Lee Iverson - How does the web connect content?Presentation Transcript
Semantic Pragmatics Lee Iverson UK Museums and the Web
Connecting Museum Museum Users Users ??? ???
Why to connect?
Let users know about other museums
Improve information about your collection
Improve relevance to each user
Expose own data
Find other data
Engage with users
Museums manage structured, authoritative data about collections
Museum web sites are dominated by presentation and control
Museum web data is hermetically sealed
User experience is completely controlled
Give it away as structured data
Must decide private/public boundary
Creative commons licensing
Easy to do via web (hint: XML or RDF)
Museum to museum links possible
Consumers can repurpose data
New uses means new customers
Add links to structure from:
Objects and exhibits
Meta links! (e.g. RSS)
Standard = agreement between min. 2 parties to do something in same way
Use existing standards as much as possible
Never standardize more than minimum
That which is necessary for essential functionality
Never standardize vaporware
Recognize defacto standards rather than create new ones
Is this the Semantic Web?
Meaning vs. Presentation
Machine vs. Human
Where is the meaning ?
Where is the reasoning ?
“ I have a dream for the Web [in which computers] become capable of analyzing all the data on the Web – the content, links, and transactions between people and computers. A ‘Semantic Web’, which should make this possible, has yet to emerge, but when it does, the day-to-day mechanisms of trade, bureaucracy and our daily lives will be handled by machines talking to machines. The ‘intelligent agents’ people have touted for ages will finally materialize.”
– Tim Berners-Lee, 1999
Syntax vs. Semantics
In a certain sense structure and vocabulary is the semantics
Ability to interpret
Mirroring human interpretation
Linking to other museums and sites…
Spider and scrape
Unreliable, expensive, needs moderation
Rely on structured data
RSS or Atom
You show me yours…?
Relate your content to theirs
It is possible!
Reciprocal Research Network
Straight from CMS
Data for Integration
Schema from structure
Integration by structural integration
A few syntaxes
Schema from vocabulary
Integration by reference
RDF in XHTML:
Best of both worlds
Microformat-like attributes on XHTML content
Need to match XML structure to RDF classes
Ordinary web pages can be “data web” pages
Resource description framework
Simple, unambiguous data model
Model built on reference , so statements can be detached from their referents
RSS – RDF Site Summary
DAML+OIL and OWL ( Semantic Web )
RDF document is set of statements
Statement is triple :
Subject – a URI reference
Property – a URI reference
Object – a value (may be URI)
RDFS (RDF Schema)
Restrict subject/object values based on property
Property URI contains description of constraints
@prefix dc: <http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/> .
@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
<http://example.org/> dc:creator _:b .
_:b foaf:name "Bob" .
“ A person named Bob is the creator of http://example.org”