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Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem Services
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Ecosystem Services


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A powerpoint lecture given in a university ecology course on contemporary ecological issues.

A powerpoint lecture given in a university ecology course on contemporary ecological issues.

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  • Provisioning: food, water, and the wealth of materials thatunderpin all life on this earth. These services are perhaps the ones most easily understoodand currently valued the most.Regulating:water filtration and purification, storm protection(barrier islands, wetlands, and reefs, for example), pollination, erosion control, andcarbon sequestration. Although we are learning about these services, our ignorance ofthem and of their enormous economic value remains profound.Cultural: Recreation is the most obvious; but as important arethe spiritual and aesthetic values that many find in nature.Supporting: soil formation, photosynthesis,nutrient cycling, and water cycling. These underlie all of the other services.
  • Ecosystem goods are traded on the local, regional, national, and international markets and have a quantifiable monetary value.Goods consist of organisms and their parts and products.
  • Food:Meat – terrestrial and marineDairy – terrestrialBlood – pudding; MasaiHoney – beesEggs – birdsSeeds – grain and nutsFruit – flowering plantsFlowers –clover, dandelion, lilac…Leaves – lettuce, leek, spinach, dandelion…Stems – broccoli, asparagus, celery, potato…Multicellular fungi – white, Portobello, shitake…Unicellular fungi – yeast Bacteria – yoghurtSeaweed – red algae – sushi wrapped in NoriFeed:Fish – fishmeal – fed to land and marine species as a high protein ingredientMolasses – supplement for weight gain in cattleMeat and bone meal – banned throughout most of the world (BSE) but used in the US for cat and dog foodsFeces – animal feces is fed back to the animalCorn, soybeans, oats, barley – all feed ingredientsSeaweed meal – for goats, fish
  • Fiber:Collagen – leather and bone productsFeather, fur, silk – all self-explanatoryCotton – around the seedHemp – bast (under the bark)Sisal – leavesJute: bastBamboo: stalksSeaweed: Lululemon “SeaCell” fabricFuel:Dung – since domestication 10kyaFat – lanternsMicroalgae – unicellular - biodiesel, bioethanol, biobutanol
  • Pharmaceuticalsforeskin: skin grafts, anti-wrinkle creamgallstones: fever reducerVenom: spider and scorpion venoms minimize brain cell death in stroke victims, cone snail is being researched to treat acute and chronic pain, epilepsy, local anesthesia, heart disease, stroke, neuromuscular back pain, multiple sclerosis, and spinal cord injury.Urine: first hormonal birth control, Urea to treat polio and tuberculosis, treats diabetes, eyedrops such as Murine,The hormone replacement drug Premarin, a treatment for menopausal women, is manufactured from the urine of pregnant horses. The fertility drug Pergonal is made from human urine. Urokinase is a drug based on urine ingredients that dissolves blood clots in clogged arteries.Insulin: derived from the pancreas of pigs and cowsDiuretic: promotes the flow of urine. (1010)Astringent: reduces the flow of secretions and discharges of blood, mucus, diarrhoea etc. (851)Febrifuge: Reduces fevers. (641)Diaphoretic: Induces perspiration. (427)Expectorant: Clears phlegm from the chest by inducing coughing. (449)Microalgae:antibacterial, antifungal, antialgal, antiprotozooal, antiviral (extracts of cultured cyanobacteria against Herpes simplex virus type II)Microorganisms: bacterial and fungal infections (penicillin, vancomycin) , cancer (daunorubicin, doxorubicin), transplant rejection (cyclosporin), and high cholesterol (statins such as lovastatin and mevastatin)Others:Animal: shellac (wood finish) - a resin secreted by the female lac bug to form a cocoon, on trees in the forests of India and Thailand.Beeswax: a natural wax produced in the bee hive of honey bees to build honeycomb cells in which their young are raised and honey and pollen are stored.Lanolin: greasy yellow substance secreted by the sebaceous glands of domestic sheep. Tallow: rendered from hard fat found in cattle and sheep; soap, lubrication (guns, steel manufacture)Resin: a hydrocarbonsecretion of many plants, particularly coniferous trees. It is valued for its chemical constituents and uses, such as varnishes and adhesivesWax: wax palm - A wax obtained from the trunk is used for making candlesDye:Maya blue: Indigoferasuffruticosa"Maya blue" first appeared around the 800 A.D, paintings colored by Maya Blue have not faded over timedeodorant: Skunk Bush The roots have been used as a perfume and deodorant.Soap: narrowleaf soap plant. soapy juice from the crushed bulbs as a detergent for washing clothes.BiopesticidesBioremediation
