During the rise andexpansion of the Islamic empire (seventh to twelfth centuries), It became theofficial administrative language of the empire as well as a leading language ofinternational scholarly and scientific communication.
Introduction to Arabic
It is today the nativelanguage of over 280 million people in twenty fivedifferent countries as well as theliturgical language for over a billion Muslims throughout the world.
The earliest stages of the Arabic language (Proto-Arabic or Old Arabic) are documented from about the seventh century BC until approximately the third century AD
The only written evidence is in the form of epigraphic material (brief rock inscriptions and graffiti) found in northwest and central Arabia.
The next period, the third through fifth centuries, is usually referred to as Early Arabic
There are again few literary artifacts from this age, but it is known that there was extensive commercial and cultural interaction with Christian and Jewish cultures during this time, an era of both Roman and Byzantine rule in the Levant and the Fertile Crescent.
THE HISTORY Classical Arabic
The start of the literary or Classical Arabic era is usually calculated from the sixth century, which saw a vigorous flourishing of the Arabic literary (or poetic) language, especially in public recitation
andoralcomposition of poetry, a refinedand highly developed formal oral art practiced by all Arab tribal groups and held in the highest esteem.
The great majority of the people of the Arabian Peninsula at that time were illetirate. Due to this, rather than in writing, they preserved the sources of their pride, historical events and stories encouraging good morality, by means of poetry and eloquence.
Due to the attraction of poetry and elouqence, meaningful sayings would remain in people`s memories and be passed down the generations.In consequence of this innate need, therefore, the goods most in demand in the immaterial market of that people were eloquence and fine speech.
A tribe`s poet or orator was like its greatest national hero. It was he who was their greatest source of pride. They attached such value to eloquence that two tribes would do battle at the word of a poet or orator, and they would make peace at his word.
They even wrote in gold on the walls of the Ka`ba the seven qasidas of seven poets called the al-Mu’allaqat al-Sab’a, and took great pride in them.
It was at such a time when eloquence was thus most sought after that the Qur’an was revealed. Just as the time of Moses (peace be upon him) it was magic that was most sought after and at the time of Jesus (peace be upon him), it was medicine.
The most important of their miracles were in those fields.
In the seventh century AD the Prophet Muhammad(peace be upon him) was gifted over a period of years (622-632 AD) with the revelation of verses which constituted a holy book,the Qur'an, in Arabic, which became the key text of the new monotheistic religion,Islam.
From that time on, Arabic was not only a languageof great poetic power and sophistication, but also permanently sacralized; as thechosen language for the Qur'an, it became the object of centuries of religiousstudy and exegesis, theological analysis, and grammatical analysis.
Throughout the European medieval period, from the seventh through the twelfthcenturies, the Arabic-speaking world and the Islamic empire expanded andflourished, centered first in Mecca and Medina, then Damascus, and then Baghdad.
Arabic became an international language of civilization, culture, scientificwriting and research, diplomacy, and administration. From the Iberianpeninsulain the West to Central and South Asia in the East stretched the world of Islam, andthe influence of Arabic.
The language era from the thirteenth century to the eighteenth is generallyknown as “Middle Arabic,” although there is some ambiguity to this term. Duringthis time, the Classical Arabic of early Islam remained the literary language, but thespoken Arabic of everyday life shifted into regional variations.
They continuedto evolve along their own lively and supple paths, calibrating to the changes of everydaylife over thecenturies, but never reaching the status of separate languages.
The Modern Period
The modern period of Arabic dates approximately from the end of the eighteenthcentury, with the spread of literacy, theconcept of universal education, the inceptionof journalism, and exposure to Western writing practices and styles such aseditorials, short stories, plays, and novels.
Many linguists make a distinctionbetween Classical Arabic (CA), the name of the literary language of the previouseras, and the modern form of literary Arabic, commonly known (in English)asModern Standard Arabic ( MSA).
Differences between CA and MSA are primarily instyle and vocabulary, since they represent the written traditions of verydifferenthistorical and cultural eras, from the early medieval period to the modern.
Interms of linguistic structure, CA and MSA are largely but not completely similar.
The high degree of similarity between CA and MSAgives strong continuity to the literary and Islamic liturgical tradition.
The Arab world today is characterized by a high degree of linguistic and culturalcontinuity. Arabic is the official language of all the members of the Arab League,from North Africa to the Arabian Gulf.
Although geography (including great distancesand land barriers such as deserts and mountains) accounts formuch of thediversity of regional vernaculars, a shared history, cultural background and religion act to unify Arab society and give it a profound sense ofcohesion and identity.
And finally, there is no distinction between uppercase andlowercase letters. These features can combine to make Arabicscript seem impenetrableto a foreigner at first.
However, there are also some features of Arabicscript that facilitate learning it.
First of all, it is reasonably phonetic; that is, thereis a good fit between the way words are spelled and the way they are pronounced.
And secondly, word structure and spelling are very systematic
There are twenty-eight Arabic consonant sounds, twenty-six of which are consistentlyconsonants, but two of which ( وand يaresemivowels that servetwo functions, sometimes asconsonants and other times as vowels, depending oncontext.
The Modern Standard Arabic sound system has six vowel phonemes: three “long”ones and three “short”: / ii/ and /i/, /uu/ and /u/, /aa/ and /a/.
