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Lee Iverson - How does the web connect content?
Lee Iverson - How does the web connect content?
Lee Iverson - How does the web connect content?
Lee Iverson - How does the web connect content?
Lee Iverson - How does the web connect content?
Lee Iverson - How does the web connect content?
Lee Iverson - How does the web connect content?
Lee Iverson - How does the web connect content?
Lee Iverson - How does the web connect content?
Lee Iverson - How does the web connect content?
Lee Iverson - How does the web connect content?
Lee Iverson - How does the web connect content?
Lee Iverson - How does the web connect content?
Lee Iverson - How does the web connect content?
Lee Iverson - How does the web connect content?
Lee Iverson - How does the web connect content?
Lee Iverson - How does the web connect content?
Lee Iverson - How does the web connect content?
Lee Iverson - How does the web connect content?
Lee Iverson - How does the web connect content?
Lee Iverson - How does the web connect content?
Lee Iverson - How does the web connect content?
Lee Iverson - How does the web connect content?
Lee Iverson - How does the web connect content?
Lee Iverson - How does the web connect content?
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Lee Iverson - How does the web connect content?

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  • 1. Semantic Pragmatics Lee Iverson UK Museums and the Web
  • 2. Connecting Museum Museum Users Users ??? ???
  • 3. Why to connect? <ul><li>Referral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Let users know about other museums </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enhancement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve information about your collection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Personalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve relevance to each user </li></ul></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul>
  • 4. The Powerhouse
  • 5. Becoming Connected <ul><li>Expose own data </li></ul><ul><li>Find other data </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate </li></ul><ul><li>Engage with users </li></ul>
  • 6. Exposing Data <ul><li>Museums manage structured, authoritative data about collections </li></ul><ul><li>but </li></ul><ul><li>Museum web sites are dominated by presentation and control </li></ul><ul><li>Results: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Museum web data is hermetically sealed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User experience is completely controlled </li></ul></ul>
  • 7. Exposing Data <ul><li>Give it away as structured data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must decide private/public boundary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creative commons licensing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to do via web (hint: XML or RDF) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefits: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aggregation possibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Museum to museum links possible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumers can repurpose data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New uses means new customers </li></ul></ul>
  • 8. How? <ul><li>Add links to structure from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Main page </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual pages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Objects and exhibits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visible links? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meta links! (e.g. RSS) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Standardize </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which standards? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which vocabularies? </li></ul></ul>
  • 9. Standards Strategy <ul><li>Standard = agreement between min. 2 parties to do something in same way </li></ul><ul><li>Pragmatics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use existing standards as much as possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Never standardize more than minimum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>That which is necessary for essential functionality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Never standardize vaporware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize defacto standards rather than create new ones </li></ul></ul>
  • 10. Is this the Semantic Web? <ul><li>Maybe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meaning vs. Presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Machine vs. Human </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maybe not </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where is the meaning ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where is the reasoning ? </li></ul></ul>
  • 11. Berners-Lee <ul><li>“ I have a dream for the Web [in which computers] become capable of analyzing all the data on the Web – the content, links, and transactions between people and computers. A ‘Semantic Web’, which should make this possible, has yet to emerge, but when it does, the day-to-day mechanisms of trade, bureaucracy and our daily lives will be handled by machines talking to machines. The ‘intelligent agents’ people have touted for ages will finally materialize.” </li></ul><ul><li>– Tim Berners-Lee, 1999 </li></ul>
  • 12. Syntax vs. Semantics <ul><li>In a certain sense structure and vocabulary is the semantics </li></ul><ul><li>Semantics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to interpret </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repurposability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mirroring human interpretation </li></ul></ul>
