Semantic Pragmatics Lee Iverson UK Museums and the Web
Connecting Museum Museum Users Users ??? ???
Why to connect? <ul><li>Referral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Let users know about other museums </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enhanceme...
The Powerhouse
Becoming Connected <ul><li>Expose own data </li></ul><ul><li>Find other data </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate </li></ul><ul><li...
Exposing Data <ul><li>Museums manage structured, authoritative data about collections </li></ul><ul><li>but </li></ul><ul>...
Exposing Data <ul><li>Give it away  as  structured data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must decide private/public boundary </li></u...
How? <ul><li>Add links to structure from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Main page  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual pages </l...
Standards Strategy <ul><li>Standard  = agreement between min. 2 parties to do something in same way </li></ul><ul><li>Prag...
Is this the Semantic Web? <ul><li>Maybe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meaning vs. Presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Machine ...
Berners-Lee <ul><li>“ I have a dream for the Web [in which computers] become capable of analyzing all the data on the Web ...
Syntax vs. Semantics <ul><li>In a certain sense  structure  and  vocabulary   is  the semantics </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic...
Finding Data <ul><li>Linking to other museums and sites… </li></ul><ul><li>Spider and scrape </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tools: ...
Integration <ul><li>Relate your content to theirs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relate structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relate...
Data for Integration <ul><li>XML </li></ul><ul><li>Information model </li></ul><ul><li>One syntax </li></ul><ul><li>Schema...
RDFa <ul><li>RDF in XHTML: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Best of both worlds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microformat-like attribute...
RDF <ul><li>Resource description framework </li></ul><ul><li>Metadata language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple,  unambiguous ...
RDF Model <ul><li>RDF document is set of statements </li></ul><ul><li>Statement is  triple : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject...
RDF Example <ul><li>@prefix dc: <http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/> . </li></ul><ul><li>@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foa...
RDF Schema Example <ul><li><rdf:Property rdf:about=&quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;  </li></ul><ul><li>rdfs:labe...
What About Semantics? <ul><li>DAML+OIL  or  OWL  provide: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocabulary of basic properties </li></ul><...
What is an Ontology? <ul><li>Formal (but uninformative): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ A specification of a conceptualization” <...
A Simple Ontology Cat Dog Cheetah Species category-type category-type category-type Feline Canine Mammal kind-of kind-of k...
McBride’s 4 Steps for Widespread Adoption <ul><li>Promote  practical  applications </li></ul><ul><li>Develop applications ...
Be Wary <ul><li>Berners-Lee’s “Semantic Web” doesn’t yet exist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nothing comes for free </li></ul></ul...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Lee Iverson - How does the web connect content?

865

Published on

Published in: Technology, Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
865
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
2
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Lee Iverson - How does the web connect content?