  • Spirituality: Haploporusodorus is found above 52 degrees latitude in Canada and Northwestern Europe. It is a polypore – a stalkless shelf-like fungus with pores on its undersurface. It is white, hoof-shaped, and grows on willow trees in conifer forests. Upon close observation one can easily notice the unique characteristic of H. odorus – its smell. The fruiting bodies have a strong odor of anise, kind of like licorice. This smell is strong and persistent, and dried specimens retain their odor. Native Americans appreciated the smells of plants like sage and sweet grass and used these plants for purification rituals. Because of its strong fragrance and other medicinal properties, Haploporusodorus has been an important fungus in the culture of Northern Plains Indians.Seaweed: face, hand and body creams or lotions; Seaweeds can be used to reduce the nitrogen and phosphorus content of effluents from sewage treatments; remove heavy metals in cleaning up wastewater
  • This is a chart from the United Nations publication “The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture” published by the UN Fisheries and Agriculture Organization in 2008 .In 1950, the world captured and cultured 20 million tonnes of aquatic goods for human consumption and other uses.In 2006, this figure has rose to over 140 million tonnes.
  • Biological diversity, or biodiversity for short, refers to the variety of life forms at all levels of organization, from the molecular to the landscape level. Biodiversity is generated and maintained in natural ecosystems, where organisms encounter a wide variety of living conditions and chance events that shape their evolution inunique ways. Out of convenience or necessity, biodiversity is usually quantified in terms of numbers of species, and this perspective has greatly influencedconservation goals. Rice -- which includes three new genes, including two from daffodil -- is yellowish and contains beta-carotene, a substance that human bodies convert to Vitamin A. International Rice Research Institute says they expectraise yields by 50 percent in the next 10 years.IRRI calculated the world needed to increase the annual rice output by nearly 70 percent to 880 million tonnes by 2025 from 520 million tonnes currently to meet projected global demand.Together with China, IRRI is also working on dry land rice, known as aerobic rice, that can grow on dry soil like wheat."Water for agriculture is becoming more and more scarce as water is diverted for urban use and industrial use," he said.
  • purpurea L. – FOXGLOVE - Digoxinin use for more than 200 yearsenables the heart to beat more slowly, powerfully and regularly without requiring more oxygenused to treat congestive heart failure and is also used to treat certain arrhythmias$137 million in 2001, for Lanoxin
  • Oak Ridges Moraine contains the largest concentration of headwater streams in the Greater Toronto Area. The Moraine acts as a recharge area for groundwater. The Moraine provides a natural habitat for sensitive and threatened plant and animal species not found elsewhere in the Greater Toronto Area. The Greenbelt includes the protected lands of the Oak Ridges Moraine, the Niagara Escarpment, and the headwaters of all major watersheds in the western Greater Toronto Area.Because the moraine is a rich resource of sand and gravel, it has become one of the main sources for the aggregate industry serving the Greater Toronto Area. The Oak Ridges Moraine is more than 90 percent privately owned, with a population of more than 100,000. It crosses 32 municipalities, supplies drinking water to more than 250,000 people, and supports related agricultural, industrial, commercial and recreational uses. In 2001, the Ontario government recognized the need for provincial regulation of the many complex land use issues on the moraine, in order to preserve the health and diversity of its greenspaces.