Long vowels arerepresented in the Arabic alphabet by the letters ( alif (aa), waw (uu) and yaa ).They are written into words as part of the words’ spelling.
Short vowels, on theother hand, are not independent letters and are written only asdiacritical marksabove and below the body of the word. Inactual practice, short vowels are notindicated in written Arabictext; they are invisible.
The Alphabet أَلْأَقَارِبُ فِي أَلْمَانْيَا. The relatives (are) in Germany. أَلْقَلَمُ طَوِيلٌ. The pen (is) long. هُوَ مَشْغُولٌ. نَعَمْ Yes, he (is) busy.
The definite article in Arabic is spelled with alif-laam and is attached as a prefix.
The basic functions of the three noun cases are as follows:
The nominative case is used for the subject and predicate nounoradjective.
The accusative case is used for the direct object, predicativecomplement in verbal sentences, and for most adverbs.
The genitive case is used for expressing possession and after prepositions.
Definiteness and indefiniteness markers
The definite article ... أَلْ al... is used more frequently in Arabic than in English. One of the reasons for this is that nouns referring to abstract things, whole collectives and generic terms, generally take the definite article, e.g.
Sun and moon letters
The Arabic consonants are phonetically divided into two major classescalled:
The sun letters have received their name from the Arabicword for‘sun’, شَمْسٌ , whose first letter, ... ش//, belongs to the classof assimilating letters.There are fourteen sun letters. These letters are pronounced with thetongue touching the teeth or front part of the mouth:
When the definite article ... أَلْ /al.../ is attached to a wordwhich begins with a sun letter, the sound ... ل /l/ of the definite article isassimilated to the sound of the following sun letter. Owing to the assimilation, the first consonantof the word is doubled, which is indicated by a şaddah above it.
The other fourteen letters are called moon letters, because the first letter,ق, of the Arabic word for ‘moon’, قَمَرٌ, represents theclass of non-assimilating letters:
A nominal sentence does not contain a verb and consists of twocomponents: subject and predicate. The subject is usually a noun(phrase) or pronoun in the nominative case. The predicate may be anoun (phrase), pronoun, an indefinite adjective, or an adverb of place ortime.
Nominal and verbal sentences
A nominal sentence refers to the present tense and does not require the copula to be, e.g.
Nominal and verbal sentences
A verbal sentence contains a verb, and has the following basic wordorder:
The subject is normally in the nominative case. The direct object,whichmay occur only with transitive verbs, is in the accusative case
خَرَجَ طَالِبٌ A student went out. أَكَلَ كَلْبٌ خُبْزًا A dog ate bread.
NOUNS - Gender
There are two genders in Arabic. The term used for genderis أَلْجِنْسُ, which literally means ‘sex, race, kind’.
(a) Masculine nouns, أَلْمُذَكَّرُare without specialform.
(b) Feminine nouns, أَلْمُؤَنَّثُhave several forms
NOUNS - Gender
When the letter hâ هis written with two dots above ةit is pronounced as /t/, exactly like the letter ت.It is then called tâ
marbûtah and occurs only at the end of a word, mostly to indicate the feminine gender of nouns or adjectives. The most common way to derive feminine nouns and adjectives is by adding the ending .َ ةٌ to the masculine form, e.g.
There are two main tenses in the Arabic language. 1.Perfect Tense, 2.Imperfect Tense or the Present Tense. The action is completed in the perfect tense. Alternately, in the second tense, i.e., the imperfect, the action is still continuing.
To form future tense in Arabictheprefix (سـَـ) ”" is addedtothepresent tense verb, or (سوف) ”".
Numbers ٠0صفر ١1واحد ٢2إثنان ٣3ثلاثة ٤4أربعة ٥5خمسة ٦6ستة ٧7سبعة ٨8ثمانية ٩9تسعة ١٠10عشرة ١١11إحدى عشر ١٢12إثنا عشر ١٣13ثلاثة عشر ٢٠20عشرون ٣٠30ثلاثون ٤٠40أربعون ٥٠50خمسون ٦٠60ستون ٧٠70سبعون ٨٠80ثمانون ٩٠90تسعون ١٠٠100مائة ١٠٠٠1000ألف ١٠٠٠٠٠100000مائةألف ٢٠٠٠2000ألفين ١٠٠٠٠٠٠٠10000000 مليون
الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَبِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds, مَالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّينِالرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ TheBeneficent, theMerciful. Master of the Day of Judgment, إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ Thee (alone) we worship; Thee (alone) we ask for help.
اهْدِنَا الصِّرَاطَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ Show us the straight path, صِرَاطَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ The path of those whom Youhadfavoured غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا الضَّالِّينَ Not the (path) of those who earn Thine anger nor of those who go astray.
It consists of 25 countries and territories with a combined population of 358 million people.
The Arabic language forms the unifying feature of the Arab World. Though different areas use local varieties of Arabic, all share in the use of the standardized classical language, which was constructed from Classical Arabic
The majority of people in the Arab World adhere to Islam and the religion has official status in most countries.
There are sizeable numbers of Christians, living primarily in Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Jordan, Palestine and Sudan. Formerly, there were significant minorities of Arab Jews throughout the Arab World.