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BOOK REVIEW: DEAF LEARNERS; DEVELOPMENTS IN CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION   CHAPTER – OVERVIEW: CURRICULUM     AND INSTRUCTIO...
OVERVIEW: EDUCATION OF DEAF    LEARNERS  <ul><li>3 main questions have been asked and discussed: </li></ul><ul><li>1) Plac...
PLACE TO LEARN <ul><li>Trend in recent years – together with hearing children (school-under one roof) </li></ul><ul><li>Be...
METHOD TO EDUCATE <ul><li>In essence, involves centuries-old-oral-manual “methods war” </li></ul><ul><li>American Sign Lan...
CURRICULUM FOR DEAF LEARNERS <ul><li>Many deaf children wanted to attend same school as hearing children – separate class ...
cont..... <ul><li>Limited success because existing curriculum was concerned more on language and communication skills than...
OVERVIEW OF GENERAL EDUCATION <ul><li>Early – general education not important because deaf education was thought to be apa...
cont...... <ul><li>Late 18 th  century – different trends in American educational system </li></ul><ul><li>After World War...
cont...... <ul><li>1980s – renewal of some educational experimentation; increase in criticism and condemnation on the syst...
QUESTIONS: <ul><li>What are the three important issues that been discussed among the educators of deaf students? </li></ul...
THANK YOU.....
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Book Review

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  1. 1. BOOK REVIEW: DEAF LEARNERS; DEVELOPMENTS IN CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION CHAPTER – OVERVIEW: CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION IN GENERAL EDUCATION AND IN EDUCATION OF DEAF LEARNERS By: Aena Munirah Abd. Rahim (P 51977) Perdagangan & Keusahawanan
  2. 2. OVERVIEW: EDUCATION OF DEAF LEARNERS <ul><li>3 main questions have been asked and discussed: </li></ul><ul><li>1) Place to learn </li></ul><ul><li>2) Method to educate </li></ul><ul><li>3) Cyllabus or subjects to be taught </li></ul><ul><li>These 3 issues relate with each other </li></ul><ul><li>There were major changes in these 3 issues and several implications from them </li></ul>
  3. 3. PLACE TO LEARN <ul><li>Trend in recent years – together with hearing children (school-under one roof) </li></ul><ul><li>Began after WW II – attended residential schools for the deaf or separate day schools for the deaf in large cities </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in the number of deaf children – state legislator reluctant to build separate facilities because that was thought to be temporary – establishment of separate classes within the public school </li></ul><ul><li>Public Law 94-142: the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (1975) – less deaf children enrolled to separate school for the deaf </li></ul><ul><li>The trend continues to this day </li></ul>
  4. 4. METHOD TO EDUCATE <ul><li>In essence, involves centuries-old-oral-manual “methods war” </li></ul><ul><li>American Sign Language (ASL) </li></ul><ul><li>English bilingual approach </li></ul><ul><li>1 st half of 19 th century – residential school emphasized on vocational aspect for the deaf students plus only basic for English, Math & moral </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd half of 19 th century – emphasized on vocal communication skills; less relied on signs – lessons in speech, speechreading and English structure (practice) </li></ul>SUBJECT TO BE TAUGHT
  5. 5. CURRICULUM FOR DEAF LEARNERS <ul><li>Many deaf children wanted to attend same school as hearing children – separate class or not </li></ul><ul><li>State & federal agencies provided access to general education curriculum for all including deaf children </li></ul><ul><li>Programs for deaf children have adopted and adapted regular curricular – curricular variation across and within states </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges – how to provide access to regular curriculum for deaf children and facilitate mastery of math, science, social studies literature (English & communication skills) </li></ul>
  6. 6. cont..... <ul><li>Limited success because existing curriculum was concerned more on language and communication skills than the academic subjects </li></ul><ul><li>Moores, Jatho & Creech (2001) – review on 130 peer-reviewed articles reflected the lack of emphasis on academic content – only 3 articles dealt with mathematics </li></ul><ul><li>Many teachers of deaf children lacked skill and training in subject that they teach </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers of deaf children are as capable as any other teachers and the deaf children are capable of meeting the standards required – purpose of this book </li></ul>
  7. 7. OVERVIEW OF GENERAL EDUCATION <ul><li>Early – general education not important because deaf education was thought to be apart from it </li></ul><ul><li>Today – general education becomes relevant because of the inclusion and raised expectation on the deaf learners </li></ul><ul><li>Foundations of the American school system (affect roots of deaf education) were based on several principles </li></ul><ul><li>Butts & Cremin (1953) – three-dimensional model; cohesive values, social characteristics, segmented pluralisms – used as a way of analyzing also what is at stake in deaf education </li></ul>
  8. 8. cont...... <ul><li>Late 18 th century – different trends in American educational system </li></ul><ul><li>After World War I – need to consolidate and standardize the curriculum to deal with increasing school population </li></ul><ul><li>1960s – federal government responded with the National Defense Education Act, which put federal funds into educational innovation; publication of The Process of Education (Bruner, 1960) which called for important curriculum reform and exciting curriculum projects in social studies, mathematics & science </li></ul><ul><li>1970s – renewed focus on basic skills in mthematics and literacy that to some extend eclipsed many of the innovations of the 1960s </li></ul>
  9. 9. cont...... <ul><li>1980s – renewal of some educational experimentation; increase in criticism and condemnation on the system </li></ul><ul><li>However, the nation survived and even prosper </li></ul><ul><li>1983 – Gardner's Frames of Mind was published – there are multiple intelligences that could and should be fostered </li></ul><ul><li>1990s – continued receive criticsms about the system </li></ul><ul><li>Schools were increasely required to adhere to national curriculum standards </li></ul><ul><li>Early 21 st century – No Child Left Behind (massive federal law – required comparative public ranking of school successes </li></ul>
  10. 10. QUESTIONS: <ul><li>What are the three important issues that been discussed among the educators of deaf students? </li></ul><ul><li>(Apakah 3 isu atau persoalan yang dibincangkan oleh kebanyakkan pendidik pelajar bermasalah pendengaran?) </li></ul><ul><li>What are the terms that been used by the authors in referring the normal or typical student? </li></ul><ul><li>(Apakah istilah yang digunakan oleh penulis untuk merujuk kepada pelajar normal atau biasa?) </li></ul><ul><li>What was the implication to the deaf children after the Public Law 94-142: the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (1975) was enacted? </li></ul><ul><li>(Apakah implikasi kepada pelajar pekak selepas Public Law 94-142: the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (1975) digubal?) </li></ul>
  11. 11. THANK YOU.....
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