  • 77,000,000,000,000
  • maya
  • eight people lived inside a 3.15-acre closed ecosystem for two years (1991-1993). replicas of several ecosystems were constructed – a rainforest, coral reef ocean, desert, forest, intensive agriculture, savannah, marsh. they invested more than $200 million in the design, construction and operation of the model (1987)The eight people were unable to meet their fundamental needs for the 2 year period problems aroseA drop in atmospheric oxygen concentration to 14% (the level normally found at an elevation of 17,500 feet)high spikes in carbon dioxide concentrations, nitrous oxide concentrations high enough to impair the brain,an extremely high level of extinctions 19 of 25 vertebrate species all pollinators which would have ensured the eventual extinction of most of the plant species as well)Overgrowth of aggressive vines and algal mats, and Population explosions of crazy ants, cockroaches, and katydids.the system was not viable and sustainable for either humans or other species
  • In 2005, the World Resources Institute published a synthesis of their Millenium Ecosystem AssessmentThe report outlines the current state of ecosystems globally and how they have changed in the last 50 years.In 2007, the World Resources Institute published “Restoring Natures Capital: An Action Agenda to Sustain Ecosystem Services”“The Assessment offers public and private sector decision makers a new way of seeingand valuing ecosystems from the perspective of nature’s services. In doing so, theAssessment confronts the status quo in uncomfortable but necessary ways. It forces usto acknowledge what we should have known all along—that ecosystems are a source ofextraordinary wealth and value.”They outline 5 problems and actions to change the predominant view of the value of ecosystem servicesPROBLEM: People fail to make the connection between healthy ecosystems and the attainment of social and economic goals.ACTION: Develop and use information to educate all partiesPROBLEM: Local people lack the rights for use and decision making about ecosystemsACTION: Strengthen the rights of local peoplePROBLEM: Ecosystem services management is fragmented among different agencies that do not communicate ACTION: Create connections between governing bodies to ensure successful managementPROBLEM: Accountability is weak or absentACTION: Create accountability legislation and enforce itPROBLEM: Incentives for responsible management is limited or nonexistentACTION: Align economic benefits with positive stewardship and economic costs with degradation
  • Transcript

    • 2. What are ecosystem services?<br />“a wide range of conditions and processes through which natural ecosystems, and the species that are part of them, help sustain and fulfill human life”(Daily et al. 1997:2)<br />Keeping this definition in mind, what are the possible benefits supplied to human societies by natural ecosystems?<br />
    • 3.
    • 4. Provisioning Services<br />
    • 5. The 5 “F’s” of provisional benefit<br />
    • 6. FOOD<br />Plant<br />Seeds<br />Fruit<br />Flowers<br />Leaves<br />Stems…<br />Others<br />Multicellular fungi<br />Unicellular fungi <br />Bacteria <br />Seaweed<br />Animal<br />Meat<br />Diary<br />Blood<br />Honey<br />Eggs…<br />FEED/FODDER/FORAGE<br />Plant<br />Corn<br />Soybeans<br />Oats<br />Barley …<br />Others<br />Seaweed<br />Animal<br />Fish<br />Molasses<br />Meat & bone meal<br />Feces …<br />
    • 7. FIBER<br />Plant<br />Cotton<br />Hemp<br />Sisal<br />Jute<br />Bamboo…<br />Others<br />Seaweed<br />Animal<br />Collagen<br />Feather<br />Fur<br />Silk…<br />FUEL<br />Plant<br />Biomass<br />Oil<br />Charcoal <br />Fossil fuels <br />Others<br />microalgae<br />Animal<br />Dung<br />Fat <br />
    • 8. PHARMACEUTICALS<br />Plant<br />Diuretic<br />Astringent<br />Febrifuge<br />Diaphoretic<br />Expectorant …<br />Others<br />Microalgae<br />Microorganisms<br />Animal<br />Foreskin<br />Gallstones<br />Venom<br />Urine<br />Insulin… <br />OTHERS<br />Plant<br />Resin<br />Wax<br />Dye<br />Deodorant <br />Soap …<br />Others<br />Biopesticides<br />Bioremediation<br />Seaweed<br />Dendrology… <br />Animal<br />Shellac<br />Beeswax<br />Lanolin <br />Tallow…<br />
