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Transfats - Biology of Food Safety class
Transfats - Biology of Food Safety class
Transfats - Biology of Food Safety class
Transfats - Biology of Food Safety class
Transfats - Biology of Food Safety class
Transfats - Biology of Food Safety class
Transfats - Biology of Food Safety class
Transfats - Biology of Food Safety class
Transfats - Biology of Food Safety class
Transfats - Biology of Food Safety class
Transfats - Biology of Food Safety class
Transfats - Biology of Food Safety class
Transfats - Biology of Food Safety class
Transfats - Biology of Food Safety class
Transfats - Biology of Food Safety class
Transfats - Biology of Food Safety class
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Transfats - Biology of Food Safety class

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  • 1. TRANS<br />FATS<br />TRANS<br />FATS<br />IN THE <br />FOOD<br />SUPPLY<br />http://www.hollywoodjesus.com/movie/super_size/05.jpg<br />
  • 2. WHAT ARE FATS?<br />Dietary fats are triacylglycerols<br /><ul><li>One glycerol molecule bonded to three fatty acid chains
  • 3. Formed by dehydration synthesis
  • 4. A + 3B -> AB + 3H2O
  • 5. Fatty acids can be uniform or mixed of different types
  • 6. Saturated
  • 7. Unsaturated
  • 8. Monounsaturated
  • 9. Polyunsaturated
  • 10. Trans </li></ul>http://www.reducetriglycerides.com/triglyceride_molecule4.jpeg <br />
  • 11. WHAT ARE FATS?<br />Fatty Acids (14 – 20C)<br />saturated:<br />(solid at room temp.)<br />monounsaturated:<br />(liquid at room temp.)<br />polyunsaturated:<br />(liquid at room temp.)<br />
  • 12. TRANS FATS<br /><ul><li>Small amounts found naturally in beef, lamb and dairy products as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) [factor dependant]
  • 13. Small amounts occur in refined vegetable oils [debatable]</li></ul>Large amounts result from “partial hydrogenation” of unsaturated fats that move the hydrogen atoms, creating a straight conformation as found in saturated fats<br />(Ascherio, 2006)<br />
  • 14. TRANS FATS<br />Trans Fatty Acid<br />+<br />+<br />H<br />
  • 15. TRANS FAT HISTORY<br />Paul Sabatier develops the hydrogenation process.  He was a French chemist who became a Nobel laureate in 1912.<br />Scientist Wilhelm Normann finds that liquid oils can be hydrogenated to form trans fatty acids. He patents the process.  Trans fat is the first man-made fat to join our food supply.<br />Procter & Gamble introduces Crisco vegetable shortening in grocery stores. Crisco becomes the first of many manufactured food products containing trans fat.<br />World War II begins, and the United States becomes involved at the end of 1941.  As the war progresses, the use of margarine rises sharply because butter is rationed.<br />
  • 16. TRANS FAT HISTORY<br />The American Heart Association first proposes that reducing dietary fats, namely saturated fats found in foods like butter and beef, can reduce the chance of getting heart disease.<br />In response to consumer advocacy groups, most fast-food companies begin using partially hydrogenated oils containing trans fat instead of beef tallow and tropical oils high in saturated fats.<br />Following the release of several scientific studies, health advocacy groups call for fast-food restaurants to stop using partially hydrogenated oils in their deep fryers.<br />Denmark is the first and only country to regulate trans fat on a national basis, putting a very small cap on the amount that food may contain.<br />(American Heart Association, 2008)<br />
  • 17. WHY AND WHERE?<br />Why trans fats?<br /><ul><li>Products retain the flavour and smell of unsaturated fats
  • 18. Adds desired texture to products
  • 19. Lengthens shelf life by raising the melting point, slowing oxidation
  • 20. Reduces need for use of saturated fats</li></li></ul><li>THE PROBLEM<br />MANUFACTURED TRANS FATS CAUSE<br />CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE,<br />OBESITY,<br />TYPE 2 DIABETES,<br />BREAST CANCER, <br />FETAL LOSS, LEARNING IMPAIRMENT,<br />and ???<br />
