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Blog.7 2.Acid And Base

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  • 1. Acid and Base Ch 15 and 16 7-2
  • 2. acids
    • 1. tastes sour.
    • 2. conducts an electric current.
    • 3. Causes certain dyes ( indicators) to change color.
    • 4. Liberates hydrogen when it reacts with certain metals.
    • 5. neutralizes basic solutions to form salts.
  • 3. Bases
    • 1. tastes bitter.
    • 2. conducts an electric current.
    • 3. causes certain dyes ( indicators) to change color.
    • 4. feels slippery.
    • 5. neutralizes acid solution to form salts.
  • 4. Definition of Acids and Bases
    • An acid is a source of hydrogen ions (H + ) or hydronium ions (H 3 O + ) in solution.
    • HCl(aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + Cl - (aq)
  • 5.
    • A base is a source of hydroxide ions (OH - )
    • e.g. NaOH(s) Na + (aq) + OH - (aq)
    • e.g. NH 3 (aq) +H 2 O(l) NH 4 + (aq) + OH - (aq)
  • 6. Naming of acids
    • In a binary acid, the negative anion ends in -ide. The name begins with the prefix hydro- , stem and ends with -ic acid.
    • hydro______ ic acid
    • HF
    • HCl
    • HBr
    hydro flour ic acid hydro chlor ic acid Hydro brom ic acid stem stem
  • 7.
    • 2. In an oxy acid , the negative anion ends in – ate , use the stem and the name ends with -ic acid.
    • ______ ic acid
    • HNO 3
    • H 2 SO 4
    • H 3 PO 4
    • CH 3 COOH
    nitric acid phosphoric acid sulfuric acid acetic acid
  • 8.
    • 3. In an oxy acid, if the negative anion ends in –ite, use the stem and the name ends with -ous acid.
    • _______ ous acid
    • HNO 2
    • H 2 SO 3
    • H 3 PO 3
    nitrous acid sulfurous acid phosphorous acid
  • 9. Some Common Bases
    • NaOH
    • KOH
    • Ba(OH) 2
    • Mg(OH) 2
    • Al(OH) 3
    Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Barium hydroxide Magnesium hydroxide Aluminum hydroxide
  • 10. Learning Check
    • Match the formulas with the names:
    • A. ___ HNO 2 1) hydrochloric acid
    • B. ___ Ca(OH) 2 2) sulfuric acid
    • C. ___ H 2 SO 4 3) sodium hydroxide
    • D. ___ HCl 4) nitrous acid
    • E. ___ NaOH 5) calcium hydroxide
  • 11. Solution AB4
    • Match the formulas with the names:
    • A. _4__ HNO 2 1) hydrochloric acid
    • B. _5__ Ca(OH) 2 2) sulfuric acid
    • C. _2__ H 2 SO 4 3) sodium hydroxide
    • D. _1__ HCl 4) nitrous acid
    • E. _3__ NaOH 5) calcium hydroxide
  • 12. Learning Check
    • Acid, Base Name
    • or Salt
    • CaCl 2 ______ _________________
    • KOH ______ _________________
    • Ba(OH) 2 ______ _________________
    • HBr ______ _________________
    • H 2 SO 4 ______ __________________
  • 13. Solution AB5 Acid, Base Name or Salt CaCl 2 salt calcium chloride KOH base potassiuim hydroxide Ba(OH) 2 base barium hydroxide HBr acid hydrobromic acid H 2 SO 4 acid sulfuric acid
  • 14. B. Definitions
    • Arrhenius - In aqueous solution…
    HCl + H 2 O H 3 O + + Cl –
      • Acids form hydronium ions (H 3 O + )
    acid H H H H H H Cl Cl O O – +
  • 15. B. Definitions
    • Arrhenius - In aqueous solution…
      • Bases form hydroxide ions (OH - )
    NH 3 + H 2 O NH 4 + + OH - base H H H H H H N N O O – + H H H H
  • 16. B. Definitions
    • Brønsted-Lowry
    HCl + H 2 O  H 3 O + + Cl -
      • Acids are proton (H + ) donors.
      • Bases are proton (H + ) acceptors.
    base acid conjugate base conjugate acid
  • 17. Conjugate acid base pairs
    • conjugate base : the species that remains after an acid has given up a proton
    • conjugate acid : the species that is formed when a base gains a proton
  • 18. NH 3 + H 2 O  NH 4 + + OH - acid base conjugate base conjugate acid
  • 19.
    • In the two examples water first acts as a base, then as an acid.
    • Any species which can both accept and receive protons is called amphiprotic . (also known as amphoteric)
  • 20. Br – HSO 4 - CO 3 2- HBr H 2 SO 4 HCO 3 -
    • Give the conjugate acid for each of the following:
  • 21.
    • List the conjugate acids for the following Bronsted bases
    • OH -
    • CO 3 2-
    • NO 3 -
    • HCO 3 -
    • CN -
    H 2 O HCO 3 - HNO 3 HCO 3 HCN
  • 22. F - H 2 PO 4 - H 2 O HF H 3 PO 4 H 3 O +
    • Give the conjugate base for each of the following:
    • Polyprotic - an acid with more than one H +
  • 23.
    • List the conjugate bases for the following Bronsted acids
    • H 2 SO 4
    • HPO 4 2-
    • HCO 3 -
    • H 3 O +
    • H 2 PO 4 -
    HSO 4 - PO 4 3- CO 3 2- H 2 O HPO 4 2-
  • 24. Review 2: Name the acid, base, conjugate acid and base for each reaction. CH 3 NH 2 + H 2 O CH 3 NH 3 + + OH - H 3 PO 4 + H 2 O H 3 O + + H 2 PO 4 - HC 2 H 3 O 2 + H 2 O H 3 O + + C 2 H 3 O 2 - CH 3 NH 3 + + H 2 PO 4 - H 3 PO 4 + CH 3 NH 2 base base base base acid acid acid acid conjugate acid conjugate acid conjugate acid conjugate acid conjugate base conjugate base conjugate base conjugate base
  • 25. Review 2: Name the acid, base, conjugate acid and base for each reaction. H 2 PO 4 2- + OH - HPO 4 - + H 2 O HCN + H 2 O CN - + H 3 O + NH 3 + H 2 O NH 4 + + OH - NO 3 - + HCO 3 - CO 3 2- + HNO 2 acid base acid acid base acid base base conjugate base conjugate base conjugate acid conjugate base conjugate acid conjugate acid conjugate base conjugate acid