    • 9. Regulating and Supporting Services<br />
    • 10. The regulating and supporting benefits.<br />Purification of air and water<br />Mitigation of droughts and floods<br />Generation and preservation of soils and renewal of their fertility<br />Detoxification and decomposition of wastes<br />Pollination of crops and natural vegetation<br />Dispersal of seeds<br />Cycling and movement of nutrients<br />Control of the vast majority of potential agricultural pests<br />Maintenance of biodiversity<br />Protection of shores by erosion<br />Protection from harmful UV rays<br />Partial stabilization of climate<br />Moderation of weather extremes and their impacts<br />
    • 11. Cultural Services<br />
    • 12. The cultural benefits?<br />Provision of aesthetic beauty and intellectual stimulation that uplift the human spirit<br />Provision of spirituality<br />Provision of spaces that provide opportunities for recreation<br />Also, most if not all human behaviour, whether individual or in groups, is mediated by culture, making anything we engage in (food, shelter, religion…) a cultural act dependant on the goods and services provided by ecosystems. <br />
    • 13. The Issue<br />
    • 14. The issue.<br />Regulating and supporting services flowing from natural ecosystems are undervalued by society.<br />Many human-initiated disruptions of ecosystems are difficult or impossible to reverse on a “human relevant” timescale.<br />A continued lack of awareness will dramatically alter the Earth’s remaining natural ecosystems within a few decades.<br />
    • 15. What Shall We Do?<br />
    • 16. Provisioning Services<br />ECONOMIC VALUE AND THREATS TO CONTINUED HARVEST<br />
    • 17. Ecosystem Goods: Aquatic Food<br />(Fisheries and Agriculture Organization 2008:4)<br />
    • 18. Ecosystem Goods: Aquatic Food<br />In 2006, 6.44 billion people each ate 16.4 kg of fish, for a <br />total consumption of >110 million tonnes (FAO 2008:63) <br />(FAO 2008:62)<br />
    • 19. Ecosystem Goods: Aquatic Food<br />In 2006, fish exports destined for human consumption accounted for only <br />38% of all production with a value of $85.9 billion US. (FAO 2008:45) <br />(FAO 2008:46)<br />
    • 20. Ecosystem Goods: Aquatic Food<br />80% of 523 world fish stocks are fully exploited or overexploited <br />[suggesting that] the maximum wild capture fisheries potential <br />from the world’s oceans has been reached. (FAO 2008:34-35) <br />(FAO 2008:33)<br />
    • 21. Ecosystem Goods: Medicine<br />Pilocarpusmicrophyllus<br />Known Natively as “Jaborandi”<br />Found in the Amazonian rain forest of Brazil<br />Active ingredient within the leaves is the alkaloid Pilocarpine<br />Used in the treatment of glaucoma to alleviate intraocular pressure<br /><br />
    • 22. Ecosystem Goods: Medicine<br />Pilocarpusmicrophyllus<br />It is now on the endangered species list of Brazilian flora<br />Still…Brazil earns US$25 million/year from the plant<br />The plant is now a domesticated species and is in danger of losing its genetic variability<br /><br />
    • 23. Regulating and Supporting Services<br />ECONOMIC VALUE AND THREATS TO CONTINUED DISTURBANCE<br />
    • 24. Ecosystem Services: Biodiversity<br />A direct source of ecosystem goods<br />Genetic and biochemical resources for agricultural and pharmaceutical endeavors<br /><ul><li>Agriculture
    • 25. Cross breeding wild with domesticated plants
    • 26. Harvest and transfer of variation to crops through biotechnology
    • 27. In 2007, biotech crops and seeds were valued at 13.5 billion (Agricultural Biotech Thrives 2008)</li></ul><br />
    • 28. Ecosystem Services: Biodiversity<br /><ul><li>Pharmaceuticals
    • 29. 118 of top 150 drugs are from natural sources
    • 30. Plants=74%
    • 31. Fungi=18%
    • 32. Bacteria=5%
    • 33. Vertebrate=3%
    • 34. Commercial value = exceeds $40 billion per year (1989).
