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Designing for people, effective innovation and sustainability: Introducing experiential factors in an observational framework to evaluate technology assisted systems.

Designing for people, effective innovation and sustainability: Introducing experiential factors in an observational framework to evaluate technology assisted systems.

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    Designing for people, effective innovation and sustainability Designing for people, effective innovation and sustainability Document Transcript

    • DESIGNING FOR PEOPLE, EFFECTIVE INNOVATION AND SUSTAINABILITY: Introducing experiential factors in an observational framework to evaluate technology-assisted systems. Supervisor: Prof. Margherita Pillan Controrelatore: Prof. Marco Maiocchi Author: Musstanser Tinauli PhD candidate, INDACO. Version: 6.5
    • ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The author would like to acknowledge Professor Margherita Pillan, Professor Carlo Ratti, Professor Alberto Colorni and Professor Marco Maiocchi for their invaluable advises and constant support throughout the duration of this research. The author also acknowledges and appreciates the support of Professor Enrico Zio throughout the duration of this doctorate. The author would also like to express his gratitude to the following (in alphabetical order): - Centro METID (Metodi E Tecnologie Innovative per la Didattica): for providing a good platform and the basis of the research. Every one at Centro METID including Professor Alberto Colorni, Dottoressa Susanna Sancassani and all the colleagues were extremely encouraging and helpful. - DCOM (Design and Communication): for having the author as a researcher in the research unit of DCOM in Politecnico di Milano, Italy. - IBM (International Business Machine): for awarding the IBM PhD fellowship as recognition of the author’s research efforts. - Progetto Rocca Fellowship: for providing a fellowship for authors stay at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, USA. - SENSEable City Laboratory: for providing the opportunity to continue author’s research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, USA. - Trash Track Team: for the great teamwork and their support as the project leader. The author also wishes to express his appreciation to everyone including his family, friends, colleagues and everyone directly/indirectly involved for the faith in his ability and for standing by him in difficult emotional times… Thank you God. Thank you all. 
 ii

    • DEDICATION The author dedicates this work to his beloved mother Mrs. Saeeda Kaneez Fatima (late) whom he lost during the tenure of this doctorate, his father Mr. Muhammad Sharif Tinauli and his siblings. The truth of it is, the first rudiments of education are given very indiscreetly by most parents." Richard Steele Sr. quotes “One father is more than a hundred Schoolmasters.” George Herbert Outlandish Proverbs, 1640 
 iii

    • ABSTRACT 
 The world at large today is equipped with technology, sensors, scanners and instruments. These modern technologies are capable of interacting and communicating with one another. It is probably not wrong to say that this is the era of pervasive computing, a time when the concept of having a personal computer at home is some what becoming obsolete. The introduction of this pervasiveness of technology and communication has brought about a need to understand and control the evolvement of interaction and communication models and even more importantly the requirement to evaluate the evolving interaction models and interactions in technology assisted systems. The core focus of the thesis is on the development of a process that could facilitate the evaluation of technology-assisted systems from a true users (end-user) perspective. This is achieved by presentation of a framework that sets the path for the evaluation of technology- assisted systems and in doing so enables the designing of effective and innovative systems. The presented framework consists of an observational strategy and enlists a set of procedures and processes for designing effective systems from a user’s point of view. The observational strategy is based on evaluation of the system from various perspectives that are termed as experiential factors. The framework also facilitates in understanding the richness of the experiential suitability; identification of strengths and weaknesses of the systems and eventually points out the areas that require improvement. The thesis presents the complete application of the introduced framework on a project titled, “use of digital pen and paper in a classroom scenario”. This project is regarding a digital device that has not made an impact in the market for over ten years. The study here focuses on understandings why the product has not bloomed, highlights its inefficiencies and suggests possible scenarios for the possible usage of the digital pen and paper. The creation of another ongoing project titled “Trash Track is also presented. The project as it happens is available at http://senseable.mit.edu/trashtrack. Trash Track is about creation of a smart tracker that enables the tracking of trash. The purpose of the project is to understand how waste actually traverses in a cities sanitation system. The idea here was to provide a platform that would allow ample data gathering regarding the movement of trash from the perspective of trash itself. This would enable many scenarios such as ‘zero waste’, ‘100 percent recycling’, ‘re-modeling of trash collection’ and ‘a strong behavioral change in people’. The project also initiated a new research area, i.e. the removal chain in contrast to the production chain. The trash track project enables different actors (waster management companies, recyclers, producers and users) to learn about the actual movement and whereabouts of trash that would allow them to collect, recycle, reuse and better manage the trash. The set of evaluation surveys and questionnaires for ‘trash track’ based on the suggested framework are also listed in the thesis. 
 
 iv

    • TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT .......................................................................................................................... IV TABLE OF CONTENTS ....................................................................................................... V TABLE OF FIGURES ...................................................................................................... VIII LIST OF TABLES.................................................................................................................. X CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................... 2 1.1 INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................. 2 1.2 INTERACTION DESIGN .................................................................................................... 3 1.3 EVALUATION OF INTERACTION DESIGN AND INTERACTIVE SYSTEMS ............................ 3 1.4 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES ................................................................................................. 4 1.5 SCOPE OF RESEARCH ..................................................................................................... 4 1.6 ORGANIZATION ............................................................................................................. 4 CHAPTER 2: INTRODUCTION TO INTERACTION DESIGN AND EVALUATION STRATEGIES.......................................................................................................................... 7 2.1 INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................. 7 2.2 INTERACTION DESIGN .................................................................................................... 7 2.3 NATURAL INTERACTIONS ............................................................................................ 10 2.4 COLLECTION OF DAILY LIFE CASES ............................................................................. 11 2.4.1 COLLECTION OF DAILY LIFE CASES .......................................................................... 11 2.4.2 COLLECTION OF EVERYDAY OBJECTS ....................................................................... 12 2.5 THE CONNECTIVITY OF THINGS ................................................................................... 14 2.5.1 PERVASIVE COMPUTING ........................................................................................... 14 2.6 IMPORTANCE OF EVALUATION FROM A TRUE USERS PERSPECTIVE .............................. 15 2.7 METHODOLOGIES AND PROCESSES RELEVANT TO EVALUATION OF INTERACTION DESIGN AND INTERACTIVE SYSTEMS .................................................................................... 15 2.7.1 REQUIREMENT GATHERING AND ENGINEERING ........................................................ 15 2.7.2 CONSTRUCTIVE BRAINSTORM ................................................................................... 16 2.7.3 INTERVIEWS ............................................................................................................. 17 2.7.4 USABILITY ENGINEERING MODEL............................................................................. 18 2.7.5 USABILITY METRICS ................................................................................................. 18 2.7.6 USABILITY FACTORS ................................................................................................ 19 2.8 CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................... 19 CHAPTER 3: EVALUATION OF INTERACTION DESIGN AND EXPERIENTIAL FACTORS .............................................................................................................................. 21 3.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................ 21 3.2 CONCEPT AND IDEA ..................................................................................................... 21 3.3 THE INTERACTION DESIGN OBSERVATION MODEL AND THE EXPERIENTIAL FACTORS . 21 3.4 THE METHOD .............................................................................................................. 22 3.4.1 UNDERSTAND ........................................................................................................... 22 3.4.2 OBSERVE .................................................................................................................. 22 3.4.3 CREATE .................................................................................................................... 23 3.4.4 EXPERIMENT............................................................................................................. 23 3.4.4.1 OBSERVATION CYCLES .......................................................................................... 23 3.4.5 EVOLVE .................................................................................................................... 24 
 v

    • 3.4.6 IMPROVE................................................................................................................... 24 3.4.7 ANALYZE.................................................................................................................. 24 3.5 EXPERIENTIAL FACTORS .............................................................................................. 24 3.5.1 LEARNABILITY ......................................................................................................... 24 3.5.2 USAGE ...................................................................................................................... 25 3.5.3 ERROR AND FEEDBACK ............................................................................................. 25 3.5.4 COMFORT ................................................................................................................. 25 3.5.5 COLLABORATION ...................................................................................................... 25 3.5.5.1 CONSTRUCTIVE INTERACTION ............................................................................... 25 3.5.5.2 PARTICIPATORY DESIGN ........................................................................................ 25 3.5.6 AFFECT (MOTIVATION TO LEARN) ............................................................................. 25 3.5.7 GUIDANCE AND SUPPORT ......................................................................................... 25 3.5.8 ACCESSIBILITY ......................................................................................................... 25 3.5.9 SUSTAINABILITY ....................................................................................................... 25 3.6 APPLICATION OF INTERACTION DESIGN OBSERVATION MODEL AND THE EXPERIENTIAL FACTORS ............................................................................................................................... 25 3.6.1 APPLICATION ON EXISTING INTERACTIVE SYSTEMS ................................................... 26 3.6.2 CREATION OF A NEW SYSTEM .................................................................................... 26 3.7 EXPERIENTIAL FACTORS APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS .......................................... 26 3.8 SAMPLE QUESTIONNAIRE FOR CONDUCTION OF SURVEYS ........................................... 27 3.9 CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................... 28 CHAPTER 4: DESIGNING A SCENARIO FOR THE USAGE AND EVALUATION OF DIGITAL PEN AND PAPER IN A CLASSROOM .................................................... 30 4.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................ 30 4.2 CONCEPT AND IDEA ..................................................................................................... 30 4.3 GOALS ......................................................................................................................... 30 4.4 DESIGN CHALLENGES .................................................................................................. 30 4.5 PROJECT DESCRIPTION ................................................................................................ 31 4.6 THE DIGITAL PEN ........................................................................................................ 32 4.7 THE ESPECIAL PAPER .................................................................................................. 32 4.8 THE DIGITAL PEN AND PAPER SYSTEM (DPPS)........................................................... 32 4.9 THE CONTEXT OF THE USE OF DPP............................................................................... 33 4.10 THE SOFTWARE / ONLINE SYSTEM AND ASSOCIATED ACCESS RIGHTS ...................... 34 4.10.1 ACCESS RIGHTS ...................................................................................................... 34 4.10.2 BLOCK NOTES WEBSITE .......................................................................................... 34 4.10.3 THE GROUPS ........................................................................................................... 34 Group 0............................................................................................................................ 35 Group 1............................................................................................................................ 35 4.11 THE EMERGED SCENARIOS FOR THE USAGE OF DPPS ............................................... 35 4.12 THE APPLICATION OF THE PROPOSED STRATEGY ON THE USAGE OF DIGITAL PEN AND PAPER 37 4.12.1 MEETINGS AND BRAINSTORMS WITH STAKEHOLDERS (UNDERSTAND) .................... 37 4.12.2 INTRODUCTION (UNDERSTAND).............................................................................. 38 4.12.3 THE SURVEYS (OBSERVE)....................................................................................... 38 4.12.4 TESTI USER INTEGRAIONE – TUI (OBSERVE AND EXPERIMENT)............................. 38 4.12.5 PEN KIT DISTRIBUTION (EXPERIMENT) .................................................................... 39 4.12.6 USAGE SURVEY ...................................................................................................... 39 4.12.7 PROJECT COMPLETION SURVEY .............................................................................. 40 
 vi

    • 4.12.8 KNOW HOW SURVEY .............................................................................................. 41 4.12.9 SCENARIOS FOR THE USE OF DIGITAL PEN AND PAPER (EVOLVE AND IMPROVE) ....... 41 4.13 THE ANALYSIS PHASE ............................................................................................... 43 4.13.1 THE USAGE SURVEY............................................................................................... 43 4.13.2 PROJECT COMPLETION SURVEY .............................................................................. 43 4.14 CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................. 44 CHAPTER 5: CREATING TRASH TRACK..................................................................... 46 5.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................ 46 5.2 CONCEPT AND IDEA ..................................................................................................... 46 5.3 GOALS ......................................................................................................................... 48 5.4 DESIGN CHALLENGES .................................................................................................. 48 5.5 TRASH MOVEMENT SCENARIO .................................................................................... 49 5.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF TRASH TRACKING ............................................................................ 49 5.7 PROJECT DESCRIPTION ................................................................................................ 50 5.8 VISUALIZATIONS ......................................................................................................... 52 5.9 TRASH TAGGING SCENARIOS ....................................................................................... 54 5.9.1 TRASH ORIENTED SCENARIO .................................................................................... 54 5.9.2 PEOPLE ORIENTED SCENARIO ................................................................................... 55 5.9.3 TRASH TRACK DEPLOYMENT SCENARIO ................................................................... 56 5.10 TECHNOLOGICAL AND PACKAGING CHALLENGES...................................................... 58 5.11 TRASH TAG ............................................................................................................... 58 5.12 THE TRASH TRACK SYSTEM ...................................................................................... 59 5.13 PACKAGING ............................................................................................................... 59 5.14 EXHIBITIONS ............................................................................................................. 61 5.15 PROJECT DYNAMICS .................................................................................................. 61 5.15.1 TEAM DYNAMICS ................................................................................................... 61 5.15.2 PROJECT PARTNERS ................................................................................................ 62 5.16 CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................. 63 CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORKS.................................................. 66 6.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................ 66 6.2 A DISCUSSION ON PRESENTED EVALUATION STRATEGY ............................................. 66 6.2.2 CRITIQUE .................................................................................................................. 66 6.3 CRITIQUE ON TRASH TRACK ........................................................................................ 66 6.4 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORKS ............................................................................. 67 REFERENCES ...................................................................................................................... 69 APPENDIX A: MMM QUESTIONNAIRE ........................................................................ 73 APPENDIX B: UNIVERSITY EXPLORER QUESTIONNAIRE ................................... 78 APPENDIX C: FIRST USE SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE ............................................. 81 QUESTIONARIO INIZIALE [5 MINUTI] ...................................................................................... 81 APPENDIX D: TRASH TRACK QUESTIONNAIRE ...................................................... 83 APPENDIX E: WISHLIST OF OBJECTS TO BE TRACKED....................................... 86 
 vii

    • TABLE OF FIGURES FIGURE 1.1, A TWO YEAR KID INTERACTING WITH IPOD............................................................ 3 FIGURE 2.1, THE DISCIPLINE OF INTERACTION DESIGN ................................................................ 7 FIGURE 2.2, THE 2009 FAMILY OF IPODS [SOURCE: ST HTTP://APCMAG.COM/IMAGES/09IPOD_FAM.JPG, ACCESSED ON: 21 NOVEMBER 2009] ..... 8 FIGURE 2.3, CAVE MEN (ON THE LEFT) AND CAIRNS (ON THE RIGHT) [SOURCE: HTTP://WWW.USATT.ORG/MAGAZINE/IMAGES/CARTOON_CAVEMEN.JPG AND UNKNOW ST SOURCE, ACCESSED ON: 21 NOVEMBER 2009] .................................................................. 9 FIGURE 2.4, USABILITY (THE INNER CIRCLE) AND EXPERIENCE GOALS (THE EXTERNAL CIRCLE) [SOURCE: ROGERS, ET. AL.,2007)....................................................................................... 9 FIGURE 2.5, ADAPTED FROM NORMAN (1988, P16): THE PROBLEM OF ENSURING THAT USERS MENTAL MODEL CORRESPONDS TO THE DESIGNERS [SOURCE: HTTP://WWW.INTERACTIONDESIGN.ORG/IMAGES/FIGURES/MENTAL_MODELS.GIF] ............ 10 FIGURE 2.6, SELECTION GROUP 1 OF EVERYDAY INTERACTIONS ................................................ 11 FIGURE 2.7, SELECTION GROUP 1 OF EVERYDAY OBJECTS ......................................................... 12 FIGURE 2.8, SEGWAY ................................................................................................................ 12 FIGURE 2.9, TWO SELLERS SHOWING CREATIVITY IN INTERACTING WITH VARIOUS ITEMS SIMULTANEOUSLY ............................................................................................................ 12 FIGURE 2.10, FUEL STATION WITH UNREADABLE DISPLAYS (TAKE IN ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN) . 13 FIGURE 2.11, TYPICAL ROADSIDE PUNCTURE SHOP IN PAKISTAN (NO BILLBOARDS NEEDED)..... 13 FIGURE 2.12 INTERACTIVE DISPLAYS AND SURFACES ............................................................... 13 FIGURE 2.13 MESMERIZING REALITY WHILE ENABLING UNIQUE OBSERVATION REALITY, AN EXPERIMENT CONDUCTED ON METID DAY....................................................................... 14 FIGURE 2.14, REQUIREMENT ENGINEERING PROCESS [SOURCE: SWEBOK, 2001] ................... 15 FIGURE 2.15, TYPICAL PROCESSES FOR SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS [SOURCE: RD HTTP://WWW.FAQS.ORG/DOCS/LDEV/0130091154_26.HTM ACCESSED ON 23 NOVEMBER 09].................................................................................................................................... 16 FIGURE 2.16, BRAINSTORM [SOURCE: HTTP://UPLOAD.WIKIMEDIA.ORG/WIKIPEDIA/COMMONS/E/E7/ACTIVITY_PREPERATION.SVG, ACCESSED ON 01 NOVEMBER 2009).................................................................................. 17 FIGURE 2.17, ELEMENTS OF THE USABILITY-ENGINEERING MODEL [SOURCE: AN ADAPTATION OF IMAGE PRESENTED BY NIELSEN, 1992] ............................................................................. 18 FIGURE 3.1, THE INTERACTION DESIGN OBSERVATION MODEL AND THE EXPERIENTIAL FACTORS ......................................................................................................................................... 22 FIGURE 3.2, THE PLOT OF EXPERIENTIAL FACTORS ANALYSIS .................................................... 28 FIGURE 4.1, THE EXPERIMENTAL SCENARIO FOR THE USAGE OF DPPS. ..................................... 32 FIGURE 4.2, DIGITAL PEN AND PAPER ....................................................................................... 32 FIGURE 4.3, DIGITAL PEN AND PAPER SYSTEM (DPPS) ............................................................ 33 FIGURE 4.4, SNAPSHOTS OF TUI EXPERIMENTAL PHASE ............................................................ 34 FIGURE 4.5, PROJECT MEMO ..................................................................................................... 36 FIGURE 4.6, PROJECT DISEGNO ................................................................................................. 36 FIGURE 4.7, PROJECT ESCURSIONISMO CONCEPT 1.................................................................... 37 FIGURE 4.8, PROJECT ESCURSIONISMO CONCEPT 2.................................................................... 37 FIGURE 4.9, DIGITAL PEN AND PAPER EXPERIMENT AND THE SUGGESTED METHOD OF EVALUATION .................................................................................................................... 39 FIGURE 4.10, GRAPH OF THE IMPACT FACTORS OF THE USAGE SURVEY (US)............................ 43 FIGURE 4.11, GRAPH OF THE IMPACT FACTORS OF THE PROJECT COMPLETION SURVEY (PCS) . 44 
 viii

