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  • The history of the first emperor, and the story of China's founding is in The School of Sun Tzu: Winning Empires without War. Qin Shi Huang was Earth's greatest peacemaker and empire builder. http://tinyurl.com/auxtvdq
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  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07
  • Dynastic China and the Making of the Modern World Prepared by Sir Martin Perez, for SS2 SY 2006/07

06 History of China 2013 06 History of China 2013 Presentation Transcript

  • The History of China Lecture for SS2 Asian Studies, prepared by Martin Benedict Perez, PSHS Main Campus Second Part in a Lecture on Empires SY 2010/11
    • Preface: From Bones to Philosophers
    • The First Empires
      • The Qin : The idea of China
      • The Han : The empire expands
    • Analysis: Patterns in Chinese History
    • The Golden Age
      • The Tang : The cultural powerhouse
      • The Song : The commercial powerhouse
    • The Asian Superpower
      • From the Yuan to the Ming
      • Impact on Korea
      • Impact on Japan
    OUTLINE OF THE PRESENTATION
  •  
  • TEN MAJOR DYNASTIES OF CHINA Shang 1750 – 1100 BCE Tang 618 – 907 Zhou (Chou) 1100 – 256 BCE Song 960 – 1279 Qin (Chin) 221 – 206 BCE Yuan (Mongol) 1279 – 1368 Han 206 BCE – 220 CE Ming 1368 – 1644 Sui 589 – 618 Qing (Ching, Manchu) 1644 – 1912
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  • PREFACE FROM BONES TO PHILOSOPHERS
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  •  
  • AXIAL AGE (800 – 200BCE) Eastern Zhou (770 – 221BCE) Western Zhou (1027 – 771BCE) Confucius (551 – 479BCE) Lao Zi Mencius (370 – 290BCE) Xun Zi (300 – 237BCE) Zuang Zi (370 – 301BCE) Sun Tzu Born during the chaotic Eastern Zhou period, Chinese philosophy was primarily preoccupied with restoring social order and harmony. Qin Han Qin Shi Huang Di and the Legalists Shang Buddhism enters THE CHINESE AXIAL AGE
  • 1 THE FIRST EMPIRES The Qin and the Han
  •  
  • Under the guidance of Li Si, The First Emperor utilized Legalism . He centralized all power to himself by placing only giving power to those loyal to him. At his command was a powerful army. He also established a network or roads and canals, and built frontier walls for protection. Furthermore he unified currency, system of writing, and even philosophical thought (through book burning) throughout the empire. Qin Shih Huang Di “ The First August God of the Qin” QIN DYNASTY (221 – 206BCE)
  • Coins from the Qin dynasty (left) and Qing dynasty (right)
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  •  
  • Location of the Great Wall (NASA)
  • HAN DYNASTY (206BCE – 220CE)
  • HAN DYNASTY (206BCE – 220CE) In 138BCE, Zhang Qian was sent on a diplomatic mission to form an alliance with the Yuezhi against the Xiongnu. After many adventures and misadventures, he would return to the capital in 125BCE with new knowledge of grand civilizations to the west.
  • Silk Routes, over-land and over-sea THE SILK ROAD
  • THE SILK ROAD China silk, clothing, lacquerware, spices Indo-China spices, ivory, timber, pearls North India precious stones, ivory, tortoise shell, incense, spices, cloth, timber South India ivory, tortoiseshell, spices, precious stones, cloth, timber Arabia spices, slaves, precious stones East Africa gold, ivory, exotic animals, slaves, incense Trans-Sahara ivory, gold, slaves North Africa grain South Europe olive oil, wine, glassware, coinage West Europe silver, tin North Europe slaves, amber Asia Minor silver, precious stones, timber, wine
  • Roman Empire (27BCE to 476BCE) HAN DYNASTY (206BCE – 220CE)
  • HAN DYNASTY (206BCE – 220CE) Parthian Empire (247BCE to 224)
  • HAN DYNASTY (206BCE – 220CE)
  • HAN DYNASTY (206BCE – 220CE)
  • HAN DYNASTY (206BCE – 220CE)
  • Society during the Han Confucianism became the state philosophy. “Men of wisdom and virtue” were put in place through the civil service examinations . Scholar-officials were expected to be junzi . Women, however, were not allowed to take the exam. HAN DYNASTY (206BCE – 220CE)
  • HAN DYNASTY (206BCE – 220CE) Science and technology Innovation during the Han would be unmatched until the Song. It was the most civilization of its age. It exemplified the insight of the Arab philosophers who said that the purpose of science is “to put up a city”. Seismograph invented by Zhang Feng in the year 132.
  • 2 ANALYSIS PATTERNS IN CHINESE HISTORY
  • PATTERN 1 TERRITORIAL PRESSURE Incursions from China's north by nomadic groups, are from those attracted by the wealth of the settled, agricultural civilization of China. The most illustrative examples are those of the Mongols, who conquer China and establish the Yuan dynasty (1279-1368 CE), and of the Manchus, who again conquer China and establish the last dynasty, the Qing, that rules for 300 years (1644-1911 CE). Each of these invaders rules through the Chinese bureaucracy, leading to the expression that China " sinicizes its conquerors . " HAN DYNASTY (206BCE – 220CE)
    • PATTERN 2
    • CULTURAL CONTINUITY
    • Dynasties rise and fall but Confucian values keep China intact. This is seen manifested in several ways:
    • the evolution of the bureaucratic structure — the civil service examination system, the scholar-gentry who sit for exams and staff the civil administration;
    • the refinement of the Confucian classics as the basis of education and elite selection;
    • Thus there emerged a tendency in China towards political unification and reunification .