    • 35. 80% rely on traditional medicines and 85% of those are derived from plant extracts</li></ul><br />
    • 36. Ecosystem Services: Biodiversity<br />Most human benefits realized through close proximity to complex ecosystems housing species richness<br /><br />
    • 37. Ecosystem Services: Climate and Life<br />Atmosphere<br />Life is a principal factor in global climate homeostasis<br />Negative feedback<br />Alters the concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere = cooling<br /><ul><li>Positive feedback
    • 38. Cooling drops sea levels via ice accumulation erosion of exposed surfaces fertilize water phytoplankton further sequester carbon = more cooling</li></ul><br />
    • 39. Ecosystem Services: Climate and Life<br />Amazon 2000<br />Regional and local weather<br />Transpiration adds to the water cycle<br />50% of the mean annual rainfall in the Amazon is recycled via evapotranspiration<br />Deforestation could dramatically reduce the total precipitation leading to total destruction of the rainforest<br />Amazon 2008<br /><br />
    • 40. Ecosystem Services: Floods and Droughts<br /><ul><li>119,000 km3 is rained annually onto the Earth’s surface
    • 41. Water is slowly dispersed to plants, aquifers, and streams by soil
    • 42. Plants and plant litter shield the soil from erosion
    • 43. Denuded landscapes lead to:
    • 44. Mud creation which lessen the soil’s ability to absorb;
    • 45. Erosion results as water runs downslope</li></ul><br />
    • 46. Ecosystem Services: Floods and Droughts<br /><ul><li>Erosion results in:
    • 47. Local costs:
    • 48. Loss of production potential
    • 49. Reduced water infiltration and availability
    • 50. Nutrient loss
    • 51. Downstream costs:
    • 52. Disrupted water quality
    • 53. Increased frequency and severity of floods
    • 54. Siltation, impairing navigation, drainage, and hydroelectric power
    • 55. Silt removal costs $6 billion annually</li></ul><br />
    • 56. Ecosystem Services: Floods and Droughts<br /><ul><li>Wetlands control floods
    • 57. Reduce the need for man-made flood controls
    • 58. Slow the flow of floodwater through natural retention
    • 59. Allow sediment deposit, keeping it out of streams, rivers, and lakes</li></ul><br />
    • 60. Ecosystem Services: Soil<br /><ul><li>Anthropogenic soil degradation afflicts 20% of vegetated land
    • 61. Soil provides 5 interrelated services:</li></ul>Shelters seeds and provides plants with physical support<br />Retains and delivers nutrients to plants<br />Plays a central role in the decomposition of organic matter<br />Recycles nutrients<br />Regulates carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur cycles<br />
    • 62. Ecosystem Services: Soil<br />Seed shelter and physical support<br /><ul><li>Human engineered hydroponic systems that act in place of soil cost $55,000 per hectare
    • 63. A few thousand hectares use hydroponic farming
    • 64. 1.4 billion hectares of cropped farming using soil ($77 trillion hydroponically)</li></ul><br />
    • 65. Ecosystem Services: Soil<br />Retains and delivers nutrients<br /><ul><li>Soil holds nutrients near the top – close to plant roots that take-up the nutrients gradually
    • 66. Prevents leaching
    • 67. Retains fertilizers</li></ul>-<br /><br />
    • 68. Ecosystem Services: Soil<br />Decomposition of organic matter and recycling of nutrients<br /><ul><li>130 billion tonnes decomposed annually
    • 69. 30% of that is from human activities
    • 70. Soil supports microorganisms that decompose organic molecules into inorganic chemicals creating soil fertility
    • 71. Bacteria fix nitrogen
    • 72. Worms and ants that “blend” the soil and matter</li></ul><br />
    • 73. Ecosystem Services: Soil<br />Regulation of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur cycles<br /><ul><li>Soil stores 1.8x as much carbon as vegetation
    • 74. Nitrogen stores are 18x greater in soil
    • 75. When land is converted to agriculture and wetlands are drained:
    • 76. CO2 and CH4 build-up in the atmosphere
    • 77. Fertilizer use, biomass burning, and tropical land clearing lead to:
    • 78. Nitrous oxide emissions (ozone depletion)
    • 79. Eutrophication
    • 80. Contamination of drinking water
    • 81. Acid rain</li></ul><br />
    • 82. Ecosystem Services: Pollination<br /><ul><li>92% of all flowering plants require animal pollinators
    • 83. 70% of agricultural crops
    • 84. 100,000 animals species act as pollinators
    • 85. Pollinators need complex ecosystems to complete their life cycles
    • 86. Pollinators in the US are valued in billions of dollars
    • 87. Invasive species, disease, and a decline in diversity threaten pollination services
    • 88. 60 genera of pollinators have species which are threatened</li></li></ul><li>Ecosystem Services: Pest Control<br /><ul><li>Pests destroy 25 to 50% of cultivated crops
    • 89. Weed races compete for water, light, and nutrients
    • 90. Chemical pesticide use leads to:
    • 91. Evolutionary resistance
    • 92. Decimation of natural predators
    • 93. Prey (pest) populations explode and non-pests become pests
    • 94. Pesticides threaten the health of human (decline in sperm counts) and other organisms
    • 95. 99% of potential pests are controlled by natural predators
    • 96. Highlights the need to protect these species and their ecosystems</li></li></ul><li>Ecosystem Services: Seed Dispersal<br /><ul><li>Thousands of animals disperse seeds away from the parent plant
    • 97. Dispersed by eating, burial, “hitching a ride”
    • 98. Clark’s Nut Cracker
    • 99. Chisels pine seeds out of the tightly closed cones of the Whitebark Pine tree.