    • FIGURE 5.1, A CONCEPTUAL SCREEN SHOT OF MOVEMENT OF TRASH (CREDITS: E ROON KANG, SENSEABLE CITY LAB) ................................................................................................... 46 FIGURE 5.2, SERVICE DIAGRAM OF TRASH TRACK .................................................................... 47 FIGURE 5.3, CONCEPTUAL SCREEN SHOT OF TRASH ON THE MOVE ............................................. 49 FIGURE 5.4, CONCEPTUAL SCREEN SHOT OF TRASH ON THE MOVE ............................................. 50 FIGURE 5.5, TRASH TAG PROTOTYPE 1, FEBRUARY 2009 ......................................................... 51 FIGURE 5.6, VISUALIZATION SKETCH OF STARBUCK'S COFFEE CUP IN SEATTLE, WA, USA..... 52 FIGURE 5.7, VISUALIZATION SKETCH OF STARBUCK'S COFFEE CUP IN SEATTLE, WA, USA..... 52 FIGURE 5.8, DATASET OF THE TAG TESTING IN CAMBRIDGE, MA, USA .................................... 53 FIGURE 5.9, SAMPLE STREET VIEW OF THE MOVEMENT OF TRASH, COURTESY, E ROON KANG, MIT.................................................................................................................................. 53 FIGURE 5.10, SAMPLE VISUALIZATION FROM BOSTON DEPLOYMENT (COURTESY, E ROON KANG, MIT) ................................................................................................................................ 54 FIGURE 5.11, TRASH ORIENTED SCENARIO, IMAGE COURTESY GIOVANNI DE NIEDERHAUSERN . 54 FIGURE 5.12, PEOPLE ORIENTED SCENARIO, IMAGE COURTESY SAMANTHA EARL, MIT............. 55 FIGURE 5.13, TRASH TRACK SCENARIO ..................................................................................... 56 FIGURE 5.14, AN ALTERNATE VIEW TO TRASH TRACK SCENARIO, IMAGE COURTESY E ROON KANG. .............................................................................................................................. 57 FIGURE 5.15. TRASH TAG PROTOTYPE 1, FEBRUARY 2009 ....................................................... 58 FIGURE 5.16, HOW THE SYSTEM WORKS .................................................................................... 59 FIGURE 5.17, PACKAGING POSTER ............................................................................................ 60 FIGURE 5.18, TRASH TRACK EXHIBITION SPOTS AT SEATTLE PUBLIC LIBRARY,........................ 62 FIGURE 5.17, INITIAL STUDY OF CITY OF SEATTLE .................................................................... 64 
 ix

    • LIST OF TABLES TABLE 3.1, THE METHOD ......................................................................................................... 23 TABLE 3.2, SITUATED DEFINITIONS OF EXPERIENTIAL FACTORS FOR DPPS ............................... 26 TABLE 3.3, SAMPLE QUESTIONNAIRE, ASSOCIATED OBSERVATION CYCLED AND FOCAL GROUPS. ......................................................................................................................................... 27 TABLE 3.4, SAMPLE QUESTIONNAIRE, AND ASSOCIATED EXPERIENTIAL FACTORS..................... 28 TABLE 4.1, THE GROUPS AND ASSOCIATED RIGHTS .................................................................... 35 TABLE 4.2, TASKS OF TESTI USER INTEGRAZIONE (TUI) .......................................................... 40 TABLE 4.3, USAGE SURVEY ...................................................................................................... 41 TABLE 4.4, PROJECT COMPLETION SURVEY (PCS) ................................................................... 42 TABLE 4.5, THE CALCULATED IMPACT FACTORS OF THE USAGE SURVEY (US) ......................... 43 TABLE 4.6, THE CALCULATED IMPACT FACTORS OF THE PROJECT COMPLETION SURVEY (PCS)44 TABLE 5.1, PACKAGING MATERIALS ......................................................................................... 61 
 x

    • CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
    • CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction The world at large today is equipped with technology, sensors, scanners and instruments. These modern technologies are capable of interacting and communicating with one another. It is probably not wrong to say this is the era of pervasive computing, a time when the concept of having a personal computer at home is some what becoming obsolete. The introduction of this pervasiveness of technology and communication has brought about a need to control the evolvement of interaction and communication models and even more importantly the need to evaluate the evolving interaction models and interactions in technology assisted systems. There is also a growing trend of introduction of innovative, creative, natural and sometimes fancy interactions. These include human-human, man-machine, machine-machine interactions. The interactions could be among all sorts of digital/semi-digital artifacts. The interaction patterns are sometimes so good that even children could learn to communicate with the artifacts without prior training unlike the days when users were given detailed instructional workshops. This again emphasized the need to be able to evaluate the interaction design in a more systematic way. This thesis presents a framework that sets the path for designing effective and innovative systems. The core focus of the thesis is on defining of a process that facilitates in the evaluation of technology-assisted systems from the point of view of the end-user. The framework consists of an observational strategy and enlists a set of procedures and processes for designing effective systems from a user’s point of view. The observational strategy is based on evaluation of the system from various perspectives that are termed as experiential factors. The framework also facilitates in understanding the richness of the experiential suitability; identification of strengths and weaknesses of the systems and eventually points out the areas which can be improved. The presented framework is thoroughly applied on a project titled, “use of digital pen and paper in a classroom scenario” and the essence of the suggested framework are kept in mind while the creation of another project, titled, “trash track”. The earlier project is regarding a digital device that has not made an impact in the market for over ten years. The study here focuses on understandings why the product has not bloomed, highlights the inefficiencies and suggests possible scenarios for the possible usage of the digital pen and paper. The later project is about creation of a smart tracker that enables the tracking of trash. The focus of the project is to understand how waste actually traverses in the City; presents a scenario where 100 percent recycling could be a possibility and promotes behavioral change in people’s attitude towards a more sustainably behavior. The trash track project also enables different actors (waster management companies, recyclers, producers and users) to learn about the actual movement and whereabouts of trash that would allow them to collect, recycle, reuse and better manage the trash. The project would also introduce an unsaid accountability on people. 
 2

    • 1.2 Interaction Design Design is often taken as the base of all disciplines, it’s a process that is present in the thoughts, process, in problem solving, defining of goals and perhaps in some ways in every facet of life. A designer has the capacity to look back in a moving train and predict what’s coming when every one else is eager to look forward. Interaction design (ID) is about behavior of things, how things work. The disciple too can be associated with numerous other disciplines, which involve definition of behaviors. ID adds a new dynamic and more defined perspective to generic design and is classed as one of the sub- disciplines of design. The discipline has understandably gained lot of attention during the last two decades. The detailed description of interaction design is presented in the earlier sections of Chapter 2. The importance of interaction has often been explained by the success of products such as an ipod and iphone. The gained attention can be explained very well with the success as this has introduced a new level of communication between the users and the interactive devices. Users of all ages have now been enabled to interact with these devices. The Figure 1.1 shows a kid, aged 2 years interacting with an IPOD in an unsupervised session. Figure
1.1,

A
two
year
kid
interacting
with
IPOD 1.3 Evaluation of Interaction Design and Interactive Systems The evaluation of any task, activity and process is critical for improvements and better understanding of the task at hand. Technology more than often has strong influences on people, particularly on how they behave, how they react and how they perform in a given situation. The way a user interacts with a given artifact also tends to have a strong effect on the perception of the user. Even though the discipline of interaction design has grown exponentially, somehow the other the evaluation of such presented systems had not been equally focused. Recently however the importance and need of such evaluations has been emphasized. As lord Kelvin puts it, “When you can measure what you are speaking about and express it in numbers, you know something about it, but when you can not measure, when you can not express in numbers, your knowledge is a meager and unsatisfactory kind”. Chapter two highlights the importance of such evaluations and a strategy for the evaluation is produced in chapter 3. 
 3

    • 1.4 Research Objectives The core focus of the research is on defining of a process that facilitates the evaluation of technology-assisted systems from the point of view of the end. The conducted research has the following objectives and goals: - To understand how an end-user actually feels about technology-assisted systems and pervasive use of technology. - To understand and highlight the key usability like factors that determine and facilitate the evaluation of technology assisted systems from a true end-users perspective. - To understand the experiential suitability of the system under observation. - To propose a framework that facilitates the evaluation of technology-assisted systems. The framework would focus on the following: o The definition of an observational model that facilitates in the evaluation of existing systems or created systems. o Setting-up of processes and tasks in the pre-design phase - Creation of new systems that are interactive, innovative and enable scenarios that did no existed prior to the suggested system. 1.5 Scope of Research The scope of research includes the development of a strategy that sets the evaluation procedure for interactive and technology assisted systems. It also includes simple guidelines for evaluation in the pre-design phase. The scope in this thesis is limited to the following: - Creation of an evaluation strategy for evaluating technology-assisted / interactive systems from a true user (end-user) perspective. This evaluation strategy is folded into a framework that facilitates the design process while creating new interactive systems and ensuring they are effective. - Application of the suggested framework on the use of digital pen and paper in a classroom scenario. - Suggestion of new scenarios for the use of digital pen and paper. - Creation of trash track project that would make trash tracking a possibility that includes the following: o Designing a trash tracker. o Real-time flow of trash in a Cities sanitation system. o Initiating data gathering towards removal change on the contrary to production chain. o Introduce a new and dynamic connection between people and their trash to have a behavioral change to achieve sustainability. 1.6 Organization The following chapter briefly reviews the existing literature on interaction design and on different evaluation strategies that could be applied on the discipline. Chapter three presents a new strategy based on usability engineering to evaluate interaction design and interactive systems. This strategy attempts to presents the key guidelines for evaluation of technology-assisted systems. 
 4

    • In chapter four a case study of the use of digital pen and paper is created which is followed by the application of the evaluation strategy as presented in chapter 3. Chapter five describes in detail the creation of the trash track project that made tracking trash a possibility and promises to change the behaviour of the people. The concluding sixth chapter examines the weaknesses and strengths of the presented strategy and projects. The chapter also concludes the work done and presents future works. 
 
 5

    • CHAPTER 2: INTRODUCTION TO INTERACTION DESIGN AND EVALUATION STRATEGIES 
 6

    • CHAPTER 2: INTRODUCTION TO INTERACTION DESIGN AND EVALUATION STRATEGIES 2.1 Introduction Interaction design is about behavior of things, how things work. In this chapter we present a background study on interaction design. A sequence of daily life examples as ‘collection of cases’ is also presented that shows the connection of our daily lives and interaction design. The later sections of the chapter also include a discussion on ‘why interaction design is important’ and ‘how it effects the success of a product’. The pervasive use of technology has become integral part of our life artifacts. The usage of technology has also brought about several challenges to the users and rather than simplifying the end-users life it has introduced new difficulties. At present it is crititical to ensure that the famous promise of ‘technology for people and not people for technology’ becomes true. One of the subsections of this chapter is dedicated to development of understanding of why the evaluation of all these fancy systems with enhanced used of technology is essential. Software engineers have often designed systems that inherit a certain level of difficulty in their usage. The evaluators also tend to introduce various testing procedures that do not cover a true user perspective. Nonetheless new systems keep coming into the markets that usually go through rigorous testing phases to ensure a sufficient level of dependability from a technical perspective. The whole process of evaluation lacks the point of view of the end- user. We claim, ‘at the end of the day only a user uses the product so he/she has to be ‘the actor’ or one of the major actors in the evaluation processes. A short summary of some of the usability evaluation strategies and importance of users perspective in the evaluation process is presented in the last section of this chapter. 2.2 Interaction Design Interaction design has been on the rise for the last two decades and seems to have integrated in all facets of our lives. Designers often use the famous traditional examples of the success of IPOD and failure of jukebox to describe the importance of interaction design. Though what exactly is ID and what it includes and where it lies within a set of disciplines is still blur. ID is about behavior, about how things work. Defining the behavior of interact-able objects, devices and situations when a user takes a certain action or vice versa is the job of the interaction designer (Saffer, 2009). Rober Reimann also defines ID in a convincing way, “Interaction Design is a design discipline dedicated to defining the behavior of artifacts, environments, and systems (i.e., products), and therefore concerned with: - Defining the form of products as they relate to their behavior and use. Figure
2.1,
The
discipline
of
Interaction
Design
 
 
 7

    • - Anticipating how the use of products will mediate human relationships and affect human understanding. - Exploring the dialogue between products, people, and contexts (physical, cultural, historical)”.
 Interaction design is often associated with interface design or web design. Though the connections are certainly there but the discipline of interaction design has more to offer. The possibility of defining next set of actions and fixation of behaviors by doing something is included in interaction design. This may be based on some kind of interaction with a screen where you click and something happens or this may simply be done via ‘shake of your hand/hear/fingers’, some kind of motion or perhaps your thoughts. Winograd (1997) describes it as “the design of spaces for human communication and interaction.” Apple has a history of leading innovation in smart interactions in its products. Various interactions are covered with the new additions of the apple’s ipod as can be seen on the right corner of Figure 2.2 below. 
 Figure
2.2,
The
2009
family
of
IPODs

[source:
http://apcmag.com/images/09ipod_fam.jpg,
accessed
on:
 21st
November
2009]
 The hidden use of technology has given a true birth to one of the core foundations of design and architecture, As Ludwig mies van der rohe quoted, “less is more”. Making simple and intriguing interactions seems to have a big influence on the success of products. This is one of the same reason for which the ipod in 2001 was a hit in the market when jukebox had failed to make any impact.
 
