, size, when established) goals team focused a little research summary (techniques/sources ) conclusions and recommendations (all, but summarized) This is first page of report (page 1) Typically 1-2 pages
Introduction Background: Provide a full description of the challenge. Purpose: challenge/motivation for report Include significance of challenge Scope: Clarify the scope and limitations of report.
b. Report Body Introduction Purpose and Scope;Limitations, Assumptions, and Methods Background/History of the Problem Body Presents and interprets data Conclusions and RecommendationsC . Supplemental Parts References or Works Cited Appendixes Interview transcripts, questionnaires, and previous reports
PLANANALYZE THE SITUATIONDefine Your Purpose and Develop an Audience ProfileGATHER INFORMATIONDetermine audience needs and obtain the informationnecessary to satisfy those needsSELECT THE RIGHT MEDIUMSelect the best medium for delivering your messageORGANIZE THE INFORMATIONDefine your main idea,limit your scope,select a direct oran indirect approach, and outline your content
WRITEADAPT TO YOUR AUDIENCEBe sensitive to audience needs with a “you” attitude,politeness,positive emphasis and bias –freelanguage.Build a strong relationship with youraudience by establishing your credibility and protectingyour company’s image.Control your style with aconversational tone,plain English and appropriatevoiceCOMPOSE THE MESSAGEChoose strong words that will help you create effectivesentences and coherent paragraphs
Formatting the ReportTitles, sections, paragraphs and numbering needed because:- It divides your work up into logical sections – makes it easier to follow A content page provides reference point, by headings for reader to find what he wants It is easy to cross reference by referring to paragraphs e.g. ‘further clarification is given on this point (paragraph 2.1)’
● Degree of Heading Numeral-Letter Combination: 1st I.Introduction 2d A. 2d B. 2d C. 1st II. 2d A.Text/ 3d 1.Discussion 3d 2. 2d B. 3d 1. 3d 2. 4th a. 4th b. 5th (1) 5th (2) 19
1st III. 2d A.Text/ 3d 1.Discussion 3d 2. 2d B. 3d 1. 3d 2. 1st IV. 2d A. 3dh 1. 3d 2. 2d B. 3d 1. 3d 2. 20Terminal 1st
Format Report A REPORT ON COMPUTER CRIME AND THE INTERNET TitleSECTION ONE - LEGAL ISSUES Section Heading1.1 Introduction …………………………….. Sub1.2 Data Protection Act Sections ……………………………..SECTION TWO - CREDIT CARD FRAUD Sub-paragraph Heading2.1 Introduction ……………………………..2.2 Security Issues 2.2.1 Network Security Protocols
Supplemental parts Appendices Put ‘extra’ material in here – longer explanations of topics discussed in the report – evidence of research used – source data etc. Referencing This where you refer the reader to other work within the report or its appendices Author Name (Year) Title, PP. (2-5). Glossary Used to explain any ‘jargon’ or difficult words that needed to be used in the main body of the report
How to Make References1. Author Name (Year) Title, PP. (2-5). 23
Checking Are there any spelling mistakes? Are there any proof errors? e.g. ‘there’ ‘their’ OR ‘would of’ ‘would have’ Does the writing reflect the heading? Have you used quotes and citations properly? Have you included all your sources in the bibliography Is the format used the correct one?
Editing Does it make sense? Has it got a beginning, middle, end Are you over the word count? Check sentences to remove wordiness Is there something that would be more Appropriately put in an appendix? Rearrange long sentences into 1 or 2 short ones Have you provided evidence for your statements
Evaluating Have you achieved the aims and objectives of the report? Is all your material relevant? Have you checked the marking criteria to see if you have met them? Have you obtained any feedback from a critical reader to see if they have understood the report and whether they have noticed any defects