    • 100. Dispersal by animals is critical to the regeneration of forests and other ecosystems </li></li></ul><li>Cultural Services<br />Yum Caax ("lord of the woods") <br />
    • 101. Ecosystem Services: Beauty, enjoyment and inspiration<br /><ul><li>Love of nature expressed in art, religion, tradition, gardening, pet keeping, photography, bird watching, hiking, camping, ecotourism, fishing, hunting,…</li></ul><br />
    • 102. Threats and Valuation<br />
    • 103. Ecosystem Services: Threats<br /><ul><li>Human activity is impairing and destroying ecosystem services
    • 104. Destruction of natural habitats and the subsequent invasion of non-native species
    • 105. Overfishing of marine resources
    • 106. Species endangerment and extinction
    • 107. Populations are unstable
    • 108. 1 species per hour goes extinct</li></ul><br />
    • 109. Ecosystem Services: Threats<br /><ul><li>Other threats
    • 110. Alteration of biogeochemical cycles (carbon, nitrogen, etc.)
    • 111. Burning fossil fuels and using nitrogen fertilizers
    • 112. Degradation of farmland via unsustainable practices
    • 113. Toxification of land and waterways
    • 114. Overharvesting of “renewable resources” – fisheries, forestry, …</li></li></ul><li>Ecosystem Services: Threats<br />WHY?<br /><ul><li>Rapid unsustainable growth in the scale of human enterprise:
    • 115. Factors-
    • 116. Population size
    • 117. Per-capita consumption
    • 118. Technologies and institutions which generate the consumables
    • 119. Incongruence between short-term individual benefits and long-term societal well-being:
    • 120. Factors-
    • 121. Undervaluation of ecosystem services
    • 122. Most ecosystem services are not beneficial “individually”
    • 123. There is no way to benefit economically for landowners
    • 124. Landowners are encouraged to convert lands to marketable uses
    • 125. No compensation exists for the safeguarding of natural ecosystems</li></li></ul><li>Ecosystem Services: Valuation<br /><ul><li>Quantification of the value of ecosystem services against competing land uses is very difficult
    • 126. Most services are local and regional
    • 127. Most competing land uses are valuated in the short term</li></li></ul><li>Ecosystem Services: Valuation<br />
    • 128. Ecosystem Services: Valuation<br /><ul><li>This issue is from 1997
    • 129. Many advances in ecosystem valuation are underway</li></li></ul><li>Ecosystem Services: Conclusion<br />Humans depend on ecosystem services for our physical, economic, and spiritual well being.<br />Ecosystem services are worth trillions of dollars annually.<br />We need education and policies that help to protect the invaluable services provided to us for “free” by natural ecosystems.<br />
    • 130. QUESTIONS?<br />
    • 131. References<br />Borowitzka, Michael A. <br /> 1995 Microalgae as sources of pharmaceuticals and other biologically active compounds. Journal of Applied Phycology 7:3-15.<br />FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS (FAO)<br /> 2008 The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture. Electronic Document., accessed January 15,2010<br />Irwin, Frances and Janet Ranganathan.<br /> 2007 Restoring Nature’s Capital: An action agenda to sustain ecosystem services. Washington D.C.: World Resources Institute.<br />Issues in Ecology<br /> 1997 Ecosystem Services: Benefits Supplied to Human Societies by Natural Ecosystems. Issues in Ecology 2.<br />Millennium Ecosystem Assessment<br /> 2005 Ecosystems and Human Well Being: Synthesis. Washington D.C.: Island Press.<br />Unknown<br /> 2008 Agricultural Biotech Thrives. Electronic Document., accessed January 15, 2010.<br />Vieira, Roberto F<br /> 1999 Conservation of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants in Brazil. Electronic Document., accessed January 15,2010<br />