 8

    • Figure
2.3,
Cave
men
(on
the
left)
and
cairns
(on
the
right)
[source:
 http://www.usatt.org/magazine/images/cartoon_cavemen.jpg
and
unknow
source,
accessed
on:
21st
 November
2009]
 One of the key goals of interaction design is in establishing clarity on what are the key objectives of all the process that the team is going through (Rogers; Sharp and Preece, 2007). The systems to be designed could have two very different purposes, (i) they are designed to facilitate the user goals. (ii) Built with some literal complications to support user learning. These two different goals could be separated as usability goals and experience goal (Rogers. Et. Al, 2007). Figure
2.4,
Usability
(the
inner
circle)
and
experience
goals
(the
external
circle)
[source:
Rogers,
et.
 Al.,2007)
 The above-mentioned goals are closer to our view when it comes to evaluation of the interactive system and technology-assisted systems. A detailed methodology for evaluation is described in the next Chapter of this thesis. Our methodology none the less focuses on the combined objectives and an integrated view of the both the usability and experience goals. 
 9

    • The combined strategy is termed as experiential factors for evaluation and understanding purposes. 2.3 Natural Interactions Don Norman brought the term affordances into major play when he wrote his book ‘The design of everyday things’. It is basically a metaphor that allows people to know how to use certain technology. The terminology has been often misused in terms of its usage in physical artifact and digital interfaces. In 1999, Norman himself quoted on a HCI forum discussion, “I put an affordance there,” a participant would say, “I wonder if the object affords clicking...” affordances this, affordances that. And no data, just opinion. Yikes! What had I unleashed upon the world? The introduction of natural interactions focuses on eliminating the differences in distinct contexts. The natural interactions is based on the view that ‘the more the natural any form of interaction’ the ‘better or more understandable it would be’. We humans as living being often form meaning to anything that comes out of nature as natural. A good example would be that of martial arts, numerous varieties are based on how different creatures walk, fight, eating styles and etc. The principles of nature metaphorically are easy to communicate, e.g. what would be the best way to tell a user to keep looking toward the point that keeps moving? Perhaps a user could be asked to look at the sun as sunflowers do? Or a user could be told that the interaction model of the current scenario is that of a sunflower or that of the plant that closes when touched. The basic idea is to design the closest to natural form of interactions, may those be visual or interactive. The principle of natural interactions would follow conventions incase the natural form of interaction does not come to ones mind. Figure
2.5,
Adapted
from
Norman
(1988,
p16):
The
problem
of
ensuring
that
users
mental
model
 corresponds
to
the
designers

[source:
 http://www.interactiondesign.org/images/figures/mental_models.gif]
 
 Figure 2.5 had originally been used to signify a slightly different issue but the core idea is the same. Once a system has been designed, no user will have direct access to the designer. Hence the interaction model should be kept simple, innovative and closest to nature to ensure easy and meaningful interactions. 
 10

    • 2.4 Collection of Daily Life Cases The section below presents a collection of daily life interaction, interactive systems and situations where interaction design has either been successfully employed or should be employed more aggressively in future. 2.4.1 Collection of Daily Life Cases Interactions are part of our everyday life. Public spaces especially are full of defined and undefined variables that keep changing (such as people, environment, weather, context, etc). The defined would be a theme park where user goes through certain experiences. Lot of studies go into making the theme parks safe for users, there is a whole system which makes every fun ride enjoyable. Then there are some undefined but allowed things which happen in these public spaces, such as dancing, skating, open air theaters and many more. A selected group of everyday selections are shown in Figure 2.6. However, thee point here is that interaction design is essential part of our life. The systems that exist all around us in our everyday life do not need to be technology savvy but they certainly require the implementation of interaction design principles to ensure a better experience and understanding. Figure
2.6,
Selection
group
1
of
everyday
interactions
 
 11

    • 2.4.2 Collection of Everyday Objects Figure
2.7,
Selection
group
1
of
everyday
objects
 Figure
2.8,
Segway
 Figure 2.8 show’s an example of the new transportation product called segway. These have been quite successful and we do witness quite a few of them in central stations of bigger cities in Europe and America. These have a non-traditional way of interaction but it is more natural. The next collection of images (Figures 2.9 - 2.11) were shot in Pakistan and some of which show excellent way of interaction using conventional and low-tech means. Figure
2.9,
Two
sellers
showing
creativity
in
interacting
with
various
items
simultaneously 
 12

    • Figure
2.10,
Fuel
station
with
unreadable
displays
 Figure
2.11,
Typical
roadside
puncture
shop
in
 (take
in
Islamabad,
Pakistan)
 Pakistan
(no
billboards
needed)
 


 Figure
2.12
(a):
Multitouch
display

 Figure
2.12
(b):
Sensisphere
interface
no.4
[source:
 [source:

personal
collection
from
web]
 http://www.labbinaer.de/]
 Figure
2.12
(c):
The
real
mirror
[source:
unknown] Figure
2.12
(d):
The
interactive
display
[source:
 http://www.instablogsimages.com/images/200 8/01/04/aperture­interactive­display_48.jpg]
 Figure
2.12
Interactive
Displays
and
surfaces
 
 13

    • 2.4.3 Collection of Interactive Displays and Setups The figure 2.12 shows a small collection of thousands of displays that are in use by people and researchers of various labs. People strive to produce new and innovative applications for users. These displays have been placed in markets, shopping centers, technology stores and exhibitions. The users do get fascinated to see some of these but how useful are they in real life is a question that remains to be answered. Next collection of the images (Figure 2.13) are of an experiment that was conducted in Centro METID, Politecnico di Milano, Italy. The idea was to mesmerize reality while enabling users a very unique view of the objects that in normal situation would probably be ignored. The experiment included nine cameras, which were focused on people and the objects and three computer screens with each screen presenting distinct views of objects as well as the users in the surroundings. 
 
 
 
 
 Figure
2.13
Mesmerizing
Reality
while
enabling
Unique
Observation
Reality,
an
experiment
conducted
 on
METID
day.
 2.5 The Connectivity of Things The way the things were connected has changed drastically over the last decade. The burst internet bubble back in 90s created a dynamic connection between people. Today, the growth of pervasive technologies has given birth to a new potential scenario where every thing is connected. This very idea of connectivity of things essentially makes possible tracking everything that exists. A very similar concept is referred to as ‘internet of things’. 2.5.1 Pervasive Computing Pervasive computing or sometime also called ubiquitous computing is a post-desktop model of human-computer interaction in which information processing has been thoroughly integrated into everyday objects and activities. In the course of ordinary activities, someone "using" ubiquitous computing engages many computational devices and systems simultaneously, and may not necessarily even be aware that they are doing so. This model is usually considered advancement from the desktop paradigm (Hansmann, 2003). 
 14

    • The pervasive use of technology enables the use of technology with a minimal technology interface. The main idea is that the central processing or the main processing stays apart from the devices or there is a shared way of utilizing certain fixed resources or from other fixed or portable computer resources such as memory, network, processor, etc. The two projects that are discussed in this thesis (chapter 4 – 5) are good examples of pervasive use of technology, where use of smart tags enables a scenario where 100 percent recycling is possible and on the other hand the digital pens enables a more useful model of learning. 2.6 Importance of Evaluation from a True Users Perspective The increasing trend of more and more users of technology, fancy displays and extensive use of pervasive technologies raises issues such as user comfort, feelings, skill set, likeness etc. Even though the systems are usually well tested by the software dependability and reliability methods, even though companies like Microsoft does extensive user testing before they launch their products but still there remains a strong need to evaluate all existing or in use system from a true user perspective to ensure that the end user needs are met and he/she is satisfied. 2.7 Methodologies and Processes Relevant to Evaluation of Interaction Design and Interactive Systems The discipline of interaction design lays down the basic guidelines of entering the domain, its connection with other fields, however the discipline lacks the methodologies to evaluate a generic interactive system. On the contrary many techniques can be observed and applied to evaluate websites and e-learning platforms. Experience of the user is the ultimate goal of any product. A productive, stress-less or engaging experience generally leads to a successful product. Interaction designers define what happens when a user uses a product. While talking about different evaluation techniques the usability techniques seem much closer to how interactive systems can be evaluated. The sections below present the techniques that formed the foundation of the proposed strategy for evaluation of interaction design and interactive systems. 2.7.1 Requirement Gathering and Engineering Software engineering gives a lot of importance to requirement gathering and engineering process. The studies have shown that 80 percent of the projects fail due to not enough understanding of what is to be done. Engineers tend to spend less time in this phase and move on to implementation and other phases but doing so has proved to be a mistake time and again. The well accepted model of Figure
2.14,
Requirement
Engineering
Process
[source:
 requirement engineering is shown SWEBOK,
2001]
 in Figure 2.14 (SWEBOK, 2001).
 
 15

    • The SE discipline also defines various models for development of programs and software’s. These famous models presented over the years include models such as waterfall; prototyping, incremental, spiral and win win spiral models. Figure 2.15 presents the typical processes for software development projects. A notable omission is the value of user as is shown in the model. The user gets involved at the very later stages. The importance of understanding the requirements however brought the requirement engineering and requirement gathering processes in focus. The main goals of requirement engineering are to determine the goals, function and constraints of hardware and software system. 
 Figure
2.15,
Typical
processes
for
software
development
projects
[source:
 http://www.faqs.org/docs/ldev/0130091154_26.htm
accessed
on
23rd
November
09]
 2.7.2 Constructive Brainstorm Brainstorm is a group a activity which is performed to generate a large number of ideas. The conduction of brainstorm however is a challenging task sometimes and greatly depends on the person who conducts the session as all stakeholders have to feel excited throughout the process. We have changed the name from brainstorm to constructive brainstorm to stress on the positivity of the process. 
 16

    • There are four basic rules in brainstorming. These are intended to reduce social inhibitions among groups members, stimulate idea generation, and increase overall creativity of the group. These include ‘focus on the quantity’, ‘withhold of criticism’, ‘welcome unusual ideas’ and ‘combine and improve ideas’. Figure 2.16 shows a generic brainstorm process. Figure
2.16,
brainstorm
[source:
 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e7/Activity_preperation.svg,
accessed
on
01
 November
2009)
 2.7.3 Interviews Interview is a good tool to get views of a third person. An interview generally has two important persons, the one who interviews and the second who gets interviewed (the interviewee). The interviewer is usually recommended to right down his/her questions and be prepared before initiating the interview. There is also a strong need to make the interviewee as comfortable as possible. This is very important if the interview is recorded with a camera/and or an audio recorder. The key goal however is to engage in a conversation to get as much information as possible from the interviewee (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interview). There also is another type of interview, called unstructured interview. The idea is to keep the conversation undefined and talk to the interviewee with an open mind and let them say what ever they feel like. This kind of interview should usually be audio recorded. 
 17

    • 2.7.4 Usability Engineering Model The usability engineering method is a practical method to ensure good user interfaces. The model prescribes a detailed process to achieve that. Nielsen in his paper (Nielsen, 1992) stresses to strictly follow the models before design, during the design and after field installation of software products. Nielsen in his same paper also presents ten steps for achieving the above and it includes the following: 0. Consider the larger context 1. Know the user Individual user characteristics The users current task And Prioritize the usability methods Functional analysis Apply methamethods throughout Evolution of the user 2. Competitive analysis 3. Setting usability goals 4. Participatory design 5. Coordinated design of the total interface Standard Product identity 6. Guidelines and heuristic analysis 7. Prototyping 8. Empirical testing 9. Iterative design Capture the design rationale 10. Collect feedback from field use Figure
2.17,
Elements
of
the
usability­engineering
model
[source:
an
adaptation
of
image
presented
by
 Nielsen,
1992] There is a suggestion by Nielsen in the same paper, where he suggests that designers should have access to a pool of users after the start of design phase. This is in contrast to designers guessing the users. 2.7.5 Usability Metrics The evaluation of quantifiable thing or activity is possible if a metric exists. Measurement is an effective and essential component of all disciplines. “When you can measure what you are speaking about and express it in numbers, you know something about it, but when you can not measure, when you can not express in numbers, your knowledge is a meager and unsatisfactory kind”, Lord Kelvin, 1883. In the recent years numerous new metrics for sciences such as software engineering, astrology, astronomy medical science and all other fields have been formed. This is due to the fact that conferential measures like distance, time, and cost are not suitable /sufficient to measure the newly formed processes, disciplines. In complex systems or situations a direct representation in numbers is often not possible but it is indeed possible to represent certain situations and evaluations through various numbers. Usability factors (as explained in the next section) are used to quantify usability and are in a way the unit of 
 18

    • usability engineering. 2.7.6 Usability Factors Various usability studies keeping the focus of learning or generic usability have proposed and used various usability factors. Keeping in view the research context the most relevant usability factors were short listed, a few of them with their respective definitions are listed below. Along with other factors the importance of affect is one of the key factors for various usability studies. The importance of affect has been in highlighted in several papers (Zaharias, 2004). Some of the key factors have also been summarized in the same journal. A few most relevant factors from various studies (Rogers. Et. Al, 2007; Zaharias, 2004; Zaharias, 2006; Nielsen, 2001 and Nielsen, 1992) are listed below: - Navigation - Learnability - Accessibility - Consistency - Visual Design - Interactivity - Content and Resources - Media Use - Learning Strategies Design - Instructional Feedback - Instructional Assessment - Learner Guidance and Support - Participatory Design - Iterative Design - Affect 2.8 Conclusion The chapter presented a wide range of interactive systems and showed the presence in our everyday life. The situated use of technology and the availability of ubiquitous computing, the access of networks has placed our life into a very dynamic and highly connected world. The situation has brought a need to have a strong input from user in and during the design phase and also in the evaluation phase. This is important because the biggest stake in this highly connected world is only of the end user. The later part of the chapter also highlighted some of the principles of software engineering and a few evaluation methodologies. The survey also brought up the fact that the software development process generally is software centers and so are the evaluation methodologies. This brings about the need to design new strategies and methodologies which are centered on the end user or which somehow better involve the end user for a more realistic evaluation of the interactive and connected system under observations. 
 19

    • CHAPTER 3: EVALUATION OF INTEREACTION DESIGN AND EXPERIENTIAL FACTORS 
 20

    • CHAPTER 3: EVALUATION OF INTERACTION DESIGN AND EXPERIENTIAL FACTORS 3.1 Introduction The importance of Interaction Design (IxD) has been on the increase for the last couple of years. The success of Ipod and failure of Jukebox justify the significance of the discipline. This chapter presents usability like methodology to evaluate any given technology-assisted system from a true user perspective. The method here introduces guidelines for the evaluation of existing systems that are already in use by the end-users. The presented technique is based on evaluation of nine key different perspectives to allow an overall picture of the effectiveness of the system under observation. The later sections of the chapter present a discussion of some of the results and the application of the presented strategy on various cases. The core cases include the evaluation of digital pen and paper in a classroom scenario, trash track project and results of the application on various eLearning games and portals. 3.2 Concept and Idea IxD discipline provides us with a lot of strategies and mechanisms to improve the projects before their release. However the evaluation mechanisms for interactive systems and technology-assisted systems are not very comprehensive. The core idea here is to provide designers and evaluators with a more structural and easy to understand approach that allows them to have a snapshot of the goods and bads of any interactive system under observation. The strategy focuses evaluation of nine key factors. These include Learnability, Usage, Error and Feedback, Comfort, Collaboration, Affect, Guidance and Support, Accessibility and Sustainability. Each factor is measured independently and the resulting numbers contribute to the overall evaluation of the interactive system under observation. The strategy is further explained by application on three different situations, which includes the following: - Application on existing interactive systems - Potential usage while creating new systems 3.3 The Interaction Design Observation Model and the Experiential Factors The model layouts the guidelines for the usability like evaluation of technology-assisted and interactive systems. The model lays out the principle factors for evaluation; these factors are termed as experiential factors. The experiential factors aim to evaluate sufficient knowledge about various aspects of system under observation. These factors include Learnability, Usage, Error and Feedback, Comfort, Collaboration, Affect, Guidance and Support, Accessibility and Sustainability. The generic definitions of each of them are provided in the Section 3.5. The generic model can be seen in Figure 3.1. Each factor may or may not be applicable in every interactive system. Each factor also has a situated definition, which is a slightly modified version of each factor for a clear understanding with respect to the context. 
 21

    • The experience any end-user goes through defines how much the user likes the product. People interact with products and these interactions give certain experiences to the people. The better the quality of interaction with respect to what was targeted to be achieved the better the product. 
 Figure
3.1,
The
Interaction
design
observation
model
and
the
experiential
factors 3.4 The Method The method presents guidelines to assist in the evaluation process. The method proposes the evaluation process in a spiral model like structure in the sense of iterations. Though unlike the spiral model, the defined flow of the sequence of phases is not essential. The main phases of the proposed method includes ‘understand’, ‘analyze’, ‘observe’, ‘improve’, ‘evolve’, ‘experiment’ and ‘create’. The model does not define any particular order but facilitates during brainstorm sessions, while creation or observatory stages of a given project. Each phase has been filled with tasks, which can be changed slightly from project to project and case to case. The phases in the steps are defined in Table 3.1. 3.4.1 Understand This phase refers to a development of an understanding of what the interactive system under observation is supposed to achieve. The key here is to develop a consensus through brainstorm on which elements and perspectives could be observed. This is done by using the interactive system, interviewing the creators and repeated brainstorms. The focus is always kept on what the user of the system is expected to achieve or get from the system. 3.4.2 Observe This phase recommends the fixing and nailing down of what will be observed. The candidate observations are carried on from the ‘understand’ phase. The nailing down process also 
 22

    • include fixation of the timing of observation, i.e. what will be observed and when. The second task-set of ‘Observe’ phase includes the formation of initial survey questions and association of each candidate observation with one or more experiential factor. The third and conclusive task-set of this phase is that of forming the focus groups. Interactive systems may have various usages of the system at various stages. The idea here is to think of the possible groups that may exist in the project. 3.4.3 Create This phase refers to creation of the desired interactive system. This may follow the understanding phase directly, i.e., the intent of the targeted goals that are supposed to be achieved while keeping the users perspective as the focal point. Task set 1 Task set 2 Task set 3 Understand - Brainstorm -Interview Creators - observations (understand concept) - Use the interactive system Observe - Fix observations - Form survey - Form focus - Fix observation cycles questions groups - Associate observations and experiential factors Create - Interactive products - - Experiment - Form focus groups - Assign and evaluate - Conduct tasks observations (surveys) Evolve - Interaction Schema - - Improve - Interactive products - Analyze - Survey results - Each impact factors - Table
3.1,
The
Method
 3.4.4 Experiment This is the experimental phase of the proposed method. The focus groups that may have been pointed out in the observation phase are reviewed, refined and finalized. The details of the focus groups are listed out in the first task-set of this phase such as definitions of the focus groups, how many, which one, why, where and when would each of them be observed or experimented with. The second task-set of this phase targets to assign tasks to each defined group and form a strategy to evaluate them. The final task set focuses on conduction of the evaluation through surveys or naked-eye observations. 3.4.4.1 Observation Cycles As an insurance to get sufficient data it is recommended that the observations be taken at particular stages. The conduction of the following observation cycles is recommended as a recommended practice: (i) Before using the interactive system to be observed; (ii) after initial use; (iii) after initial training of how to use the system (with a set of activities to be done by the users); (iv) finally at the concluding stage of the observation gathering. 
 23