  • 21. HEART DISEASE<br /><ul><li>Trans fats raise LDL (low density lipoprotein) plasma levels and lower HDL (high density lipoprotein) plasma levels
  • 22. Trans fat intake alters the LDL:HDL ratio at twice the rate of natural saturated fats
  • 23. Long chain trans fatty acids alter LDL:HDL ratio more than short chain</li></ul>(Ascherio, 2006)<br />
  • 24. HEART DISEASE STATS<br />WHO: Global Burden of Disease (2004)<br /><ul><li>Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the world
  • 25. Greater incidence among people of low socioeconomic status</li></ul>CVD in Canada<br /><ul><li>CVD is the leading cause of death in the Canada
  • 26. 2004: mortality was 73,338 (31% of male deaths, 33% of female deaths) </li></ul>Blood Cholesterol<br /><ul><li>40% or 10 000 000 Canadians have high blood cholesterol levels</li></ul>Metabolic Syndrome (MetS)<br /><ul><li>Diabetes, abdominal obesity, changes in cholesterol, high blood pressure
  • 27. Two-fold increase in the incidence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality</li></ul>(American Heart Association, 2009)<br />
  • 28. TRANS FAT TASK FORCE<br /><ul><li>Critical questions began to arise in 1990 (79 years after Crisco®)
  • 29. Formed in 2005 to advise on reduction or elimination of trans fats
  • 30. Chose to reduce rather than eliminate for political, economic, and enforcement reasons</li></li></ul><li>TRANS FAT TASK FORCE<br />Recommendations<br /><ul><li>Average intake of trans fats should be less than 1% of energy intake
  • 31. Vegetable oils and soft margarines: no more than 2% of total fat
  • 32. All other foods: no more than 5% of total fat</li></li></ul><li>Labeling<br />2006: trans fat declared on label and included in total fat content<br />
  • 33. Conclusion<br />“There is no physiological requirement for trans fats — they have no intrinsic health value above their caloric value — and therefore their intake should be as low as possible.” (Trans Fat Task Force, 2006)<br />If we eliminate all trans fats... <br />What will the manufactures find to replace them?<br />How safe will the replacement be?<br />
  • 34. SOURCES<br />American Heart Association. (2008). A History of Trans Fats. Retrieved March 23, 2009, from http://www.americanheart.org/ presenter.jhtml?identifier=3048193<br />American Heart Association. (2009). International Cardiovascular Disease Statistics. Retrieved March 22, 2009, from http://www. americanheart.org/downloadable/heart/1236204012112INTL.pdf <br />Ascherio, Alberto. (2006). Trans fatty acids and blood lipids. Atherosclerosis Supplements, 7, 25-27.<br />CFIA. (2008). Chapter 7-Nutrient Content Claims. Retrieved March 23, 2009, from http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/fssa/ labeti/guide/ch7ae.shtml#7.18 <br />Innis, Sheila M. (2006). Trans fatty intakes during pregnancy, infancy and early childhood. Atherosclerosis Supplements, 7, 17-20.<br />Kavanagh, Kylie et al. (2007). Trans fat diet induces abdominal obesity and changes in insulin sensitivity in monkeys. Obesity, 15(7), 1675-1684.<br />Kohlmeier, L. et al. (1997). Adipose tissue trans fatty acids and breast cancer in the European Community . Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, 6(9), 705-710.<br />Morrison, John A. et al. (2008). Dietary trans fatty acid intake is associated with increased fetal loss. Fertility and Sterility, 90(2), 385-390.<br />Park, Yeonhwa. Unpublished . Conjugated Linoleic Acid: Good or Bad Trans Fat?. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis.<br />Risérus, Ulf. (2006). Trans fatty acids and insulin resistance. Atherosclerosis Supplements, 7, 37-39.<br />Trans Fat Task Force. (2006). TRANSforming the Food Supply. Retrieved January 7, 2009, from http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/nutrition/gras-trans-fats/tf-ge/tf-gt_rep-rap-eng.php <br />USFDA. (2006). Questions and Answers about Trans Fat Nutrition Labeling. Retrieved March 23, 2009, from http://www.cfsan.fda. gov/~dms/qatrans2.html<br />

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