    HAN DYNASTY (206BCE – 220CE)
  • PATTERN 3 STRENGTHENING OF THE IMPERIAL CENTER Beginning with the legalistic approach of the First Emperor of the Qin, the emperors of China continued a trend of concentrating power towards the center. Instruments of government were strengthened as they moved authority further towards the emperor. The irony however is that it is during moments when power is too concentrated at the center at the expense of the rest of Chinese society that a dynasty becomes more vulnerable to rebellion. The height of imperial concentration can be seen in the Ming dynasty. HAN DYNASTY (206BCE – 220CE)
  • 3 THE GOLDEN AGE The Tang and the Song
  • The Tang (618-907), along with the Song dynasty (960-1279 CE) that follows, is often referred to as China's "Golden Age“. Poetry, calligraphy, landscape painting, philosophy, political thought, historical writing, scientific advances in astronomy, chemistry, and medicine, and the production of fine silks, porcelain, and teas all flourish, particularly in the period from the 7th to the 12th centuries. The Tang capital at Changan (modern day Xian) was the most cosmopolitan at that time. The first cities in Japan emulated this. PREFACE TO THE GOLDEN AGE
    • Buddhism’s impact is felt throughout China
    • Slowly entering China during the Han dynasty, Buddhism plays an expanded role in the Tang and beyond.
    • Provided a philosophical ‘bridge’ between Confucianism and Daoism. The three coexist as the primary religions in China.
    • Buddhist (along with Daoist) philosophy inspired and cultivated art, literature, and various creative forms.
    • It also played a very important economic role. Buddhism entered via the Silk Road and henceforth became a vehicle for cultural exchange.
    TANG DYNASTY (618 – 917)
  • Chinese culture spreads throughout East Asia Korea, Japan and Vietnam shared in Chinese culture particularly through: a. Confucian thought and social and political values; b. Buddhism (in forms developed and refined in China after its origination in India); c. Literary Chinese and its writing system which becomes the language of government and that used by the elites of these societies to communicate among themselves. d. Architectural styles and many other art forms TANG DYNASTY (618 – 917)
  • Map showing the use of Chinese characters
  •  
  •  
  •  
  • Himeji Castle, Japan Palace of the Heavenly Purity, Forbidden City, Beijing Gyeongbokgung Palace, Seoul
  • Trade, business, and innovation boom… The Song is distinguished by enormous commercial growth. The use of paper money, the introduction of tea drinking, and the inventions of gunpowder, the compass, and printing all occur under the Song. Urbanization accompanies commercial growth and Chinese cities are the largest and most sophisticated in the world at this time. SONG DYNASTY (960 – 1279)
  • SONG DYNASTY (960 – 1279)
  • SONG DYNASTY (960 – 1279)
  • … so does their population During the Song there is enormous growth in Chinese population and a shift in the locus of this population to southern China. Traditionally, Chinese cities rested in the north and its people subsisted on wheat. After 1127, there is a shift in the concentration of the Chinese population to southern China. There people subsisted on rice. By the end of the Song, 2/3 to 3/4 of the Chinese population is concentrated below the Yangtze. SONG DYNASTY (960 – 1279)
  • SONG DYNASTY (960 – 1279)
  • 3 THE EAST ASIAN SUPERPOWER
  • The Emperors of China once believed that it was their task to unite All Under Heaven (Tian Xia). How large did China really become? TIAN XIA
  • The Mongols invade China from the north They defeat the Song, and establish the Yuan dynasty in 1279 to 1368. Under Khubilai (Kublai) Khan (1215-1294), the supreme leader of the Mongols and a grandson of Chinggis (Genghis) Khan (d. 1227), the Mongols move the Chinese capital to Beijing and establish the capital of their empire there.   The Mongol empire spans Eurasia in the 13th and 14th centuries and facilitates trade and exchange across the Eurasian land mass. YUAN DYNASTY (1279 - 1368)
  • YUAN DYNASTY (1279 - 1368)
  • THE MONGOL EMPIRE AT ITS HEIGHT
  • THE TRAVELS OF MARCO POLO (1271 – 1298)
  • The Ming dynasty is a new focus in modern-day Chinese historiography. Modern historians use the imagery of the time to promote the image of a global and friendly China. However, there was a contradiction during the Ming: As China became more integrated with the world, the further the Imperial government closed themselves off. MING DYNASTY (1368 - 1644)
  • MING DYNASTY (1368 - 1644)
  • MING DYNASTY (1368 - 1644)
  • THE FORBIDDEN CITY
  • THE FORBIDDEN CITY
  • THE FORBIDDEN CITY
  • THE FORBIDDEN CITY
  • THE FORBIDDEN CITY
  • THE FORBIDDEN CITY
  • By the Qing dynasty, the Chinese empire saw themselves as the Celestial Empire . In a letter to the King of England, Qian Long declared that they had everything they need and had no use for the manufactures of the West. THE CELESTIAL EMPIRE
  • THE CELESTIAL EMPIRE
  • END OF THE PRESENTATION
    • OTHER PRESENTATIONS IN THE SS2 ASIAN STUDIES CIVILIZATION LECTURE SERIES
    • Introduction to Civilization
    • History of India
    • History of China
    • History of Islam
    • MARTIN BENEDICT PEREZ © 2009