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Lee Iverson - How does the web connect content?

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  • 1. Semantic Pragmatics Lee Iverson UK Museums and the Web
  • 2. Connecting Museum Museum Users Users ??? ???
  • 3. Why to connect?
    • Referral
      • Let users know about other museums
    • Enhancement
      • Improve information about your collection
    • Personalization
      • Improve relevance to each user
  • 4. The Powerhouse
  • 5. Becoming Connected
    • Expose own data
    • Find other data
    • Integrate
    • Engage with users
  • 6. Exposing Data
    • Museums manage structured, authoritative data about collections
    • but
    • Museum web sites are dominated by presentation and control
    • Results:
      • Museum web data is hermetically sealed
      • User experience is completely controlled
  • 7. Exposing Data
    • Give it away as structured data
      • Must decide private/public boundary
        • Creative commons licensing
      • Easy to do via web (hint: XML or RDF)
    • Benefits:
      • Aggregation possibilities
        • Museum to museum links possible
      • Consumers can repurpose data
      • New uses means new customers
  • 8. How?
    • Add links to structure from:
      • Main page
      • Individual pages
        • Objects and exhibits
      • Visible links?
      • Meta links! (e.g. RSS)
    • Standardize
      • Which standards?
      • Which vocabularies?
  • 9. Standards Strategy
    • Standard = agreement between min. 2 parties to do something in same way
    • Pragmatics:
      • Use existing standards as much as possible
      • Never standardize more than minimum
        • That which is necessary for essential functionality
      • Never standardize vaporware
      • Recognize defacto standards rather than create new ones
  • 10. Is this the Semantic Web?
    • Maybe
      • Meaning vs. Presentation
      • Machine vs. Human
    • Maybe not
      • Where is the meaning ?
      • Where is the reasoning ?
  • 11. Berners-Lee
    • “ I have a dream for the Web [in which computers] become capable of analyzing all the data on the Web – the content, links, and transactions between people and computers. A ‘Semantic Web’, which should make this possible, has yet to emerge, but when it does, the day-to-day mechanisms of trade, bureaucracy and our daily lives will be handled by machines talking to machines. The ‘intelligent agents’ people have touted for ages will finally materialize.”
    • – Tim Berners-Lee, 1999
  • 12. Syntax vs. Semantics
    • In a certain sense structure and vocabulary is the semantics
    • Semantics:
      • Ability to interpret
      • Repurposability
      • Mirroring human interpretation
  • 13. Finding Data
    • Linking to other museums and sites…
    • Spider and scrape
      • Tools: Calais?
      • Unreliable, expensive, needs moderation
    • Rely on structured data
      • RSS or Atom
      • You show me yours…?
  • 14. Integration
    • Relate your content to theirs
      • Relate structure
      • Relate vocabulary
      • Relate context
    • It is possible!
      • Reciprocal Research Network
      • Straight from CMS
      • http://rrnpilot.org
  • 15. Data for Integration
    • XML
    • Information model
    • One syntax
    • Schema from structure
    • Integration by structural integration
    • RDF
    • Data model
    • A few syntaxes
    • Schema from vocabulary
    • Integration by reference
  • 16. RDFa
    • RDF in XHTML:
      • Best of both worlds
      • Microformat-like attributes on XHTML content
      • Need to match XML structure to RDF classes
      • Ordinary web pages can be “data web” pages
  • 17. RDF
    • Resource description framework
    • Metadata language
      • Simple, unambiguous data model
      • Model built on reference , so statements can be detached from their referents
    • Foundation for:
      • RSS – RDF Site Summary
      • DAML+OIL and OWL ( Semantic Web )
  • 18. RDF Model
    • RDF document is set of statements
    • Statement is triple :
      • Subject – a URI reference
      • Property – a URI reference
      • Object – a value (may be URI)
    • RDFS (RDF Schema)
      • Restrict subject/object values based on property
      • Property URI contains description of constraints
  • 19. RDF Example
    • @prefix dc: <http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/> .
    • @prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
    • <http://example.org/> dc:creator _:b .
    • _:b foaf:name &quot;Bob&quot; .
    • “ A person named Bob is the creator of http://example.org”
    http://example.org _:b dc:creator “ Bob” foaf:name
  • 20. RDF Schema Example
    • <rdf:Property rdf:about=&quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot;
    • rdfs:label=&quot;name&quot;
    • rdfs:comment=&quot;A name for some thing.&quot;>
    • <rdfs:range
    • rdf:resource=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#Literal&quot;>
    • </rdfs:range>
    • <rdfs:isDefinedBy
    • rdf:resource=&quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&quot;>
    • </rdfs:isDefinedBy>
    • <rdfs:subPropertyOf
    • rdf:resource=
    • &quot;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#label&quot;>
    • </rdfs:subPropertyOf>
    • </rdf:Property>
  • 21. What About Semantics?
    • DAML+OIL or OWL provide:
      • Vocabulary of basic properties
      • Mappings from these properties to formal semantics
      • Language for defining new, semantically well-defined properties
      • Language for expressing logical inferences that can be made within vocabulary
  • 22. What is an Ontology?
    • Formal (but uninformative):
      • “ A specification of a conceptualization”
    • Informal
      • “ A shared vocabulary designed to support the communication of the meaning of a certain class of resources”
      • “ An attempt to make semantics of a body of knowledge more explicit”
    • Technical:
      • “ A vocabulary and logical inference statements expressed in a formal language (e.g. OWL) for describing a set of resources”
  • 23. A Simple Ontology Cat Dog Cheetah Species category-type category-type category-type Feline Canine Mammal kind-of kind-of kind-of kind-of kind-of disjoint disjoint disjoint hates
  • 24. McBride’s 4 Steps for Widespread Adoption
    • Promote practical applications
    • Develop applications now
    • Simple and tolerant of error
    • Open source
  • 25. Be Wary
    • Berners-Lee’s “Semantic Web” doesn’t yet exist
      • Nothing comes for free
      • Landay’s AI completeness theory
    • But…
      • The data web is useful
      • We can go there now!