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    Chp12 Chp12 Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 12 Shaping America in the Antebellum Age The American People , 6 th ed.
      • Religious Revival and Reform Philosophy
    • Finney and the Second Great Awakening
      • From the late 1790s to the late 1830s, a wave of religious revivalism swept through the United States.
      • Personified by the flamboyant Charles Finney who preached every night for six months in Rochester, New York.
      • Revivalists toned down the Calvinist rhetoric and preached a religion of inclusiveness.
    • The Transcendentalists
      • A small but influential group of New England intellectuals who lived around Ralph Waldo Emerson, the era’s foremost thinker.
      • The group was called Transcendentalists because of their belief that truth was found in intuition beyond the senses.
      • They questioned slavery and the pursuit of wealth.
      • Members included Nathanial Hawthorne and Henry David Thoreau (“On Civil Disobedience”)
      • The Political Response to Change
    • Changing Political Culture
      • Andrew Jackson’s presidency was instrumental in bringing politics to the center focus of many American lives.
      • Jackson promised a more democratic system of politics.
      • He was personally not very democratic, owned slaves, and favored the forced removal of Indians to the west.
      • His administration did see the effectual emergence of a competitive party system.
    • Old Hickory’s Vigorous Presidency
      • Jackson’s key principles:
      • Majority rule
      • Limited power of the national government
      • The obligation of the government to defend the nation’s average people against the tyranny of the wealthy
      • Aggressive use of the presidential veto
      • Favored a rotational system of staffing the government
    • Jackson’s Indian Policy
      • Andrew Jackson favored forcible removal and relocation westward on reservations.
      • A Supreme Court decision in 1823 stating that Indians could occupy but not hold title to land in the United States made Jackson’s policy easy to implement.
      • Using harassment and bribery, Jackson’s administration forced many of the Indian Nations to march west to present-day Oklahoma.
    • Jackson’s Bank War
      • The Second Bank of the United States had been in service since 1823 and had thirteen years left on its charter.
      • A responsible organization, the Bank restrained smaller state banks form making unwise loans by insisting payment in the form of specie (gold or silver).
      • American business wanted cheap, inflated, paper money to fund expansion.
      • Jackson used the struggle to underscore differences between social classes.
      • The sound fiscal policy of the Bank won out and caused The Panic of 1837.
    • The Second American Party System
      • Democrats: had a sounder claim of representation of the common man with a broad base of support across the nation, logic often shaped policy
      • Whigs (formerly Republicans): represented majority of wealth in America and big businesses, religion often shaped policy
      • Perfectionist Reform and Utopianism
    • Utopian Communities: Oneida and the Shakers
      • Many reformers of the age sought to create the perfect representation in miniature of what life should be.
      • John Humphrey Noyles founded a society of “free love” and socialism at Oneida, New York.
      • The Shakers believed in communal property, perfectionism, and celibacy.
      • Shaker worship featured a wild dance intended to release sin from the body.
    • Other Utopias
      • Over 100 communities like the Shakers and Oneida were founded during the era:
      • The Ephrata colony of Pennsylvania
      • The Hopedale community of Mass.
      • The Harmonists of Indiana
      • Closely related were the Millerites and Mormons
    • IV. Reforming Society
    • Temperance
      • Nineteenth century Americans drank to excess.
      • Early efforts at curbing the public’s consumption focused on moderation.
      • The American Temperance Society (1826) was dedicated to total abstinence.
      • The Society successfully used revival techniques of the Second Great Awakening to motivate “converts.”
    • Humanizing the Asylum
      • Some efforts of reform were not aimed at the salvation of the individual but towards organizations such as hospitals or asylums.
      • Dorothea Dix championed the cause of the mentally ill, believing adequate facilities and proper living conditions would go far to produce some sort of a “cure.”
    • Working-Class Reform
      • In America, the institution most in need of reform was the factory.
      • The reform movement gradually was adapted to the plight of workers and trade unions began to appear.
      • Skilled workers began to organize to protect their crafts and to negotiate better conditions.
      • The National Trades Union (1834) was the first attempt at a nation-wide labor organization.
    • Tensions Within the Antislavery Movement
      • William Lloyd Garrison published The Liberator— America’s first antislavery journal and helped establish the American Anti-Slavery Society.
      • Garrison’s message was an immediate end to slavery with no conditions.
      • The majority of abolitionists in America disagreed on how to reform slavery in America; most preferred religious education, political action, boycotts of slave-harvested goods, or downright rebellion.