  1. 1. Semantic Pragmatics Lee Iverson UK Museums and the Web
  2. 2. Connecting Museum Museum Users Users ??? ???
  3. 3. Why to connect? <ul><li>Referral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Let users know about other museums </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enhancement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve information about your collection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Personalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve relevance to each user </li></ul></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Powerhouse
  5. 5. Becoming Connected <ul><li>Expose own data </li></ul><ul><li>Find other data </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate </li></ul><ul><li>Engage with users </li></ul>
  6. 6. Exposing Data <ul><li>Museums manage structured, authoritative data about collections </li></ul><ul><li>but </li></ul><ul><li>Museum web sites are dominated by presentation and control </li></ul><ul><li>Results: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Museum web data is hermetically sealed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User experience is completely controlled </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Exposing Data <ul><li>Give it away as structured data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must decide private/public boundary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creative commons licensing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to do via web (hint: XML or RDF) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefits: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aggregation possibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Museum to museum links possible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumers can repurpose data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New uses means new customers </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. How? <ul><li>Add links to structure from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Main page </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual pages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Objects and exhibits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visible links? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meta links! (e.g. RSS) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Standardize </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which standards? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which vocabularies? </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Standards Strategy <ul><li>Standard = agreement between min. 2 parties to do something in same way </li></ul><ul><li>Pragmatics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use existing standards as much as possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Never standardize more than minimum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>That which is necessary for essential functionality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Never standardize vaporware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize defacto standards rather than create new ones </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Is this the Semantic Web? <ul><li>Maybe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meaning vs. Presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Machine vs. Human </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maybe not </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where is the meaning ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where is the reasoning ? </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Berners-Lee <ul><li>“ I have a dream for the Web [in which computers] become capable of analyzing all the data on the Web – the content, links, and transactions between people and computers. A ‘Semantic Web’, which should make this possible, has yet to emerge, but when it does, the day-to-day mechanisms of trade, bureaucracy and our daily lives will be handled by machines talking to machines. The ‘intelligent agents’ people have touted for ages will finally materialize.” </li></ul><ul><li>– Tim Berners-Lee, 1999 </li></ul>
  12. 12. Syntax vs. Semantics <ul><li>In a certain sense structure and vocabulary is the semantics </li></ul><ul><li>Semantics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to interpret </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repurposability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mirroring human interpretation </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Finding Data <ul><li>Linking to other museums and sites… </li></ul><ul><li>Spider and scrape </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tools: Calais? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unreliable, expensive, needs moderation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rely on structured data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RSS or Atom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You show me yours…? </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Integration <ul><li>Relate your content to theirs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relate structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relate vocabulary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relate context </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is possible! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reciprocal Research Network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Straight from CMS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://rrnpilot.org </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Data for Integration <ul><li>XML </li></ul><ul><li>Information model </li></ul><ul><li>One syntax </li></ul><ul><li>Schema from structure </li></ul><ul><li>Integration by structural integration </li></ul><ul><li>RDF </li></ul><ul><li>Data model </li></ul><ul><li>A few syntaxes </li></ul><ul><li>Schema from vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Integration by reference </li></ul>
  16. 16. RDFa <ul><li>RDF in XHTML: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Best of both worlds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microformat-like attributes on XHTML content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to match XML structure to RDF classes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ordinary web pages can be “data web” pages </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. RDF <ul><li>Resource description framework </li></ul><ul><li>Metadata language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple, unambiguous data model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Model built on reference , so statements can be detached from their referents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Foundation for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RSS – RDF Site Summary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DAML+OIL and OWL ( Semantic Web ) </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. RDF Model <ul><li>RDF document is set of statements </li></ul><ul><li>Statement is triple : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject – a URI reference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Property – a URI reference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Object – a value (may be URI) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RDFS (RDF Schema) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restrict subject/object values based on property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Property URI contains description of constraints </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. RDF Example <ul><li>@prefix dc: <http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/> . </li></ul><ul><li>@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> . </li></ul><ul><li><http://example.org/> dc:creator _:b . </li></ul><ul><li>_:b foaf:name &quot;Bob&quot; . </li></ul><ul><li>“ A person named Bob is the creator of http://example.org” </li></ul>http://example.org _:b dc:creator “ Bob” foaf:name
  20. 20. RDF Schema Example <ul><li><rdf:Property rdf:about=&quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>rdfs:label=&quot;name&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>rdfs:comment=&quot;A name for some thing.&quot;> </li></ul><ul><li><rdfs:range </li></ul><ul><li>rdf:resource=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#Literal&quot;> </li></ul><ul><li></rdfs:range> </li></ul><ul><li><rdfs:isDefinedBy </li></ul><ul><li>rdf:resource=&quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&quot;> </li></ul><ul><li></rdfs:isDefinedBy> </li></ul><ul><li><rdfs:subPropertyOf </li></ul><ul><li>rdf:resource= </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#label&quot;> </li></ul><ul><li></rdfs:subPropertyOf> </li></ul><ul><li></rdf:Property> </li></ul>
  21. 21. What About Semantics? <ul><li>DAML+OIL or OWL provide: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocabulary of basic properties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mappings from these properties to formal semantics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language for defining new, semantically well-defined properties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language for expressing logical inferences that can be made within vocabulary </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. What is an Ontology? <ul><li>Formal (but uninformative): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ A specification of a conceptualization” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Informal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ A shared vocabulary designed to support the communication of the meaning of a certain class of resources” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ An attempt to make semantics of a body of knowledge more explicit” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technical: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ A vocabulary and logical inference statements expressed in a formal language (e.g. OWL) for describing a set of resources” </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. A Simple Ontology Cat Dog Cheetah Species category-type category-type category-type Feline Canine Mammal kind-of kind-of kind-of kind-of kind-of disjoint disjoint disjoint hates
  24. 24. McBride’s 4 Steps for Widespread Adoption <ul><li>Promote practical applications </li></ul><ul><li>Develop applications now </li></ul><ul><li>Simple and tolerant of error </li></ul><ul><li>Open source </li></ul>
  25. 25. Be Wary <ul><li>Berners-Lee’s “Semantic Web” doesn’t yet exist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nothing comes for free </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Landay’s AI completeness theory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The data web is useful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We can go there now! </li></ul></ul>
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×