    • 3.4.5 Evolve This phase focuses on evolving the interaction schema in the interaction systems based on the observation that had been carried out in the previous phases. 3.4.6 Improve This phase focuses on improving the overall system by laying out suggestions and recommendations based on the observations and analysis while including the gatherings and results of all phases of the defined method. 
 3.4.7 Analyze The Analyze phase actually may happen prior to the ‘evolve’ and ‘improve’ phases. This phase focuses on the analysis of the survey results that have been produced in the ‘experiment’ phase. In the first task-set the survey results are analyzed and in the following set of activities the results for each factor are analyzed thoroughly. 
 3.5 Experiential Factors The simplicity of interacting with any product plays a vital role towards the affect (particularly emotional) it creates on its user. The positive the affect/feelings in using any object the more the user tensts to like it. The frustration in the usability, simplicity of interaction models, good ergonomics and easy to learn interaction models also have a very strong effect on the likings of a user. As Alan Cooper puts it, “Well-thought out designs are more successful. The experience a user goes through defines they very quality of the object for him/her. Considering these facts and usability studies which tend to evaluate more from the software side of things, a combination of nine key factors have been filtered out and have been termed as experiential factors. Each of them is explained below in the subsections of section 3.5. These factors were chosen based on literature review and some experimental works. The experimental evaluations were conducted on the creation of surveys for various eLeanring games and online portals that focus on learning by non-traditional means at Centro METID (http://www.metid.polimi.it). The work at Centro Metid did not focus on factors rather it focused on identifying the right questions. These questions were later divided into categories are listed as experiential factors. A few samples are given in Appendix A and B. Appendix ‘A’ and ‘B’ presents the set of surveys and questionnaires that were create and conducted and Centro METID, Politecnico di Milano. These questionnaires were made after consultations and interviews with the relevant team leads, team members and Prof. Alberto Colorni (president, Centro METID). Two of the main questionnaires can be seen below which include the survey form for the game titled, “university explorer” and “MxMxM”. The first game, “UEX” is a game for students who could learn more about Politecnico even from a distance. The second “MxMxM” is a portal that consists of various games. The abbreviation stands for Matematica per la Mobilita a Milano. The literature survey included the out comings from several papers and books (Rogers. Et. Al, 2007; Zaharias, 2006; Zaharias, 2004; Keller,1983; Picard,1997; Nielsen,1992; Nielsen and Box, 2001). 3.5.1 Learnability Learnability represents the positive learning effect on the users or the effects of the system on 
 24

    • user’s learning regarding the targeted area. 3.5.2 Usage This factor represents the level of difficulty in using the system. The level of difficulty in data transfers, getting to know the system, in getting the know how to the usage of the system. 3.5.3 Error and Feedback Error and Feedback is the real-time response from the technology when the user makes an error. 3.5.4 Comfort This factor represents the level of comfort while using the interactive system; it may also present the agronomical comfort. 3.5.5 Collaboration Collaboration represents the interaction between the users. The collaboration is observed with two different perspectives. 3.5.5.1 Constructive Interaction This sub-factor represents the collaboration or interaction when two users work together. 3.5.5.2 Participatory Design This factor is used to measure the team effort when real users are involved during the process. 3.5.6 Affect (motivation to learn) This is an additional parameter, which is taken out of the present usability factors. The motivation construct is composed of four sub-constructs: attention, relevance, confidence and satisfaction (Keller,1983). 3.5.7 Guidance and Support The training sessions, tutorial and the online material for learning the use of the system are covered under guidance and support. The name was changed from learner guidance and support to guidance and support. 3.5.8 Accessibility The level of difficulty in setting-up/installing the system is called accessibility factor. The factor deals with the technical errors and requirements associated with the technology, such as driver installations, preparation of especial material. 3.5.9 Sustainability This factor represents how sustainable the interactive system under observation. The sustainability factor may include the emission of CO2 when a system was used, may suggest if certain processes are better than others in terms of environment friendliness. 3.6 Application of Interaction design observation model and the experiential factors The thesis attempts the application of the presented strategy on three unique cases that include the following categories: 
 25

    • 3.6.1 Application on existing interactive systems This is achieved by application of the recommended strategy on the use of digital pen and paper in a classroom scenario. The experiment was conducted in an interaction design course with the first year design students at Politecnico di Milano. The basic idea was to re- understand the digital pen and paper technology that has been striving to gain success for a decade, apply the suggested evaluation strategy and present with a better interactive model and possible scenarios on where and how the digital pen and paper system could be used. 3.6.2 Creation of a new system This is achieved by participation in the design phase of an innovative project called Trash Track at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Boston, USA. The project aims to change the behavior of people by introduction of a new invisible connection between them and their trash by providing them. The link is enabled by development of trash tags, which are attached to thousands of pieces of trash of people. The project also covers another aspect of getting useful information on how waste actually disperses in the Cities sanitation system. 3.7 Experiential Factors applicability and definitions 
 Learnability Learnability represents the positive learning effect on the users or the effects of the system on user’s learning regarding the targeted area. Usage This factor represents the level of difficulty in using the system. The level of difficulty in data transfers, usage of especial paper, data storage. Error and Feedback Error and Feedback is the real-time response from the technology when the user makes an error. This can be the vibration by the pen when the user moves out of the writing margins. Comfort The design of the pen and usage is ergonomically comfortable. Collaboration Collaboration represents the interaction between the users. The collaboration is observed with two different perspectives. Constructive Interaction This sub-factor represents the collaboration or interaction when two users work together. Participatory Design This factor is used to measure the team effort when real users are involved during the process. Affect (motivation to This is an additional parameter, which is taken out of the present learn) usability factors. The motivation construct is composed of four sub- constructs: attention, relevance, confidence and satisfaction (Keller,1983). Guidance and Support The training sessions, tutorial and the online material for learning the use of the system are covered under guidance and support. The name was changed from learner guidance and support to guidance and support. Accessibility The level of difficulty in setting-up/installing the system is called accessibility factor. The factor deals with the technical errors and requirements associated with the technology, such as driver installations, preparation of especial material (e.g. printing of especial paper). Sustainability This factor represents how sustainable the interactive system under observation. Table
3.2,
Situated
definitions
of
experiential
factors
for
DPPS The recommended experiential factors may or may not be applicable on all the systems and they would have to be redefined keeping the context in mind. Table 3.2 enlists the applicable experiential factors and the associated definitions. The definitions here had been modified 
 26

    • solely for a better explanation of each factor. The definitions however do not need to be defined but a context could be clarified by defining the terms including system, technology, process, volunteer, co-volunteer, other people, subject under focus and user.
 3.8 Sample Questionnaire for Conduction of Survey Note: In Rating Questions (1 – 5; where 1 indicates not at all and 5 indicates absolutely yes) Survey Group No. Survey Questions Type Type FUS/GS G01 1 Where did you keep the PenKIT (special place)? Please write: FUS/GS G0123 2 Did you talk about the PenKIT with other students? yes no FUS/GS G01 3 You started to use the pen after planning or it Spontaneo Planned just happened spontaneously? us FUS/GS G012 4 In the first two days, did you try to access the Simple Pen Logged on server server and the digital pen features or you used it as a simple pen? FUS/PS/ G01 5 Do you think that use of digital pen facilitated and helped in data GS sharing. FUS/GS G01 6 The digital pen supporting technology was able to recognize yours written texts. PS G012 7 The use of the digital pen increased the level of interaction among the group members. GS/PS G0123 8 The use of digital pen increased the level of interaction between the whole class. FUS/GS G01 9 It is easy to learn to use the digital pen (installing the pen, writing on the paper, remembering the digital paper boundaries, storing on serve, retrieving data and seeking help) GS/PS G0123 10 The digital pen technology facilitated in iterative designs. PS/GS G0123 11 The improvement of the design was easier when you had initially used a digital pen. GS G0123 12 The over all course was enjoyable and interesting GS G0123 13 Please write the most interesting activity during the whole course here: GS G0123 14 Please write the technological difficulties you had during the course here: FUS/ G0123 15 Did you use the Digital Pen GS GS/PS G23 16 You have worked with groups of people who had digital pens. GS/PS G23 17 You worked with groups who had digital pens and you found it productive. FUS/GS G0123 18 Do you see the requirement of the especial paper for digital pens /PS as a constraint? 
 Table
3.3,
Sample
Questionnaire,
associated
observation
cycled
and
focal
groups. Table 3.3 above shows the format of the surveys and questionnaires. Some of questions in the table are similar to those used in digital pen and paper experiment. Survey type here means the relevant observation cycle; Group type suggest the under observation ‘focus group’. The 
 27

    • acronyms FUS, GS and PS stand for First Use Survey, Group Survey and Project Survey. Please note the project cycles were not named exactly the same while the experiment was being conducted. The question are then further associated with experiential factors. Table 3.4 shows the sample association of above-mentioned questions. These could also be represented just via adding another column in Table 3.3. Question Numbers and Associated Experiential Factors Leanrability Usage Error Comfort Interactivit Affect Learner Accessibility and y guidanc Feedbac e and k support Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 x x x Questions from Section 2.2 Q6 x x Q7 x Q8 x Q9 x x Q10 x Q11 x x x x x Q12 x x Q13 Q14 Experiential Imact Factor of The Usage of Digital Pen and Paper on the students under observation Q15 x Q16 x x Q17 FACTOR x IMPACT VALUE Q18 x x Affect 3,889 x Accesability 3,389 Table
3.4,
Sample
Questionnaire,
and
associated
experiential
factors.
 Learnability 3,074 Guidance and Support 3,111 3.9 Conclusion Collaboration 2,911 Usage 2,333 The analysis of the survey form concludes Comfort the suggested method for the evaluation of 2,333 interactive systems. Along with Error and Feedback the other observations the results of the applicable experiential factors are plotted in bar graphs. These represent the various strengths of the interactive system under observations. A sample graph to give the idea is shown in Figure !"#!$%&'()!*'()+, 3.2. '"!!! ())*+, &"#!! (++*-./010,2 &"!!! 3405.6+*!.65!74889:, %"#!! ;*.:6./010,2 %"!!! <911./9:.,096 $"#!! =-.>* $"!!! <9?)9:, !"#!! !"!!! 
 Figure
3.2,
The
plot
of
experiential
factors
analysis 
 28

    • 
 CHAPTER 4: DESIGNING A SCENARIO FOR THE USAGE AND EVALUATION OF DIGITAL PEN AND PAPER IN A CLASS ROOM 
 29

    • CHAPTER 4: DESIGNING A SCENARIO FOR THE USAGE AND EVALUATION OF DIGITAL PEN AND PAPER IN A CLASSROOM 4.1 Introduction Technology more than often has strong influences on people, particularly on how they behave, how they react and how they perform in a given situation. The way a user interacts with a given artifact also tends to have a strong effect on user. This chapter presents an experimental activity that was designed for the first year students of interaction design class at the faculty of design in Politecnico di Milano. The activity aimed to experiment, evaluate and analyze the use of digital pen and paper in a classroom scenario. The usage scenario was designed to experiment with the existing interaction model among the Digital Pen and Paper System (DPPS) and the users. The study focused on generation of a usage scenario that would allow the evaluation of the interactive model and its usage with the application of experiential factors (as discussed in chapter 3). The other parts of the study were designed to facilitate the creation of new scenarios that would better suit the use of DPPS or similar interactive technologies. The end goal of the study was to present a better interaction model between the digital pen and its users for an enhanced efficiency. 4.2 Concept and Idea It is often the case that technology adds on to the difficulties of problem solving. The difficult interactions also tend to limit the creativity of its users. The idea was to setup a scenario that would allow the evaluation of the use of a DPSS in a classroom scenario. The digital pen and paper technology had been in market for more than a decade; however the market value of the product with respect to the number of buyers or consumers has not been good. Time to market often triumphs first to market as the emphasis on ‘the design part of the artifacts’ takes precedence over remaining issues (Alan Cooper). Even though DPSS seems to be a futuristic yet basic (interms of its appearance) but has not really made the rightful impact. The basic idea was to re-understand the technology, perform an evaluation on the interactive model and present with a better interactive model and possible scenarios on where and how the DPSS could be used. 4.3 Goals - to highlight inefficiencies in the existing system. - To present new situations where the technology could be used more effectively. - to explore the sector of education/schools for the usage of digital pen. - the application of the experiential factors for the evaluation of the interactive digital pen and paper system. - Create a scenario to understand why the digital pen and paper technology has been a failure. 4.4 Design Challenges The conduction of the experiment in an ongoing class required particular attention to insure the course was not disturbed and the workload on the students were kept minimum. There 
 30

    • also was a strong need to make the experiment interesting and intriguing for the students. The following could be listed out as some of the main challenges: - Creating a scenario for the use of digital pen and paper in a class room scenario while insuring the following: o Minimum disturbance to the ongoing lectures o Insuring the students remained intrigued and interested throughout the experiment - Timely hands on experience for selected students to help them understand the technology better while ensuring they did not get biased with the existing examples. - Innovative brainstorms and presentations to work along with students to come up with new scenarios for the usage of digital pen and paper. - Designing a workable solution that would allow students to use the digital pen and paper. This required programming and setting up of the servers from the technology providers. o The setup had to be simple and such that it would allow the tracking of the use of technology with the consent of the volunteer users. 4.5 Project Description The usage of digital pen and paper in a classroom had not been attempted prior to this experiment or was not in our knowledge. This made it a challenge, as no off the shelve applications were available which would allow the student users to work with the DPPS. There however were a few examples of how IMC Consulting’s had used the DPP with various clients in Italy. The sequence of the activities that were created for the usage and evaluation scenario is shown in Figure 4.1. 4.5.1 The experimental scenario The major activities that were carried out during the digital pen and paper experiment in the classroom are shown in Figure 4.1. The concept of Digital Pen and Paper was introduced in the first lesson. In the second lesson students were asked to submit concepts related to digital pens. The volunteer seeking started towards the end of the same week. The pens were distributed in the seventh week and the Know-How Survey (KHS) was conducted in the following week. The students by this time had become familiar to the system. TUI stands for Test Utenti Integrato, which in English is user integration/integrated testing. The TUI included a video recording. The students in the process were given four tasks, namely, Open, Write, Save, Share. The purpose of the activity was to understand and analyze the impact of such a system in a real life scenario (during the lesson). The Usage Survey was conducted towards the end the TUI. The Final Usage Survey (FUS) was conducted towards the end of the course.
A
selection
of
images
of
TUI
is
shown
in
Figure
4.4. 
 Towards the end of PCS the students were asked to work on the generation of new scenarios for the application of DPPS. The details of the performed activities and application of the evaluation method (as suggested in the chapter 3) is provided in Section 4.11. 
 
 31

    • 
 Figure
4.1,
The
experimental
scenario
for
the
usage
of
DPPS.
 4.6 The Digital Pen The pen is the Logitech Io-1 version, used with a single paper license. The pen stores the all the content that is written on the especial paper as a vector in its memory. 4.7 The Especial Paper The system utilizes a special paper, which can be prepared by printing the provided post- script file. This post scrip file basically consists of a pattern that is recognizable by the camera in the pen.

