1. Leadership PowerPointSubmitted to Dr. David Poole for ProfessionalLeadership Development CourseJanuary 25 2012California Baptist University, Riverside CABy Rev Emmanuel Kwabena Mustapha.
2. Overview Contingency Theory Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Three Leadership Examples Conclusion
3. Contingency (Situational) Model ofLeadership It the leadership model or theories that incorporate the aspect of the organization or characteristic of the followers as a key elements in the leaders effectiveness It refer to as contingency or situational leadership, because the leader’s impact depend on the followers behavior and organization situation
4. Contingency (Situational) Model ofLeadership These a approach is more than one best approach because they include the characteristic of the leader’s situation that can be vastly different. ◦ Types of Followers ◦ Work tasks ◦ Resource ◦ Technology ◦ Legal ◦ Economic Environment ◦ All these vary from organization to organizations
5. The five Contingency Models Fiedler’s Contingency Model Normative Decision- Making Theory of Participation Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory Multiple Linkage Theory of Leadership Path-Goal Theory of Leadership
6. Path-Goal Theory Origin Robert J House was inspired by the work of Martin G Evans (1970), in which the leadership behaviors and the follower perceptions of the degree to which following a particular behavior (path) will lead to a particular outcome (goal).The path–goal theory was also influenced by the expectancy theory of motivation developed by Victor Vroom (1964).
7. Path-Goal Theory ofLeadership The theory address the interaction with the follower The theory suggest if the leaders’ behaviors is motivating or satisfy to the follower, it increases the attractiveness of the goal or increase the follower’s confidence to achieved them With the Model the leader is very much active in coaching, guiding, encouraging, motivati ng and rewarding followers for their achievement
8. Four types of LeadershipBehaviors A leader’s behavior is acceptable to subordinates when viewed as a source of satisfaction and motivational when need satisfaction is contingent on performance, and the leader facilitates, coaches, and rewards effective performance. The original path-goal theory identifies: Directive Supportive Participative Achievement-Oriented
9. Directive The Directive leader behavior refers to situations where the leader lets followers know what is expected of them and tells them how to perform their tasks.
10. Supportive The Supportive leader behavior is directed towards the satisfaction of subordinates needs and preferences. The leader shows concern for the followers’ psychological well being.
11. Participation The Participative leader behavior involves leaders consulting with followers and asking for their suggestions before making a decision
12. Achievement-oriented The Achievement-Oriented leader behavior refers to situations where the leader sets challenging goals for followers, expects them to perform at their highest level, and shows confidence in their ability to meet this expectation.
13. Revised Version The Originator Bob House after some time introduce a new version of the theory, the reformulated theory expand the focus from the effect of the four leadership behavior on the work satisfaction, motivation, and the performance of individual subordinate, to include the effect of ten types of leadership behavior on the subordinate empowerment, satisfaction, ability, performance and work unit performance. Clarifying, Participative, Achievement-Oriented, Work facilitation, Supportive, Interaction-facilitation, Group oriented, Representing the network, Charismatic and Shared leadership The revised version also includes immediate (Short term) and Long Term of the outcome of the leader’s behavior on the followers.
14. The Three Leaders I haveObserved OKOMFO ANOKYE (17th century A.D) NEHEMIAH (Around the second half of the 5th century B.C) JERRY JOHN RAWLINGS (1979- 2000 A.D)
16. NEHEMIAH Task Identification (Rebuilding of the broken walls of Jerusalem) Directive Supportive Participation Achievement-Oriented
17. JERRY JOHN RAWLINGS Task Identification (Fighting corruption and disorder in Ghana) Directive Supportive Participation Achievement-Oriented
18. Conclusion and Application In my personal opinion, I have found the Path-Goal theory useful in my work as a developer of leaders. It has been effective with my followers and it has helped us to achieve our set goals and we celebrated all together.
19. Sources House, Robert J. “Path-Goal Theory of Leadership: Lesson, Legacy and a Reformulated Theory.” Leadership Quarterly, Volume 7, No. 3. JAI Press, 1996. Howell, Jon P., and Costley, Dan L. Understanding Behaviors for Effective Leadership. New Jersey, Pearson Education Inc., 2006. “Jerry Rawlings.” Retrieved January 24, 2012 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jerry_Rawlings. “Okomfo Anokye.” Retrieved January 24, 2012 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Okomfo_Anokye.