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Book Review

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Published in: Education, Health & Medicine
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  • 1. BOOK REVIEW: DEAF LEARNERS; DEVELOPMENTS IN CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION CHAPTER – OVERVIEW: CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION IN GENERAL EDUCATION AND IN EDUCATION OF DEAF LEARNERS By: Aena Munirah Abd. Rahim (P 51977) Perdagangan & Keusahawanan
  • 2. OVERVIEW: EDUCATION OF DEAF LEARNERS
    • 3 main questions have been asked and discussed:
    • 1) Place to learn
    • 2) Method to educate
    • 3) Cyllabus or subjects to be taught
    • These 3 issues relate with each other
    • There were major changes in these 3 issues and several implications from them
  • 3. PLACE TO LEARN
    • Trend in recent years – together with hearing children (school-under one roof)
    • Began after WW II – attended residential schools for the deaf or separate day schools for the deaf in large cities
    • Increase in the number of deaf children – state legislator reluctant to build separate facilities because that was thought to be temporary – establishment of separate classes within the public school
    • Public Law 94-142: the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (1975) – less deaf children enrolled to separate school for the deaf
    • The trend continues to this day
  • 4. METHOD TO EDUCATE
    • In essence, involves centuries-old-oral-manual “methods war”
    • American Sign Language (ASL)
    • English bilingual approach
    • 1 st half of 19 th century – residential school emphasized on vocational aspect for the deaf students plus only basic for English, Math & moral
    • 2 nd half of 19 th century – emphasized on vocal communication skills; less relied on signs – lessons in speech, speechreading and English structure (practice)
    SUBJECT TO BE TAUGHT
  • 5. CURRICULUM FOR DEAF LEARNERS
    • Many deaf children wanted to attend same school as hearing children – separate class or not
    • State & federal agencies provided access to general education curriculum for all including deaf children
    • Programs for deaf children have adopted and adapted regular curricular – curricular variation across and within states
    • Challenges – how to provide access to regular curriculum for deaf children and facilitate mastery of math, science, social studies literature (English & communication skills)
  • 6. cont.....
    • Limited success because existing curriculum was concerned more on language and communication skills than the academic subjects
    • Moores, Jatho & Creech (2001) – review on 130 peer-reviewed articles reflected the lack of emphasis on academic content – only 3 articles dealt with mathematics
    • Many teachers of deaf children lacked skill and training in subject that they teach
    • Teachers of deaf children are as capable as any other teachers and the deaf children are capable of meeting the standards required – purpose of this book
  • 7. OVERVIEW OF GENERAL EDUCATION
    • Early – general education not important because deaf education was thought to be apart from it
    • Today – general education becomes relevant because of the inclusion and raised expectation on the deaf learners
    • Foundations of the American school system (affect roots of deaf education) were based on several principles
    • Butts & Cremin (1953) – three-dimensional model; cohesive values, social characteristics, segmented pluralisms – used as a way of analyzing also what is at stake in deaf education
  • 8. cont......
    • Late 18 th century – different trends in American educational system
    • After World War I – need to consolidate and standardize the curriculum to deal with increasing school population
    • 1960s – federal government responded with the National Defense Education Act, which put federal funds into educational innovation; publication of The Process of Education (Bruner, 1960) which called for important curriculum reform and exciting curriculum projects in social studies, mathematics & science
    • 1970s – renewed focus on basic skills in mthematics and literacy that to some extend eclipsed many of the innovations of the 1960s
  • 9. cont......
    • 1980s – renewal of some educational experimentation; increase in criticism and condemnation on the system
    • However, the nation survived and even prosper
    • 1983 – Gardner's Frames of Mind was published – there are multiple intelligences that could and should be fostered
    • 1990s – continued receive criticsms about the system
    • Schools were increasely required to adhere to national curriculum standards
    • Early 21 st century – No Child Left Behind (massive federal law – required comparative public ranking of school successes
  • 10. QUESTIONS:
    • What are the three important issues that been discussed among the educators of deaf students?
    • (Apakah 3 isu atau persoalan yang dibincangkan oleh kebanyakkan pendidik pelajar bermasalah pendengaran?)
    • What are the terms that been used by the authors in referring the normal or typical student?
    • (Apakah istilah yang digunakan oleh penulis untuk merujuk kepada pelajar normal atau biasa?)
    • What was the implication to the deaf children after the Public Law 94-142: the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (1975) was enacted?
    • (Apakah implikasi kepada pelajar pekak selepas Public Law 94-142: the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (1975) digubal?)
  • 11. THANK YOU.....

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