 
 
 Figure
4.2,
Digital
Pen
and
Paper
 4.8 The Digital Pen and Paper System (DPPS) The digital pen and paper involves a digital pen, an especial paper and a software installation on the system. The user is bound to initiate a new page by clicking a check provided on top of the paper. After initiating a new page the pen user can write/draw as needed. The user then closes the page by clicking the provided space on bottom of the page. This helps the system to recognize different pages. All the text during the writing phases is stored in the Digital pen 
 32

    • as vectors. The connection with a computer automatically initiates the transfer of these vectors to the IMC database. The personal computer is expected to be connected to the internet. After this stage the user can login to the IMC global notes website and this enables the user to download the images of the stored pages. The Figure 4.3 below represents the working of complete digital pen and paper system. Figure
4.3,
Digital
Pen
and
Paper
System
(DPPS)
 4.9 The context of the use of DPP The activity to evaluate the use of digital pen and paper in a classroom was co-organized by INDACO (http://, Centro METID and IMC Consulting. The idea was to observe students (as users) behavior and re-design of the device under analysis (i.e. digital pen). The students were given access to Logitech IO1digital pens and a website to be able to download the content in the digital pen. 
 33

    • 4.10 The Software / Online System and Associated Access Rights The pen setup uses a specific ADHOC online application (http://80.22.37.172/notes_app/) for digital visualization of the content produced by the user. The users in this system were not allowed to directly download the content from the pen into their computers. The content was rather saved on the server. The users had full access to download all the relevant materials from the server.
The system utilizes a special paper, which can be prepared by printing the provided post-script file. This post scrip file basically consists of a pattern that is recognizable by the camera in the pen. Figure
4.4,
Snapshots
of
TUI
experimental
phase
 4.10.1 Access rights 
 The groups with pens could not see the content uploaded through the digital pens of the other groups. The students in Group 2 however had access to the data which was uploaded through Group 1. The activity conduction team (teachers, tutors, etc) were awarded an administrator password which allowed them access to all the data on the website. 4.10.2 Block notes website The block notes website (http://80.22.37.172/notes_app/) was an essential part of the system. The website had a login verification system through a username and password. The users could view, download and delete information on the website. 4.10.3 The groups The students in the classroom were subdivided into four sub-groups, namely, Group 0, Group 1, Group 2 and Group 3. All the members of group 0 and 1 had access to a digital pen; where the first had two and the later had six members. The rest of the groups did not have a digital 
 34

    • pen. The pen holders of each group were given a username and password to login to the IMC Website. The details of each group are listed in Table 4.1. Group 0 Group 0 consisted of 2 users and each of them had a digital pen. These two could see the content uploaded by each other. Group 1 The members of group 1 could see the content uploaded by one another. This group however could not see the data uploaded by Group 0. The group consisted of 6 users. Group 2 Group 2 consisted of users with significant interest in the digital pen and paper activity. This group was given the access to download the content uploaded by Group 1. Group 3 Group 3 represented the students who neither had any access to the digital pen and paper system nor other online applications. Table
4.1,
the
groups
and
associated
rights
 4.11 The Emerged Scenarios for the Usage of DPPS The users in this case were design students and designers in general do no read instruction manuals of new products. This actually was beneficial to our study as we wanted the pen to be as intuitive as possible. The students were given assignment to come up with new concepts, applications and situations that would allow a better usage scenario of the digital pen and similar technologies. The students were provided with digital pen and paper as physical artifacts and were given training session, follow-up support on installation and usage issues. Training sessions on how to use it best given the contextual constraints followed this. Given the nature of the hybrid instrument (DPP) that has the capacity of being a pen as well as the digital features students were motivated to sketch the potential usage scenarios with better interaction models. This was done after the students had gone through the initial learning curve following the TUI phase. A few concepts that were produced by the students as a result of the activity included project ‘memo’, ‘disegno’ and two concepts of ‘escusionismo’. The supporting visuals of the projects can be seen in Figures 4.5 – 4.8 respectively. The designer / user not only becomes more aware of the functionality after the usage of the given artefact, but also creates his / her own cognitive path in evaluating the task – artefact cycle (Mantovani & Spagnoli, 2000). 
 35

    • Figure
4.5,
Project
Memo
 The results of the experiment showed a multitude of possibly successful environments that will be reported in the following part. The range of use context varied largely according to the attention given to the following: (1) the different digital options or (2) to the actual ergonomic aspects individuated while handling the pen. The digital options were correlated with form filling in institutional and didactical contexts where quantitative data had to be gathered and reported promptly. The proposed contexts highlighted digital systems in which the pen was placed as a communication tool that made reference to a database. In the same time the observations focusing on the tangible aspects and interface has been placed in a less formal context and took advantage of the size, shape and writing functionality. A good example of context identification in this sense was presented in the ‘memo project’. In this case the student pinpointed successfully how useful it could be have a double usage of the digital pen by writing a memo and share it with yourself and/or concerned personnel. Figure
4.6,
Project
Disegno
 The other projects such as the “Project Disegno” showed the benefits of changing the interaction to a more natural way. A pen/pencil is one of the most basic tools for designers for sketching like purposes. The project presented an advantaged scenario that enables users to attain the digital medium benefits while using a more known and/or familiar medium of interaction. There is usually less work on the evaluation testing on the products that have already been launched, however design professionals do spend significant time on strict evaluation test in the prototype phase of the development of products. Most of the recommended scenarios in this chapter present a good mixture of the design phase and redesign of the launched products. 
 36

    • Figure
4.7,
Project
Escursionismo
concept
1 The other two projects related to tourism or rather a more natural way of tourism also presented a real-life scenario, which could be very useful in finding ones way around. What if the pen had a camera, it could send a short message to a fixed address? The scenarios present a way where you could edit maps, share your routes with the loved ones. The exercise was useful because provided insights on how an object is perceived by designers while using it, therefore detached from the affective relationship developed while working for a long period on the same product development project. From the didactical point of view it helped students acknowledge the critical perception that they have to acquire and apply on all the phases of the design project and helped them understand that the life cycle of an object starts only when the product is confronted with real usability contexts and might take a different shape from the one intended in the product development phase. 
 Figure
4.8,
Project
Escursionismo
concept
2 4.12 The Application of the Proposed Strategy on the Usage of Digital Pen and Paper The use of digital pen and paper in a classroom scenario is the most appropriate usage of the suggested methodology. Figure 4.9 represent how each activity was mapped on to the method presented in Chapter 3. The following subsections present the details of performed activities, evaluations and sequence of steps. 4.12.1 Meetings and brainstorms with stakeholders (Understand) The activity started with a series of meeting with the stakeholders that included IMC consultings (the sole provider of digital pens in Italy), Centro METID (Metodi E Tecnologie 
 37

    • Innovative per la Didattica) and department of Industrial Design and Multimedia Communications (INDACO). The technology of digital pen and paper had been market for quite some time but as discussed needed evaluation from a true user perspective to understand the potential flaws and learning about possible scenarios where such technologies could be used. The initial brainstorms and meetings resulted in a development of an understanding that engineering support to make the project happen would be provided by IMC consulting. It was also decided that a maximum of ten digital pens and sufficient paper would be provided to students and the use case scenarios would be developed with the support of INDACO and Centro METID. The activity fits well in the ‘understand’ phase of the strategy recommended. The result of the activity was the establishment of goals that were to be achieved through the use of digital pen and paper system in the classroom. The goals included the following: - to understand if the digital pen and paper can be effectively used in a classroom scenario. - to highlight inefficiencies in the existing system. - to suggest scenarios where digital pen and paper can be used more effectively. - to explore the sector of education/schools for the usage of digital pen. - the application of the experiential factors for the evaluation of the interactive digital pen and paper system. 4.12.2 Introduction (Understand) A set of introductory lectures to give valuable insight to users regarding the experiment was provided in the beginning of the course. Students were also made aware of the possibility of being able to use the digital pens. Students were encouraged to think about potential uses and applications of similar technologies. 4.12.3 The surveys (Observe) The phase followed in ‘understand’ phase of the presented method. Three cycles for the observations were decided that included a ‘know how survey’, ‘usage survey’ and ‘project completion survey’. The usage survey was part of an observation technique in frequent use by Cento Metid titled Testi User Integrazione (as explained in Section 4.12.4). The surveys after refinement and finalization in the experiment phase are show in the later sections of the chapter. 4.12.4 Testi User Integraione – TUI (Observe and Experiment) TUI stands for Test Utenti Integrato, which in English is user integration/integrated testing. The TUI included a video recording. The students in the process were give four tasks, namely, Open, Write, Save, Share. The purpose of the activity was to understand and analyze the impact of such a system in a real life scenario (during the lesson). This phase overlapped the observed and experiment phases of the proposed strategy. The detailed chart of the processes and what was to be observed is shown above in Table 4.2. 
 38

    • 4.12.5 Pen kit distribution (experiment) This was part of the experiment phase and the pen kits were distributed among the selected volunteers for the conduction of the TUI experiment. This was followed by know how survey, as explained below. 4.12.6 Usage Survey The ‘usage survey’ was conducted as part of the TUI experiment. The idea was to evaluate the difficulties users faced while performing the assigned tasks and also to evaluate if the users were able to perform all of them. The survey also focused on getting the results of usage in a more controlled and supervised scenario. The highlighted answers below show the majority answers from the users. Figure
4.9,
Digital
Pen
and
Paper
experiment
and
the
suggested
method
of
evaluation 
 39

    • 4.12.7 Project Completion Survey The ‘project completion survey’ was conducted at the end of the experiment. The main goal was to have an overall view of the usage during the whole experiment. This survey composed of almost all the experiential factors. The carried out survey and the summarized results can be seen in Table 4.5 Open (task 01) Where he/she move the cap of the pen? How he/she Orient the paper? When the “pigeot open” is checked? Any Title on the page? User checked the battery status of the pen? Other object on the desk? (Such as normal pen, PC) Where the color sheet is kept? If there is any. Record time Write (task 02) Is the page already open? User checked the status of the pen? User work near the border of the paper? Effect of the pen vibration on user? Changing page user checked the “pigeot close” of the page? The use of color sheet? What they write? (Only lecture notes? or personal data?) They share the pen? (When they are busy for some reason such as calling, short messaging, etc) They use to upload immediately the electronic paper to? (At the end of each page?) Save (task 03) When they upload data? (Such as page by page?) How they upload data? (es: they own device or peer device? private situation?) Where they upload data? (In the classroom?) They use physical copy of the electronic paper? Share (task 04) They organize the idea on how to share (yes/no; if yes detail on strategy). The students would be asked to share the data by choosing the method of their preference. This would be done while assuming that the person who they have to share the data with has no knowledge about the interactive digital pen and paper system. Additional Ask the students to comment see their own video Tasks recoding and comment on their emotion (frustrations, etc) throughout the session. Table
4.2,
tasks
of
Testi
User
Integrazione

(TUI)
 
 40

    • 4.12.8 Know How Survey The ‘know how survey’ was conducted to gather regarding the skill set of the users. The idea here was to understand if users had any idea of the users familiarity with technology in general, with interactive technology and computers. The ‘know how survey’ is attached in the appendix C. The conduction of the survey comes under the ‘experiment’; the short listing of procedures and question in the ‘observation’ and the analysis of respective surveys fall under the ‘analysis’ phase of the proposed strategy. 4.12.9 Scenarios for the use of digital pen and paper (evolve and improve) After the completion of the experimental part of the usage, students were asked to come up with potential new and interesting scenario for the usage of DPP. A few selected scenarios and interactive models are listed under Section 4.11) Experiential Factor Survey Questions Responses from Users 1,2,3,4 and 5 Rating Questions (1 to 5; Impact Where 0 means NO) 1 2 3 4 5 Factor Please rate how difficult it was Usage and to find out whether a file has 1 to 5 1 3 3 4 2 13 2.60 Collaboration already been downloaded. Clicking on a link always gave 2 Accesability the expected results? Please 1 to 5 5 5 1 4 17 3.40 rate. Please rate if the icons were Usage representative of what they 1 to 5 4 4 4 1 2 15 3.00 were supposed to represent. The terminology used in the application site is immediately 4 4 Usage 1 to 5 3 3 2 16 3.20 comprehensible (easy to understand)? Please rate. Please rate the readability of 5 Comfort 1 to 5 4 4 4 3 20 4.00 the application screen. Please rate the level of difficult in navigating the 2 3 Accesability 1 to 5 4 4 1 14 2.80 website (i.e. identifying the buttons and links, etc). Please rate the overall use of Usage 1 to 5 2 4 4 4 3 17 3.40 the application site. Please rate the application site from an aesthetic point of 2 3 Comfort 1 to 5 1 1 4 11 2.20 view? 1-5 ranges from very ugly to most beautiful. The terminology used during 3 Usage the test (e.g. in the 1 to 5 * 4 4 5 16 4.00 questionnaires) is clear? Table
4.3,
Usage
Survey
 
 
 
 
 41

    • Experiential Factor Survey Questions Responses from Users 1,2,3 …9 Impact Two Choice (Yes, NO) Value Type 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Total Factor Did you use the Digital Pen? yes(1)/no(0) 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 Did you talk about the PenKIT Collaboration with other students? yes(1)/no(0) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 You started to use the pen spontaneously(it just happened)? Usage Yes for spontaneous and no if you planned yes(1)/no(0) 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 In the first few days, You did not used any digital feaures of the Usage pen, Rather you used it as a normal pen. yes(1)/no(0) 0 1 1 0 0 * 1 0 0 Rating Questions (1 to 5; Where 0 means NO) You have worked with groups of Collaboration people who had digital pens?.If and 3.00 yes please rate the level of Learnability productivity. 1 to 5 3 4 0 5 2 4 3 3 3 27 Do you see the requirement of Accesability the especial paper for digital pens 3.33 as a constraint? 1 to 5 3 3 5 3 4 3 4 3 2 30 Do you think that use of digital Collaboration pen facilitated and helped in data 3.44 sharing. 1 to 5 4 3 3 4 2 5 3 3 4 31 Collaboration The use of the digital pen and increased the level of interaction 3.33 Learnability among the group members. 1 to 5 3 2 3 5 3 5 3 2 4 30 The use of digital pen increased Collaboration the level of interaction between 2.33 the whole class. 1 to 5 1 3 2 5 2 3 2 2 1 21 It is easy to learn to use the digital pen (installing the pen, Guidence writing on the paper, 3.11 and Support remembering the digital paper boundaries, storing on serve, retrieving data and seeking help) 1 to 5 3 3 2 2 4 3 4 3 4 28 Collaboration The digital pen technology 2.89 facilitated in iterative designs. 1 to 5 1 4 3 4 2 4 3 3 2 26 Collaboration The improvement of the design and was easier when you had initially 2.89 Learnability used a digital pen. 1 to 5 1 3 3 4 4 4 2 3 2 26 Affect The over all course was enjoyable 3.89 and interesting 1 to 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 35 Rate the level of technological Accesability difficulties in installing the pen 3.44 application. 1 to 5 5 4 4 5 4 4 2 2 1 31 Rate the level of difficulties in Comfort and using the pen (excluding software 2.33 Usage application) 1 to 5 1 3 2 4 4 3 1 2 1 21 Table
4.4,
Project
Completion
Survey
(PCS)
 
 42

    • 4.13 The Analysis Phase The analysis phase of the presented method performed after gathering the results of all the conducted surveys and experiments. The calculated impact factors of both the US and PCS can be seen in the following subsections. 4.13.1 The Usage Survey The results of the Usage survey can be seen below in Table 4.6 and Figure 4.10. FACTOR IMPACT VALUE Project Usage Completion Survey Survey Affect * 3.889 Accesability 3.100 3.389 Learnability * 3.074 Guidance and Support * 3.111 Collaboration 2.600 2.911 Usage 2.700 2.333 Comfort 4.000 2.333 Error and Feedback * Table
4.5,
The
calculated
impact
factors
of
the
Usage
Survey
(US)
 4.000
 Affect
 3.500
 Accesability
 3.000
 Guidance
and
Support
 2.500
 Learnability
 2.000
 Collaboration
 1.500
 Usage
 1.000
 Comfort
 0.500
 Error
and
Feedback
 0.000
 Figure
4.10,
Graph
of
the
impact
factors
of
the
Usage
Survey
(US) 4.13.2 Project Completion Survey The results of the PCS survey can be seen below in Table 4.7 and Figure 4.11. FACTOR IMPACT VALUE Affect 3.889 Accesability 3.389 Learnability 3.074 Guidance and Support 3.111 Collaboration 2.911 Usage 2.333 
 43

    • Comfort 2.333 Error and Feedback Table
4.6,
The
calculated
impact
factors
of
the
Project
Completion
Survey
(PCS)
 The
Impact
Factor
 Affect
 4.000
 Accesability
 3.000
 Guidance
and
Support
 Learnability
 2.000
 Collaboration
 1.000
 Usage
 Comfort
 0.000
 Figure
4.11,
Graph
of
the
impact
factors
of
the
Project
Completion
Survey
(PCS) 4.14 Conclusion The guidelines set by the proposed strategy were successfully applied on the use of digital pen and paper. The student in general felt positive about the use of the technology but the installation procedures and difficulties were the general cause of frustrations. The difficult interaction model was also not appreciated by the users of the digital pens. 
 44

    • CHAPTER 5: CREATING TRASH TRACK 
 45

    • CHAPTER 5: CREATING TRASH TRACK 5.1 Introduction This chapter presents the creation of the project titled trash track. The earlier sections of the chapter present an introduction to the whole concept of tracking trash. The following sections present the project with the help of images and diagrams and reveal the design challenges, which were essential to succeed in trash tracking. The next section presents the initial visualizations and working of ‘trash tags’. The last sections of the chapter provide insight to the project dynamics. As the project is still on going the evaluation surveys were not conducted, however a detailed set of surveys and associated timings were made available to the current trash track team. The set of surveys and questionnaire can be seen in appendix D. 5.2 Concept and Idea Nobody wonders where, each day, they carry their load of refuse. Outside the city, surely: but each year the city expands, and the street cleaners have to fall farther back. The bulk of the outflow increases and the piles rise higher, become stratified, extend over a wider perimeter. Italo Calvino, Invisible Cities. 
 Figure
5.1,
A
conceptual
screen
shot
of
movement
of
Trash
(Credits:
E
Roon
Kang,
SENSEable
City
Lab)
 The multifaceted project that consists of a multidisciplinary team presents us with a futuristic use of pervasive technologies. It enables a scenario where 100 percent recycling could become a possibility. The project also initiates a new direction towards understanding how trash really moves in the Cities sanitation system and brings attention to ‘removal chain’. The removal chain concept attained enormous interest from companies such as WALMART (http://www.walmart.com/). They were very interested in knowing where several products end-up and what happens in their afterlife. One good example was that of empty water bottles. This also brings the attention to the fact that all movements of trash items might not interest all users. Some companies/users/stakeholders/recyclers such as WALMART could be keen on knowing where each water bottle ends-up while the person who drank that water bottle might not even want to know about the movement of that water bottle. On the other hand the owners before throwing certain items might be keen on knowing what would happen to their items; such as where did ‘his fathers coat’ or ‘her first jewel’ end-up? The 
 46

    • person who throw away might be asking questions such as ‘what will happen to it’, ‘where would it end up’, ‘who will be the next owner’, ‘was it recycled’, ‘where can I get the particular item to get hold of it’ and etc. The project also promises a behavioral change in the consumption patterns by creating a new invisible connection between people and their trash. A service diagram of Trash Track can be seen in Figure 5.2.
 