  • 13. Finding Data <ul><li>Linking to other museums and sites… </li></ul><ul><li>Spider and scrape </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tools: Calais? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unreliable, expensive, needs moderation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rely on structured data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RSS or Atom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You show me yours…? </li></ul></ul>
  • 14. Integration <ul><li>Relate your content to theirs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relate structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relate vocabulary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relate context </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is possible! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reciprocal Research Network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Straight from CMS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://rrnpilot.org </li></ul></ul>
  • 15. Data for Integration <ul><li>XML </li></ul><ul><li>Information model </li></ul><ul><li>One syntax </li></ul><ul><li>Schema from structure </li></ul><ul><li>Integration by structural integration </li></ul><ul><li>RDF </li></ul><ul><li>Data model </li></ul><ul><li>A few syntaxes </li></ul><ul><li>Schema from vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Integration by reference </li></ul>
  • 16. RDFa <ul><li>RDF in XHTML: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Best of both worlds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microformat-like attributes on XHTML content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to match XML structure to RDF classes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ordinary web pages can be “data web” pages </li></ul></ul>
  • 17. RDF <ul><li>Resource description framework </li></ul><ul><li>Metadata language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple, unambiguous data model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Model built on reference , so statements can be detached from their referents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Foundation for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RSS – RDF Site Summary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DAML+OIL and OWL ( Semantic Web ) </li></ul></ul>
  • 18. RDF Model <ul><li>RDF document is set of statements </li></ul><ul><li>Statement is triple : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject – a URI reference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Property – a URI reference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Object – a value (may be URI) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RDFS (RDF Schema) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restrict subject/object values based on property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Property URI contains description of constraints </li></ul></ul>
  • 19. RDF Example <ul><li>@prefix dc: <http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/> . </li></ul><ul><li>@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> . </li></ul><ul><li><http://example.org/> dc:creator _:b . </li></ul><ul><li>_:b foaf:name &quot;Bob&quot; . </li></ul><ul><li>“ A person named Bob is the creator of http://example.org” </li></ul>http://example.org _:b dc:creator “ Bob” foaf:name
  • 20. RDF Schema Example <ul><li><rdf:Property rdf:about=&quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>rdfs:label=&quot;name&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>rdfs:comment=&quot;A name for some thing.&quot;> </li></ul><ul><li><rdfs:range </li></ul><ul><li>rdf:resource=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#Literal&quot;> </li></ul><ul><li></rdfs:range> </li></ul><ul><li><rdfs:isDefinedBy </li></ul><ul><li>rdf:resource=&quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&quot;> </li></ul><ul><li></rdfs:isDefinedBy> </li></ul><ul><li><rdfs:subPropertyOf </li></ul><ul><li>rdf:resource= </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#label&quot;> </li></ul><ul><li></rdfs:subPropertyOf> </li></ul><ul><li></rdf:Property> </li></ul>
  • 21. What About Semantics? <ul><li>DAML+OIL or OWL provide: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocabulary of basic properties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mappings from these properties to formal semantics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language for defining new, semantically well-defined properties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language for expressing logical inferences that can be made within vocabulary </li></ul></ul>
  • 22. What is an Ontology? <ul><li>Formal (but uninformative): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ A specification of a conceptualization” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Informal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ A shared vocabulary designed to support the communication of the meaning of a certain class of resources” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ An attempt to make semantics of a body of knowledge more explicit” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technical: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ A vocabulary and logical inference statements expressed in a formal language (e.g. OWL) for describing a set of resources” </li></ul></ul>
  • 23. A Simple Ontology Cat Dog Cheetah Species category-type category-type category-type Feline Canine Mammal kind-of kind-of kind-of kind-of kind-of disjoint disjoint disjoint hates
  • 24. McBride’s 4 Steps for Widespread Adoption <ul><li>Promote practical applications </li></ul><ul><li>Develop applications now </li></ul><ul><li>Simple and tolerant of error </li></ul><ul><li>Open source </li></ul>
  • 25. Be Wary <ul><li>Berners-Lee’s “Semantic Web” doesn’t yet exist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nothing comes for free </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Landay’s AI completeness theory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The data web is useful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We can go there now! </li></ul></ul>

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