 40° 43’ N e 74° 04’ O 
 
 
 $= 
 
 Network 
 7 Public Screen Disposal Place 
 Positions 
 7.Signal Strenght 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 3 
 end of life journey Positions ---> 3.Provide Network Trash 
 Tag 
 www.trashtrack.com tag 
 7 7.SMS www.trashtrack.com 
 
 SIM and Network 
 Provider 
 wastes 8 9.Extract Positions 
 8.Send Data 9.Visualisation 
 tag tag tag 
 
 6 6 6 Trash Tags 5.Provide 1.Provide Sim Cards 
 Trash Tags 6.Apply 
 Volunteers tag 
 4 PHISICAL INTERACTION 
 Management Advertise/Contact Waste 
 WM INFORMATION 
 5 1 & Information 
 2.Final Data 
 
 City lab :.:: Senseable 2 9 9 Figure
5.2,
Service
Diagram
of
Trash
Track
 
 
 47

    • 5.3 Goals The project had various goals including: - to enable a scenario where tracking the trash would become a possibility. - to understand how trash disperses in a Cities sanitation system. - to understand what happens in the afterlife of the trash objects. - to initiate a learning process towards removal chain. - to create a dynamic connection between people and their trash - and to promote a behavioral change on how people associate themselves with their trash. 5.4 Design Challenges The project had several design challenges at hand such as the unavailability of a technology that would allow the real-time movement of trash. The major challenges could be divided into two categories, i.e. technological and implementation challenges. The biggest challenge in the technological category was that of designing a device that would somehow transmit its whereabouts in real-time and one of the implementation challenges included the potential attachment of this device with trash. The very nature of trash posed several challenges as the tags had to be attached with trash, which would move around the city and there were several unkowns such as how would the trash be handled, where would it end, etc. The foremost challenges for the development of trash tag included the following: - battery life - signal strength in confined areas such as trash bins, trucks etc. - turn on/off mechanism - when to send location - accuracy - water resilience - robustness The trash comes from people and sometimes certain trash has certain values in terms of association, affect, etc. Other times trash is just trash, people loose the value of items as soon as they throw them away. We focused on learning weather people would be intrigued to follow their trash and is this project going to bring a behavioral change in people? Perhaps by making them care more of what they consume and what they throw. There also was a need to know how sustainable certain object were, what was the cost of their movement. The idea itself was presented by a group of researchers working on the End of Lifecycle of object. The major implementation challenges included the following: - Designing the scenarios for distribution of the trash tags. This included who will tag and how much attention would be given to those who are tagging. - Designing a strategy on how to tag, i.e., how would the trash tags be attached to the various kinds of trash? The solution is discussed in a later section titled Packaging. - A criteria for selection of trash objects to be tagged, this included input from the EOL experts at MIT. 
 48

    • 5.5 Trash Movement Scenario The existing trash management systems and companies are not the most efficient and the recycling rates around the world are quite low. The recycling rates are especially low in big Cities such as New York. In an informal conversation with the New York’s Cities official we learned that most of the trash in New York goes directly to the garbage. They quoted this happened after event of September 11. This shows the inefficiencies of the system when the people and public at large follow the right way of disposals. However the inappropriate behavior of people further worsens the existing system and its highly likely that in such a scenario the garbage would get lost in its way or go to the wrong places, such as recyclables might also end-up in landfills, some trash might end up in water and etc. 
 Waste Management Companies ap pr Better manage op ria tel )# & '( #$%" y *& !" in Better ap separated pr op ria te ly Tries to manage consume Mixed/ Lost !"#$%" Inappropriately: Throw at wrong places, Roads, wrong bins, etc &' Appropriately: Throw at right Recycling place Unknown or wrong Facilities Composts Landfills place and system is further worsens The waste management system is not very efficient Figure
5.3,
Conceptual
screen
shot
of
trash
on
the
move
 5.6 Significance of Trash Tracking The existing waste management systems have not been modified over atleast a century [quoted by one of the Waste Management officials]. These big companies are willing and want to learn more about how waste actually travels and they hope to form their new business models on the actually movement of trash. 
 
 There also are other production companies, which want to learn more about where do particular products end-up. Such as “walmart” are particularly interested in knowing where all those water bottles end up. Today there is no way to know that but we learned that they 
 49

    • are really interested in using a technology that would allow them to track these bottles. Some other companies and people are also very interested in learning where all those tires end-up. There are also other high value trash objects that have very high recycling/ reuse value. The list of such object and their worth for recycling was put up by some of the team member for the end-of-lifecycle (EOL) experts. The list made by the EOL experts is available in Appendix E.
 
 Moreover such a technology enables a scenario where 100 percent recycling could be a possibility, a world where every thing would be track-able. The concept in the previous clause is based on the philosophy that if we knew where everything is then we have a better chance of recycling and reusing it. 
 5.7 Project Description The goal of Trash Track is to reveal the disposal process of our everyday objects and waste, as well as to highlight potential inefficiencies in today’s recycling and sanitation systems. Trash Track involved people from different neighborhoods of large American cities including Seattle and New York. The deployment process is on the go and the SENSEable City Lab with the help of the project partners and volunteers have deployed thousands of active, wireless location tags on different types of waste products. The project was inspired by the NYC Green Initiative (www.nyc.gov/PlanNYC2030), which aims to increase the rate of waste recycling in the city to almost 100% by 2030. This is indeed an ambitious goal, as today’s recycling systems are far from optimized. In New York, only about 30% of waste is currently diverted from landfills for recycling, while in San Francisco 70% of garbage is recycled (the top rate in the nation). In trying to fill this gap between urban reality and urban vision we ask, how can pervasive technologies help expose the challenges of waste management and sustainability? And how can we suggest a future scenario where the same pervasive technologies can make 100% recycling a reality, thereby freeing urban land for uses other than landfills? Trash Track will tag different types of waste and follow these through the city’s waste management system to reveal the final journey of our everyday objects. The project aims to make the “removal chain” of goods as transparent as the supply chain. The products tracked included old computers, analog TVs, cereal boxes, glass containers, plastic bottles, and clothing. Tech or e-trash is of particular interest as its disposal is increasingly posing an environmental challenge. 
 
 Figure
5.4,
Conceptual
screen
shot
of
trash
on
the
move 
 50

    • The project provides with real-time visualizations of trash moving through the city. It also enabled people to track the movement of their own trash in real time. The visualizations enabled people to perceive what happens to their trash on consumed object as they throw them away. Trash Track relies on the development of smart tags, or “trash tags”, which are attached to different types of garbage in order to track each piece of waste as it traverses the city’s sanitation system. The project was only made possible by the creation of cost- and energy- efficient trackers, which could essentially be seen as a minimal cellular phone. Figure
5.5,
Trash
Tag
Prototype
1,
February
2009 The journey of waste objects are tracked by triangulating the signals emitted by the trash tags; these capture the spatial coordinates and time stamps for each piece of garbage at regular intervals. The triangulization of the data from trash tags provide a fine-grained perspective on each object’s end-of-life journey as it traverses through the cities sanitation system. The visualizations of the tracked objects’ trajectories through the city were available in exhibition in Seattle Public Library, Seattle and at the Architectural League of New York. The tracking is also possible via online access at http://senseable.mit.edu/trashtrack/. We hypothesized that different types of waste, originating in different areas of the city, will take radically different paths in their end-of-life journeys. We also believed that different classes of objects follow different “removal chains”. The data collected from thousands of tagged after thorough processing with help to understand this dispersion of different kinds of waste and will facilitate finding efficient solutions for the removal/management of waste. The trash tags will provide information on the time and location of waste items being tracked but will allow us to create a database of objects that can then inform consumers about the environmental costs and the embodied energy of the products they are buying and throwing away. The idea was to couple a high-tech application with a low-tech everyday human activity like waste disposal. We believe that by tracking garbage we can gain a deeper sense of responsibility for things that we usually forget after abandoning into the waste chain. Trash Track will make us face the consequences of our actions, hopefully helping us in making more sustainable decisions regarding the way we approach consumption and garbage. Moreover, the same tracking approach developed for this project could be, in the not too distant future, implemented through a variety of other wireless technologies such as, Bluetooth, RFID, zigbee. WiFi, and more. This will effectively demonstrate a critical facet of a pervasive technologies utopia - that of an Internet of things which allows us to manage the 
 51

    • environmental costs and the embodied energy of objects from production to consumption to end-of-life. The team hoped that Trash Track will contribute to formulating more effective recycling policies and lead to a ‘supply chain’ approach to waste, which we are calling the ‘removal chain’, as a reverse symmetrical system to the already existing delivery chain. This is particularly important in the disposal of electronic products and other multi-component objects, where future tags could contain details on disassembly and reuse. Ultimately we aim to work toward a no-waste urban scenario. The project is a step towards the efficient use of mobile and communication technologies in understanding low-tech process such as waste management. 5.8 Visualizations The visuals were an important part of the project as at the end of the day people required an effective and easy to interpret interaction and visualizations to keep connected with their trash as well as to continue to get intrigued about their trash. The sections below highlight a few initial visualizations, ideas and the actually implemented visualizations. 5.8.1 Screenshots of initial visualizations and ideas The images below show a few visualizations that were discussed during the course of the trash track projects visualization phase. Figure
5.6,
Visualization
Sketch
of
Starbuck's
Coffee
Cup
in
Seattle,
WA,
USA 
 Figure
5.7,
Visualization
Sketch
of
Starbuck's
Coffee
Cup
in
Seattle,
WA,
USA 
 52

    • 
 Figure
5.8,
Dataset
of
the
tag
testing
in
Cambridge,
MA,
USA
 Figure
5.9,
Sample
Street
View
of
the
movement
of
trash,
courtesy,
E
Roon
Kang,
MIT.
 
 53

    • 
 Figure
5.10,
Sample
visualization
from
Boston
deployment
(courtesy,
E
Roon
Kang,
MIT)
 5.9 Trash Tagging Scenarios There were two possible tagging scenarios for the tagging of the trash. These scenarios defined who, where and when will tag the trash and it also presented with the overall involvement of the stake holders. Two major scenarios emerged through intensive brainstorms including, trash oriented scenario and people oriented scenario. 5.9.1 Trash Oriented Scenario The trash-oriented scenario as the name suggests was focused on the kinds of trash would be tagged. Different pieces of trash with high value to End of Life (EOL) experts and other objects of interest would be identified and kept in a registry (just as a wedding list). Figure
5.11,
Trash
oriented
scenario,
image
courtesy
Giovanni
de
Niederhausern 
 54

    • These objects were then to be found and tagged. The users would also have an access to the registry that would enable them to tag interesting objects to the list. The strategy would start a blog on-line with information about the project and modalities of participations for the people. Advertisements on the main newspaper and local television will be used for spreading the possibility of tagging of trash. A list of objects to be tagged will be setup by the team with input from EOL experts. The waste would be divided into categories (such as e-waste, yard waste, garbage, etc). Booths would be setup to provide tags to people along with online volunteering. The people would be asked to take photos of the trash and send them with the individual stories of the pieces of trash. The scenario involves a high number of people and is an open source scenario that permits to have an unpredictable merger of data from various cultures, ethnicities and ages. At the same time it would allow to decide, and control, typology and quantities of the objects to tag, escaping the risk to find only simple elements tagged. The scenario had room for the possibility of tagging any other objects of interest. 5.9.2 People Oriented Scenario The people oriented scenario focuses on people. The main idea was to follow selective people and tag each or as many as possible objects they throw away to the garbage. The selection of people in this scenario would be based on the neighborhoods, cultural backgrounds and inputs from the waste management companies. In the people-oriented strategy 20 participants would be selected, aiming for diversity in both characteristics of people/backgrounds and their locations. Participants would be given about 100 tags each, and asked to tag everything they throw out in the selected week. The participants would be encouraged to tag different kinds of objects. This is not a scientific experiment where bias is a problem. Therefore we can ask them to aim for variety in their tagging. 
 Figure
5.12,
people
oriented
scenario,
image
courtesy
Samantha
Earl,
MIT. 
 55

    • The tagging could be initiated by initial interview with people. We could start the project by carrying out interviews with the participants ('where do you think your trash might end up?,' 'how far do you expect things to travel?,' 'when you throw trash out do you ever think about its 'life' afterwards or do you associate the garbage with the end?,' 'why do you throw things out - because they have been used and are over or because you want to get the new and improved version of something even though it still functions?) and interviews at the end ('did this make you think about garbage differently?'). 
 This strategy might be operationally more straightforward, in that the number of participants is smaller and thus more manageable. The visual simulations might also be more powerful, with spider-legs radiating outward from 20 different points. This puts emphasis on the individual and their trash as opposed to the overall trash network in the City under observation. Contrasts can be seen more strongly in comparing one person's trash trajectory to another's (the more people, the more scattered lines /trajectories). Also, as far as documentary coverage from start to finish, more individually-driven stories can emerge from a small group who are more invested in the project. Some of the drawbacks include a limited range of objects getting thrown out repeatedly, a less diverse range of people and trash routes, and less of a large, open-source/fun public activity component. 5.9.3 Trash Track Deployment Scenario The discussions and trial of the above scenarios pointed a way towards the merger of the two. The combined scenario is called as trash track scenario. The scenario proposes the selection of some of the key items with the help and suggestions of the EOL experts and also highlights the importance of people by seeking a few families for a more focused tagging process. The focus here is on families on whatever trash objects they may want to throw and way with a priority on what they would like to tag. Two different views of the scenario can be seen in Figure 5.13 and 5.14.
 
 
 Figure
5.13,
Trash
track
scenario
 
 
 56

    • 
 Figure
5.14,
an
alternate
view
to
trash
track
scenario,
image
courtesy
E
Roon
Kang.
 
 57

    • 5.10 Technological and Packaging Challenges The project addressed two major technological challenges. Firstly, The most suitable mobile and communication technology (MCT) that fulfills our application had to be investigated. The MCT devices are continuously shrinking in size, and can be easily obtained as mainstream commercial products. These are usually available in sizes of 1.5x1.5 inches and are 0.2 inches thick, but can be even smaller. However, existing devices did not serve other requirements such as low-energy consumption, water resilience, cost efficiency, etc. Thus this project required a minimal mobile-based technology with the sole motive of tracking objects. The compact dimensions of the developed minimal mobile phone/smart tag will allow us to tag many types of objects and embed the devices in a way that they are not visible from the outside. Secondly the project required a system architecture that would continuously collect the data emitted from the smart-tags in regular intervals. The setup further more required access to the telecommunication providers for retrieving the location at the time of data transmission. A database to store and process the incoming data along with the interaction design of the visualizations was also needed. The interactive part of the system allowed users to track the trails of different types of waste in real-time at will. 
 5.11 Trash Tag The first prototype of our trash tag determines location using existing cellular infrastructure. The tag operates by periodically waking up and listening for beacons from nearby cell towers. It records the identity of each tower along with signal strength information, and queues it in flash for future transmission by SMS. Processing on the server side then receives these messages, logs and interprets them to estimate the location of the tag over time. We also plan to build a few experimental tags using a GPS-enabled GSM module to determine how well GPS works for this type of application. However, we are not counting on GPS, as we anticipate that in many situations GPS signals will be difficult to acquire. Battery
 Microprocessor
 Motion
Sensor
 GPS
Module
 Antenna
 Figure
5.15.
Trash
Tag
Prototype
1,
February
2009
 Our prototype is based on a common, off-the-shelf (COTS) GSM module: the GM862 manufactured by Telit. This module is a full GSM implementation in a self-contained module, with a serial modem interface. Our prototype tag couples this module with a low- power microcontroller, a battery, and a tilt switch. Software on the microcontroller will wake up the cellular module periodically to sense nearby cell towers and to send SMS reports. The software triggers periods of activity based on a combination of motion, battery charge, and timing. 
 58

    • Two key problems must be addressed by this implementation: power conservation and accuracy of location tracking. To address power conservation it is important to keep the cellular module powered off most of the time, because even in its idle state it consumes 14 mW. Our design uses an ultra-efficient microcontroller and a zero-power tilt switch to increase tracking resolution when the tag is in motion and decrease when it is static. We anticipate that our prototype will have a lifetime of at least one month, and with algorithmic tuning, possibly considerably longer. We intend to package the node inside a heavy weight, sealed poly-bag, which can be attached to an item either by foam tape or zip tie through a grommet. While the eventual packaging may change, this strategy should be inexpensive, flexible, and easy to assemble quickly. 
 The second key problem to address is the computation of a viable track from the cell tower data. This will all be done on the server side, meaning that the algorithms to process the raw data can be honed over time with ease, and without changing the tags themselves. We anticipate beginning with algorithms based on simple triangulation and then applying various smoothing and statistical methods to improve the quality of the tracks. At this stage, the accuracy we will be able to achieve is still unknown, but we expect to be able to get results similar to or better than similar solutions such as the implementation in Google Maps for Mobile. One reason we expect to do better is that whereas Google Maps must provide data in an online (i.e. immediate, real-time) fashion, we have the luxury of retrospectively assessing the most likely track given the raw data. 5.12 The Trash Track System 
 Figure
5.16,
How
the
system
works 5.13 Packaging Packaging of trash track was one of the intriguing challenges for the design part of the project. The trash tag had to be packaged with a material that would neither effect the electronic equipment on the tag and that would nor interfere with the signals or would ideally boost the signal. The packaging material used for trash track included sterol foam, epoxy and plastic. The various packaging and the way of production is shown in Figure 5.17 and prescribed in Table 5.1.

 
 59

    • Figure
5.17,
Packaging
poster 
 60

    • 5.13.1 Sterol (polyurethance) Foam Item: AeroMarine 8# Density Foam Directions: Mix the Info: resin and the http://www.jgreer.com/Foam%20Page.htm hardener in equal http://www.jgreer.com/boat-foam.htm parts. Mix Time: 1-2 minutes Cure Time: 10 minutes 5.13.2 Rubber Item: AeroMarine Urethane Potting Directions: Mix the Compound, Shore 75A resin and the Info: http://www.jgreer.com/electronic- hardener in equal potting.htm parts. Mix Time: 1-2 minutes Cure Time: 12 hours 5.13.3 Epoxy Item: AeroMarine Epoxy #300/11 Directions: Mix the Info: http://www.jgreer.com/electronic- resin and the potting.htm hardener in equal Mix Time: 1-2 minutes parts. Cure Time: 24 hours Directions: Mix the resin and the hardner in equal parts. Table
5.1,
Packaging
materials
 5.14 Exhibitions The project has so far been exhibited in the two locations, namely, Architectural League of New York, NY, USA and Seattle Public Library. There are also ongoing talks of potential exhibits in the UK. A poster of exhibit spaces at the SPL is shown in Figure 5.18.
 5.15 Project Dynamics The trash track project faced several challenges including design, deployment, development and implementation of the issues at hand. The project was initiated by ‘SENSEable City Lab’ at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, USA. The lab is itself diverse and mostly follows an Architectural approach towards the projects at hand. 5.15.1 Team Dynamics The very requirements of the project required a dynamic team as well. The team was formed of people from various disciplines including design, architecture, engineering, information technology, computer science and sociology. The team was more over from different regions of the world including USA, Italy, Pakistan, Iran, China and UK. 
 61

    • 5.15.2 Project Partners The official partners and the collaborators at various stages of the project included the following: - Waste Management Inc. - Qualcomm - Telecom Italia - Telit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igure
5.18,
Trash
Track
exhibition
spots
at
Seattle
Public
Library,
 
 
 
 
 62

    • 5.16 Conclusion The project created a phenomenal impact on the media, on people and on researchers from around the world. We were able to meet our defined goals as the development of the trash tag allowed successful tracking of the trash as it moved away from City. Certain pieces of trash were tracked as they left the country. The project after the first deployment was repeated on different scales in City of Seattle, London and in New York. The project was also successfully exhibited in the Architectural League of New York, USA and the Seattle Public Library, Seattle, USA. More accurate results from the movement of trash are still coming in from various alive tags. The process of further analysis of data has started and new visualizations to facilitate and understand the movement of trash are being prepared at the SENSEable City Lab, MIT, Boston, USA. The latest results are available at (http://SENSEable.mit.edu/trashtrack). It is an ongoing project and has not yet completed. The data that has been collected after the deployment of tags is still coming in and will take couple of months to be analyzed properly. However the initial findings did fascinate people where they were amazed to how long their trash stays in the system. The behavioral change could not be calculated as the research would have like to, it can just be said that it’s a new beginning of a possible scenario where 100 percent trash would be recycled. 
 63

    • 
 Figure
5.19,
Initial
study
of
City
of
Seattle 
 64

    • CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORKS 
 65

    • CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORKS 6.1 Introduction This final chapter concludes the research undertaken and opens a discussion on the presented strategy for the evaluation of interaction design and technology-assisted systems. The chapter closes with future directions and recommendations for further research. 6.2 A Discussion on Presented Evaluation Strategy We have attempted to present a much-needed step in the direction of some standardization of evaluation methods for interactive systems. 6.2.1 A Contribution The presented strategy could be seen as a naïve contribution towards the available evaluation methodologies. A lot of usability evaluation methods for evaluation portals, websites and software’s exist today but there is a lack of standard methods that could be usefully employed on interaction design and technology-assisted systems. Furthermore there are numerous testing procedures and strategies for testing and evaluating software’s and websites but no well established techniques to evaluate technology-assisted systems from a true user perspective. The method in this thesis (Chapter 3) can be seen as the first step to ensure the key stakeholder, ‘the user’ of the system is happy and was onboard during and after design of the system under observation. Hence we would like to see this as a naïve contribution towards establishing standard procedures especially for evaluation of existing interactive systems. 6.2.2 Critique Even though the suggested technique sets a good direction for the evaluation of interactive and technology-assisted systems but it still involves a heuristic approach towards many problems. Perhaps it would be ideal to limit the required heuristics towards establishment of evaluation of an interactive system. The suggested approach also as it is was not directly applicable while creating new interactive systems. It was indeed helpful in the brainstorm sessions and to pin point generic issues that ‘the end-users’ may have but it could not be applied directly while creating new systems. Creating new systems perhaps rightly remains to be highly intuitive process. 6.3 Critique on Trash Track The project stands out to be a promising tool that made a key challenge of tracking trash a possibility and it also contributed in gaining useful information on removal chain and contributed to initiate gathering of knowledge for the removal chain in contrast to production chain. The project at the moment however remains to be highly expensive where each tag approximately costs 100 dollars (USD) each. The project perhaps will have an impact on how user behave that was one of he key aspects of the project; however there was no way to evaluate the potential change in the short term. 
 66

    • As Mary Catherine O'Connor writes in her article, “Our massive failure, as a society, to reap the value out of the stuff we use – once we’re done using it – is an infrastructure problem. People are lazy. If it’s not easy to properly recycle something, they will throw it in the trash. For that to change, throwing it in the trash has to be come the less attractive option. Or, at the very least, disposing of it properly needs to be as easy as disposing of it improperly. Telling the trash’s life story, I’m afraid, isn’t going to change enough hearts and minds to make a big difference”. However in the same article she thinks that the project would perhaps have an impact and we will be able to reduce trash by throwing trash. This anyhow is one of the extreme views, public at large loved the idea, the media attention and the public interest that was generated in a short period of few months is indeed intriguing and fascinating. 6.4 Conclusion and Future Works The thesis sets the direction for extensive research in use of highly interactive systems in everyday life. It also presents a scenario where the use of technology takes the background and present a scenario where technology is truly for people and not people for technology. The positives from the use of digital pen and paper in the class room and the creation of a project to enable trash tracking both concluded successful integration of pervasive use of technology, especially trash track where a world where the idea of “internet of things, i.e. every thing is connected and addressable” was conceived as a reality. On the other hand the thesis presented a methodology to ensure the evaluation of interactive and technology-assisted systems from a true end-users perspective. This would enable a seamless integration of pervasive technologies into routine life. There was also a point when a question of who actually owns the trash was raised. It seems there are different owners of trash at different times and sometimes when its most important no one owns it. It suggested that trash could ultimately be declared a new common. The suggested methodology is a step forward towards usability like evaluation of interactive and technology assisted-systems, further research could be carried out in the direction of perhaps a more defined approach that minimized the use of heuristics or quantifies the heuristics in a more scientific way. Further research in the area of use of invisible technologies through the use of pervasive technology could also be carried out in various scenarios of everyday life. The thesis would conclude with the following directions some of which have already been started at the SENSEable City Lab, MIT, Boston, USA. - The use of digital pen and paper like technologies that allow the traditional means of input for all sorts of low-tech users or the users who do not like to use technology could also be explored further. - Further research on trackers that may allow low cost tracking. - Further research on enabling tracking in the deep oceans? Mountains and difficult terrain, which do not have good signal strength of the satellites and cellular towers. - Detailed analysis of data collected through trash track to suggest better models of trash collection and management 
 67

    • - New data about trash such as how much energy is consumed by each piece of moving trash, how sustainable was it, how many miles did each piece of trash travel, how many left the country, how many trash items were recycled. - Finally, and importantly work on further formalizing the suggested strategy for the evaluation of interaction design and interactive systems. 
 68

    • REFERENCES BENION, D., TURNER, B. and TURNER, P., 2005. Designing Interactive Systems. Harlow, Essex, England: Pearson Education Limited. BURDEA, C. G., COIFFET P., 2003. Virtual Reality Technology (2nd ed.). Wiley-IEEE press. CHANG, A., GOULDSTONE, J., ZIGELBAUM, J., AND ISHII, H., 2007. Simplicity in interaction design. In Proceedings of the 1st international Conference on Tangible and Embedded interaction. Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 15-17 Feb. 2007). TEI '07. ACM, New York, NY. pp. 135-138. DOI= http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1226969.1226997
 DOBSON. T., TODD. E., 2006. Radio Frequency Identification Technology. Computer Law and Security Report 22:313-315. FLINT. D., 2006. RFID tags, security and the individual. Computer Law and Security Report 22:165-168. HANSMANN, U., MERK, L., NICKLOUS, STOBER T., 2003. Pervasive Computing: The Mobile World. Springer. ISBN 3540002189. IVANOV, Y., SOROKIN, A., WREN, C., KAUR, I., 2007. Tracking People in Mixed Modality Systems.” Mitsubishi Electric Research Laboratories TR2007-011. KELLER, J.M., 1983. Motivational design of instruction. In Reigeluth, C. M. (ed.)., Instructional Design Theories and Models: An overview of their current status, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. KOEHLER. A., SOM. C., 2005. Effects of Pervasive Computing on Sustainable Development.” IEEE Technology and Society (2005). 0278-0079/05/. KRITZLER, M., LEWEJOHANN, L., KRUGER, A., RAUBAL, M., SACHSER, N. An Rfid-Based Tracking System for Laboratory Mice in a Semi Natural Environment.” Institute of Geoinformatics, University of Munster. MIRCHANDANI, P., HEAD, L., 2001. A Real-time Traffic Signal Control System: Architecture, Algorithms, and Analysis.” Transportation Research Part C 9 (2001) 415-432 NORMAN, D. A., 2004. Emotional Design: Why We Love (or Hate) Everyday Things. New York, NY: Perseus Publishing. NORMAN. D. A., 2006. Interaction design is still an art form.: ergonomics is real engineering. interactions 13, 1 (Jan. 2006), 45-60. DOI= http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1109069.1109097 NIELSEN, J., 1992. The usability engineering life cycle. IEEE, computer. NIELSEN, J., BOX, A., 2001. Usability Matrix. Alert Box. OJALA, T., KUKKA H. A Digital City Needs Open Pervasive Computing Infrastructure. MediaTeam Oulu. PANTIC, M., SEBE, N., COHN, J. F. AND HUANG, T., 2005. Affective Multimodal Human-Computer Interaction, In Proceedings of the 13th annual ACM international conference on Multimedia, Hilton, Singapore, ACM, New York, NY. pp. 669 – 676. PICARD, R. W., 1997. Affective Computing. Cambridge: MIT Press. PRESSMAN, R.,2005. Software Engineering: A practitioners approach. (6th ed.) R.S. Pressman and Associates. RETTIG, M., 2003. Interaction Design History in a teeny little nutshell. [Online]. Available at: http://www.marcrettig.com/writings/rettig.interactionDesignHistory.2.03.pdf [Accessed 1 Sept. 2008]. 
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    • ROZEMOND, D.A., 1999. Using intelligent agents for urban traffic control control systems. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Transportation Systems and Science, pages 69—79. SAFFER, D., 2006. Designing for Interaction: Creating Smart Applications and Clever Devices. Peachpit Press. SCHLÖMER T.,POPPINGA B.,HENZE N. AND BOLL S., 2008. Gesture recognition with a Wii controller. In Proceedings of the 2nd international Conference on Tangible and Embedded interaction . Bonn, Germany, 18-20 Feb. 2008). TEI '08. ACM, New York, NY. 11-14. DOI= http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1347390.1347395 SCHUTZE. M., BULTER. D., BECK, M. B, 1999. Optimisation of Control Strategies for the Urban Wastewater System- An Integrated Approach.” Water Science and Technology. Vol.39, No. 9., pp. 209-216 PII:S0273-1223 (99) 00235-8. SHARP, H., ROGERS Y and PREECE, J., 2007. Interaction Design, beyond human- computer interaction (2nd ed.), STANTON. R., 2005. RFID-Ripe for informed debate. Computer Fraud and Security 12:12-14. Statistik.info. 2003. Abfalldaten 1998-2002 [Waste management data 1998- 2002]. www.statistik.zh.ch/statistik.info/. Accessed August 2006. SWEBOK, 2001. Spans the whole software life cycle. Fundamentally addresses change management and the maintenance of requirements in a state that accurately mirrors the software to be, or that has been built. URL: http://www.goldpractices.com/practices/mr/index.php#_%5BSWEBOK,_2001%5D THOMAS.
V.,
2003.
Product
self‐management:
Evolution
in
recycling
and
reuse.
 Environment
Science
and
Technology
37:5297‐5302.

 TINAULI, M. AND PILLAN, M., 2008. Interaction Design and Experiential Factors: A Novel Case Study on Digital Pen and Paper. In Proceedings of 5th Mobility Conference. Taiwan, 10-12 Sept. 2008. Mobility '08. ACM, New York, NY. TRAVER, V. J., 2007. Can user-centered interface design be applied to education?. SIGCSE Bull. 39, 2 (Jun. 2007), 57-61. DOI= http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1272848.1272885 ZAHARIAS , P., 2004. Developing a usability evaluation method for E-Learning applications: From functional usability to motivation to learn. Pp-1-7. http://www.eltrun.gr/eltrun/phd-studies/completed-phds/a-usability-evaluation-method- for-e-learning-courses-1/paper-of-phd-thesis-dr-zaharias.doc/file] ZAHARIAS , P., 2006. A usability evaluation method for e-learning: Focus on Motivation to learn, CHI 2006, April 22-27, 2006, Montreal, Canada. pp. 1571-1576. Penna con audio e TAG – integrazione e programmazione (http://www.flypentop.com/view/page.home/home), 
 Commission of the European Communities (2009-06-18). "Internet of Things — An action plan for Europe" (pdf). http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/policy/rfid/documents/commiot2009.pdf 
 70

    • OTHER RESOURCES World Haptics Conferences". Haptics Technical Committee. Retrieved 2007-10-13. url: http://www.worldhaptics.org/hapticConferences.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ubiquitous http://www.weblogswork.com http://www.idxa.org http://www.adaptivepath.com/blog/ http://www.odannyboy.com/blog/ http://www.statpac.com/surveys/question‐qualities.htm http://www.livescribe.com/sneakpeek/index.html 
 71

    • APPENDICES 
 72

    • APPENDIX A: MMM QUESTIONNAIRE Below is an un-modified sample of the questionnaire for the portal Matematica per la Mobilità a Milano (MMM) that consists of various activities and six different games for learning purposes. 
 
 Questionnaire Draft 1.3[Musstanser Tinauli, Lia Navarotto, Nicola Padovani] Change Log: Incorporated Lia’s feedback Activity
1
 
 Note: Please choose 1 for none and 5 for maximum impact on the rating questions GAME 1: La scelta della flotta ATM Standard Game Questions Rate the overall interface of the game Rate the overall navigation system of the game Rate the level of immersion of the game Rate the real-time response from the game during the play Rate the level of guidance and support (tutorials, online materials, etc) available for learning the game Did you find the game interesting to play? Yes No Please write comments and suggestions here:______________________________________ Rate the level of facilitation of the game in learning “the subject” Rate the level of facilitation of the game in testing yours knowledge of “the Game Specific subject” Do you think the game should have undo feature? Yes No 
 73

    • Game 2: Una consegna di merci nel centro Rate the overall interface of the game Standard Game Questions Rate the overall navigation system of the game Rate the level of immersion of the game Rate the real-time response from the game during the play Rate the level of guidance and support (tutorials, online materials, etc) available for learning the game Did you find the game interesting to play? Yes No Please write comments and suggestions here:______________________________________ Rate the level of facilitation of the game in learning “the subject” Rate the level of facilitation of the game in testing yours knowledge of “the Game Specific subject” Do you think the game should have undo feature? Yes No Game 3: Il trasporto-alunni delle materne Standard Game Questions Rate the overall interface of the game Rate the overall navigation system of the game Rate the level of immersion of the game Rate the real-time response from the game during the play Rate the level of guidance and support (tutorials, online materials, etc) available for learning the game Did you find the game interesting to play? Yes No Please write comments and suggestions here:______________________________________ Rate the level of facilitation of the game in learning “the subject” Rate the level of facilitation of the game in testing yours knowledge of “the Game Specific subject” Game 4: Un percorso in città Qu ion Ga me est an da rd St s Rate the overall interface of the game 
 74

    • Rate the overall navigation system of the game Rate the level of immersion of the game Rate the real-time response from the game during the play Rate the level of guidance and support (tutorials, online materials, etc) available for learning the game Did you find the game interesting to play? Yes No Please write comments and suggestions here:______________________________________ Rate the level of facilitation of the game in learning “the subject” Rate the level of facilitation of the game in testing yours knowledge of “the Game Specific subject” Game 5: La pollution charge Standard Game Questions Rate the overall interface of the game Rate the overall navigation system of the game Rate the level of immersion of the game Rate the real-time response from the game during the play Rate the level of guidance and support (tutorials, online materials, etc) available for learning the game Did you find the game interesting to play? Yes No Please write comments and suggestions here:______________________________________ Rate the level of facilitation of the game in learning “the subject” Rate the level of facilitation of the game in testing yours knowledge of “the Game Specific subject” Activity
4
 
 Game 6: Caccia al tesoro 
 75

    • Standard Game Questions Rate the overall interface of the game Rate the overall navigation system of the game Rate the level of immersion of the game Rate the real-time response from the game during the play Rate the level of guidance and support (tutorials, online materials, etc) available for learning the game Did you find the game interesting to play? Yes No Please write comments and suggestions here:______________________________________ Rate the level of facilitation of the game in learning “the subject” Rate the level of facilitation of the game in testing yours knowledge of “the Game Specific subject” Overall
(Activity
1­Activty
4)
 
 Rate the overall course Rate the level of interest you had for activity 1 Rate the level of interest you had for activity 2 Rate the level of interest you had for activity 3 Rate the level of interest you had for activity 4 Rate the level of guidance and support (tutorials, online materials, etc) available for the course Did you find the course interesting? Yes No Did you think that the load of the course was too much? Yes No Do you think the adopted methodology helped you in learning the course Which part of the course you liked the most and why? ______________________________ Please write comments and suggestions here:______________________________________ Rate the level of facilitation of the course activity provided in learning the 
 76

    • Rate the level of facilitation of the course activity provided in learning the relevant subject Rate the level of facilitation of the course activity provided in testing yours knowledge of the subject Do you think the course had the activities planned in the right order? Yes No If NO? Give a new Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 3 Activity 4 order to the activities and number it zero if you think a particular activity shouldn’t exist Do you think the time allotted to each activity was correct? Yes No If NO! Please write Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 3 Activity 4 suggest appropriate time for the activity in days How do you think the participation of students can be increased here:___________________ Activity
3
 
 Did you take part in Activity 3? Yes No Cross [x] the appropriate answer I was in scholastic excursion I was too busy with other homework’s If No, Choose appropriate  I wasn’t interested Others: ________________ Helpful: If Yes, How did you find the Write Why:_________________________ provided project submission criteria: select appropriate  Unhelpful: Write Why:_________________________ 

 
 
 77

    • APPENDIX B: UNIVERSITY EXPLORER QUESTIONNAIRE Centro METID Metodi e Tecnologie Innovative per la Didattica Il primo turno di gioco di University Explorer è terminato. Ti chiediamo di esprimere il tuo giudizio sul gioco, barrando le caselle corrispondenti alle risposte scelte, e segnalandoci i tuoi suggerimenti nell’apposito spazio commenti. Grazie alle tue indicazioni potremo migliorare University Explorer. Ti ringraziamo anticipatamente! Cosa hai provato utilizzando University Explorer?* *È possibile dare più di una risposta. Divertimento Soddisfazione Curiosità Insoddisfazione Disorientamento Noia Dubbio Altro (specificare)______________________________________________________ _____ Quanto tempo hai impiegato per concludere il tuo percorso e recuperare il tuo pezzo di logo?
 Meno di due giorni Circa una settimana Più di una settimana Non ho finito Sono stato disattivato
 
 È stato:
 Facile sia orientarsi sia usare gli oggetti Facile orientarsi, difficile usare gli oggetti Difficile orientarsi, facile usare gli oggetti Difficile fare entrambe le cose 
 78

    • Tra gli strumenti a disposizione nel gioco hai usato in particolare*: *È possibile dare più di una risposta. La mappa Il visualizzatore panoramico Il jolly Gli indizi La chat L’area messaggi 
 
 La difficoltà maggiore è stata:
 Rispondere alle domande Scoprire gli oggetti Sapere quanti oggetti dovevo trovare in totale Trovare i personaggi con cui parlare Risolvere il mistero 
 Cosa secondo te avrebbe potuto aiutarti di più?
 Avere l’elenco degli oggetti da trovare Avere dei suggerimenti sui luoghi dove ci sono gli oggetti Avere dei suggerimenti sui luoghi dove trovare i personaggi Non saprei Altro (specificare)______________________________________________________ _ 
 Come ti è sembrato l’enigma da risolvere:
 Molto facile Abbastanza facile Molto difficile Irrisolvibile Non ho capito cosa dovevo fare 
 
 Hai interagito con gli altri giocatori?* 
 *E’ possibile dare più di una risposta
 No Sì, poco e tramite chat (mia squadra e altre squadre) Sì, con tutti attraverso la chat (mia squadra e altre squadre) Sì, attraverso l’area messaggi (con i miei compagni di squadra) Hai trovato malfunzionamenti tecnici durante l’esplorazione (anche nel recuperare gli oggetti e gli indizi)? No Sì (indica quali)_______________________________________________ 
 79

    • Adesso che hai giocato pensi di avere capito qualcosa di più del sistema universitario e del Politecnico? No Sì Hai un'immagine del Politecnico diversa da quella che avevi prima di aver giocato? No Sì Complessivamente, usare University Explorer è stato… Molto facile Abbastanza facile Abbastanza difficile Molto difficile Divertente Non molto divertente Intrigante Poco intrigante Ti chiediamo di esprimere nello spazio qui sotto la tua opinione sul gioco. Ti ringraziamo per il contributo che ci darai indicando quali elementi ritieni opportuno aggiungere, modificare o eliminare. ……… 
 Ti informiamo che i dati forniti sono raccolti e trattati dal Metid esclusivamente in forma anonima.
 Politecnico di Milano Centro METID Piazza Leonardo da Vinci, 32 Email info.metid@polimi.it Partita Iva 04376620151 Url: www.metid.polimi.it Codice fiscale 80057930150 20133 Milano Tel 02 2399 2487 Fax 02 2399 2481 
 80

    • APPENDIX C: FIRST USE SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE Questionario iniziale [5 minuti] 
 Data


____
/
________
/
______________






























































 
 Caratteristiche
dei
PC
che
possiedi
[marca
con
una
“X”
i
dati
del
PC
che
utilizzi
per
il
download
dalla
penna]
  Sistema
operativo:





 o Microsoft
Windows
Vista
 o Microsoft
Windows
2000
professional
 o Microsoft
Windows
98/98se
 o Microsoft
Windows
Me
 o Microsoft
Windows
NT
 o Microsoft
Windows
Xp
 o Microsoft
‐
versioni
precedenti
 o Macintosh
 o Linux/Unix
 o Solaris
 o altro
(specificare)



































  Tipo
di

connessione
Internet:
 o 56kbps
 o ISDN
 o ADSL
 o LAN
 o Fibra
Ottica
 o altro
(specificare)
  Risoluzione
monitor:





 o 1280x800
 o 1280x768
 o 1024x768
 o 800x600

















  Browser
utilizzato:
 o Explorer
(specificare
la
versione)

 o Firefox
(specificare
la
versione)
 o Opera
(specificare
la
versione)
 o Safari
(specificare
la
versione)
 o altro
(specificare)
  Cuffie

 
 o sì

 
 o no
  Casse

 
 o sì

 o no
  Microfono

 
 o sì

 
 o no
 
 Dati
personali
  Età
 






____________
  Sesso

 
 o maschile

 o femminile

 
  Comune
di
domicilio
_______________________________________________________________________
  Titolo
di
studio
 
 o diploma
di
scuola
superiore
[specificare]
____________________________________________
 o diploma
universitario
[specificare]
_________________________________________________
 o laurea
[specificare]
_____________________________________________________________
 
 81

    • Livello
di
alfabetizzazione
informatica
  Come
valuti
la
tua
“abilità
informatica”?

 o scarsa
 
 o accettabile
 o buona
 o ottima

  Come
valuti
la
tua
abilità
con
Internet?

 o scarsa
 
 o accettabile
 o buona
 o ottima

  Da
dove
e
con
che
frequenza
ti
connetti
di
solito
a
Internet?
(È
possibile
dare
più
di
una
risposta)
 Frequenza
 Da
dove
 tutti
i
giorni
 4
o
5
volte
alla
 1
o
2
volte
alla
 meno
di
1
volta
alla
 settimana

 settimana
 settimana
 Da
casa
 
 
 
 
 Dall’Università

 
 
 
 
 Altro
 
 
 
 
 [specificare]
  Utilizzi
le
applicazioni
indicate
nella
tabella?
 FREQUENZA
D'USO
 APPLICAZIONE
 mai
 sporadicamente
 qualche
volta
 spesso
 Newsgroup
/
Forum
 
 
 
 
 Blog
 
 
 
 
 Programmi
di
instant
messaging
(es.
 
 
 
 
 ICQ,
MSN
Messenger)
 Wiki
 
 
 
 
 Skype
 
 
 
 
 Fruizione
e
condivisione
di
immagini
 
 
 
 
 (es.
Flickr)
 Fruizione
e
condivisione
di
video

 
 
 
 
 (es.
YouTube)
 Gestione
condivisa
dei
documenti
 
 
 
 
 (es.Google
Docs
and

Spreadsheets)
 Fruizione
e
condivisione
di
 
 
 
 
 aggiornamenti
audio
o
video

 (es:
podcast)
 SecondLife
 
 
 
 
 Altro
[specificare]
 
 
 
 
 
 Utilizzo
specifico
di
ICT
in
ambito
didattico
  Come
 valuti
 la
 tua
 abitudine
 ad
 utilizzare,
 prima
 dell’assegnazione
 del
 KIT
 Penna/Carta,
 il
 sito
 http://corsi.metid.polimi.it?
 o inesistente
 o scarsa
 o buona
 o ottima

  Come
valuti
il
tuo
interesse
per
il
tema
della
scrittura
tramite
penna
elettronica
in
generale?
 o inesistente
 o scarso
 o elevato
 o molto
alto

  Hai
mai
utilizzato
una
penna
elettronica?
 o no
 o sì
[indicare
una
tipologia,
ad
esempio
TabletPC,
ed
in
quale
contesto]
 






________________________________________________________________________________
 
 ________________________________________________________________________________
 
 82

    • APPENDIX D: TRASH TRACK QUESTIONNAIRE Notes _The questions that are asked before and after the site is launched are to detect change. _[Rating-questions, will have 5 choices – strongly agree, agree, neutral, disagree, strongly disagree] [USAGE SURVEY – PROJECT COMPLETION SURVEY] – after the site is launched The terms below are defined to clarify the context of the system (trash track). *system : trash track **technology: the website, visualizations, trash tag ***process: the tagging process, the access to the location of the trash ****volunteer: the users who volunteered to participate in the activity *****coVolunteers: the users who assisted volunteers ******other people: other people who also accessed the data. *******subject under focus: dispersion of trash, how trash moves in the city, behavioural change Usage Survey – Project Completion Survey Q.No. Experiential Factors Rating Questions (rate from 1 – 5) 1 Rate the level of difficulties in using the system. 2 The data on the website was easy to understand. 3 The data on the website seemed accurate. 4 The data on the website is relevant to me. (Types of trash, place Usage i live, etc.) 5 Please rate if the icons were representative of what they were supposed to represent. 6 The terminology used in the application site is immediately comprehensible (easy to understand)? Please rate. 7 I spent more time looking at the traces of my trash than at the publicly available traces. 8 Please rate the overall use of the application site. 9 The terminology used during the test (e.g. in the questionnaires) is clear? 10 Do you see the pre-requirement of the used technology (the artificats, the process) as a constraint? Accesability 11 Please rate the level of difficult in navigating the website (i.e. identifying the buttons and links, etc). 12 Rate the level of technological difficulties in setting up the system. 13 Clicking on a link always gave the expected results? Please rate. 14 Collaboration Do you think that the use of the system facilitated in sharing the data? 15 The use of the system increased the level of interaction among 
 83

    • people? 16 The initial use of system facilitated collaboration and interaction with other peers. 17 The use of the system increased the level of interaction among your co-volunteers? 18 The use of system increased the level of awareness regarding the Learnability subject under focus with the usage of the system? 19 The knowledge of the system increased when you had initially used the system? 21 Affect The over all activity was enjoyable and interesting? 22 The overall activity had influence on your behavior? 23 You were emotionally involved in the activity? 24 The data convinced me that I should change my opinions or take action regarding trash disposal? 25 I spent more time looking at the traces of my trash than at the publicly available traces? 26 Rate the level of difficulties in using the system? 27 Please rate the readability of the application screen. Comfort 28 Please rate the application site from an aesthetic point of view? 1-5 ranges from very ugly to most beautiful? 29 Guidance The provided/available materials and facilitated to learn to use and Support the whole process of making the system work? 30 Collaboration and Did you worked with groups of people who also had access to Learnability the system? If yes please rate the level of productivity YES/NO Questions 31 Did you use the system? 32 Usage You started to use the system spontaneously (it just happened) or you planned to use at a certain time. Please say Yes for spontaneous and no if you planned it. 33 Usage and Did you access any digitally enabling features of the system? Accesibility 34 Did you talk about the system with others participants or users? Collaboration Other Suggestive Questions (please write in the space) 35 Are there any ways that the website could be improved? Is there any information on the trash that you wish we had included? KNOW HOW SURVEY [KHS] – before and after • I understand how trash removal systems work in my area. • I understand the impact of my trash on the environment. • I am properly disposing of hazardous materials like chemicals and e-waste. • I understand local trash disposal options like recycling pick-ups and hazardous waste dispposal sites. • I believe properly recycling is important to sustainability. 
 84

    • • I take care to sort out waste to proper disposal chains (including recyclables and hazardous waste). • I have discussed trash issues with others and encourage them to act sustainably. • I believe the trash removal system in my area functions correctly. • I understand how the Trash Track system works. • Information technology can be useful in improving environmental awareness and promoting sustainability. [GENERAL SURVEY] – before the site launch • How did you first hear about Trash Track? • Why did you originally volunteer for this experiment? • Do you feel that trash disposal is an important issue? • Were there any ways that participating in Trash Track made you think differently about trash? • Did you feel an attachment to the trash objects you tagged? • In what ways did you help the deployment? (check all that apply) o Provided trash objects for tagging o Took pictures or wrote trash data onto datasheets o Helped attach tags to objects o Threw away the trash after it was tagged o Accompanied MIT Trash Track team as it visited each house o Led a classroom in tagging trash • Which aspect of the trash data do you hope to see on the site? (rank in order of importance, with 1 as most important and 5 as least important; please use each number only once) o The final destination of the trash o The path it took to get there o The time it took to get there o My own trash objects • Which aspect of the trash data did you find most interesting? (rank in order of importance, with 1 as most interesting and 5 as least interesting; please use each number only once) o The final destination of the trash o The path it took to get there o The time it took to get there o My own trash objects o How different types of trash move differently • Were there any pieces of trash that caught your attention, surprised you, or taught you something you didn't know before? • Were there any other ways that viewing the website made you think differently about trash? 
 85

    • APPENDIX E: WISHLIST OF OBJECTS TO BE TRACKED Recommended Products of Interest for Trash L= Low Tracking Value M=Mediu m Value H= High Value Ta g Run Disposal Category: 300 Trash 50 0 Recycling Level Overall Interest Embodied Energy Toxin Levels Monetary Value of Materials Contamination Issue Availability/Quantity Tagability Metric : Alkaline L M M L L H M L/M 5 100 Batteries Ceramics L L L L L M L L 25 Non- Electronic L L L L M M L M 100 Toys Small Electronics DVD M M M L L L M 50 Player Electronic M M M L L M M M 50 Toys MP3 M H M L L L H L 50 Players Printer L L M L L M M H 100 Cartridges Soiled L L L L L H M L 50 Plastics Styrofoam L L L L L H L M 50 Books L H L H L H M M Textiles L M L L L H M H 5 100 (Clothes) 
 86

    • Recycling Level Overall Interest Embodied Energy Toxin Levels Monetary Value of Materials Contamination Issue Availability/Quantity Tagability Metric : Aluminum M H L H M H M H 5 200 cans Cardboard L M L M M H M L 50 Clean Paper L M L M M H M L 50 Coated Paper (milk L M L M M H M H 50 cartons) Glass M M L M H H M M 100 HDPE bottles L L L M H H M M 5 100 (1) Newspapers L M L H H H M L 50 PET bottles L L L M H H M M 5 100 (2) Scrap Metal (pans, ducts, M H L L M M M M 25 etc) Steel Cans M M L M M H M H 100 Disposal Category: Yard Waste Recycling Level Overall Interest Embodied Energy Toxin Levels Monetary Value of Materials Contamination Issue Availability/Quantity Tagability Metric : Food/Yard H 5 200 Waste L L L M M M L 
 87

    • Recycling Level Overall Interest Embodied Energy Toxin Levels Monetary Value of Materials Contamination Issue Availability/Quantity Tagability Metric : Aerosol Can L L M L L M M M 100 Air H H H 50 Conditioner M L L L M Athletic H 50 Shoes L M L L M M M Building Material 50 (Lumber) M M L M L M M L Cellular H H 5 100 Phone M M M L L M Computer, H H H 1 50 Desktop M M L L M Computer, H H H 50 Laptop M M L L M CRT Monitor M H H M L M H M 50 Fluorescent H H H 5 200 Bulb L M L L L Furniture L M L L L M M M 50 Household Toxin H H 100 (Solvents) L M L L M L LCD Monitor M M M L L M M M 50 Motor Oil M M M L L M M L 50 Rechargable H H H 5 100 batteries M M L M M Refrigerator H H H H L L H H 1 50 Televisions M H H M L M H H 1 100 1 50 Tires M H L H L M M M Washer/Drye H H H H 1 50 r M M L L 
 88