Time and Serious Games 1 st GALA Alignment School, Edinburgh, 21/06/2011 Mireia Usart Tutoring: Margarida Romero Direction of Educational Innovation and Academic Quality (DIPQA), ESADE. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org
Time in Games
Time Perspective and Learning
Time in Games
Some commercial games have time outs and clocks... 1. Time in Games
...there are also Serious Games designed to improve time management... 1. Time in Games.
...but, are they pedagogically useful? Are students improving their time competence or managing time stress while playing SG? Game Based Learning (GBL)
Games can enhance learning, both individual and collaborative, through practicing, training skills and competences.
Serious Games (SG) are pedagogically designed or adapted to be useful tools that help students reach learning goals using game advantages (fun, motivation, flow...)
1. Time in Games.
Time as a Construct
We consider Time as an important factor that should be taken into account because of its previously studied relationship with Academic Achievement ( de Volder, 1982; Zimbardo, 1999 ) in face to face learning environments.
Few studies have focused on Time, as a construct, and its relation with learning processes and outcomes in GBL environments.
1. Time in Games.
Time Perspective (also called Time Orientation) definitions: 2. Time Perspective The degree to which one reflects upon the past, is centered in the present, or anticipates the future. ( Lennings, 2000 ) The manner in which individuals, and cultures, partition the flow of human experience into distinct temporal categories of past, present and future. ( Zimbardo et al. 1997 ) A complex construct of sub-factors, namely extension, structuralization, and realism that can be applied to both past and future perspectives. ( Nuttin, 1985 )
A Balanced Time Perspective permits to jointly consider different temporal patterns and adapt them to each situation leading to the so called temporal competency. (Zaleski 1994)
2. Time Perspective Future Time Perspective, defined as “The length of the future time span over which one conceptualizes personalized future events” (Wallace, 1956). “ A general concern for future events” (Kastenbaum, 1961) . “ A general capacity to anticipate, shed light on, and structure the future.” (Gjesme, 1983).
Time perspective and Learning
FTP can lead to higher levels of academic achievement. (Zimbardo and Boyd, 1999)
There is enough empirical evidence to conclude that the instrumental aspect of FTP increases the strength or intensity of student motivation for school tasks. (Phalet 2004)
Authors relate TP with motivation, self-efficacy, academic achievement, performance in learning, and sign up time (Peetsma, 2000).
Some authors are studying how students with different Time Perspectives collaborate in CSCL environments (Romero, 2011)
3. Time Perspective and Learning
Aims, questions and hypotheses
Time Perspective and Learning in GBL
When a player is in a state of flow, his or her time perspective temporarily changes, students adapt their Time Perspective.
A student with a Balanced TP should be able to better adapt his/her time orientation in order to better play and learn.
Games including time challenges and tasks could help training time competence.
At a long term, students could be more able to acquire self-efficacy and improve learning processes and outcomes.
4. Aims, questions and hypotheses.
4. Aims, questions and hypotheses. We aim to study the relation between students' Temporal Perspective , students' performance and its relation with learning in GBL . 1. How does Time Perspective influence collaborative GBL processes? 2. Are students with similar TP better performing and showing better learning results?
Research Prospective Data will be collected in the context of Esade Management courses: 1. The ZTPI test for all students participating. 2. A collaborative Serious Game (eFinance Game). 4. Aim
Research Prospective 3. A time out or a clock: 4. Aim In Progress
References 4. References
De Voider, M. L. & W. Lens (1982). Academic Achievement and Future Time Perspective as a
Cognitive-Motivational Concept. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42 , 3, 566-571
Gjesme, T. (1983). On the concept of future time orientation: consideration of some functions'
and measurements' implications. International journal of psychology, 18, 443-461.
Kastenbaum, R. (1961). The dimensions of future time perspective, an
experimental analysis. The Journal of General Psychology, 65 , 203-18.
Lennings, C. J.(2000). Optimism, Satisfaction and Time Perspective in the Elderly. The
International Journal of Aging and Human, 51, 3, 167-181
Nuttin, J. (1985). Future time perspective and motivation: Theory and research method.
Hillsdale, New Jersey: published jointly by Leuven University Press: Lawrence
References 4. References Peetsma, T. & van der Veer, I. (2011). Relations between the development of future time perspective in three life domains, investment in learning, and academic achievement. Learning and Instruction, 21, 3, 481-494. Phalet, K., Andriessen, I. & Lens, W. (2004). How Future Goals Enhance Motivation and Learning in Multicultural Classrooms. Educational Psychology Review, 16, 1, 59-89. Romero, M. (2011). Students' temporal perspectives, participation, temporal group awareness and grades. Are future oriented students performing better?. Presented at the FP7 IAPP Euro-CATCSCL Scientific Results’ workshop. Université de Toulouse, France. Wallace, M. (1956). Future time perspective in schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 52, 2, 240-5. Zaleski, Z. (1994). Psychology of future orientation. Lublin [Poland: Towarzystwo Naukowe KUL. Zimbardo, P. G. & Boyd, J. N. (1999). Putting time into perspective: A valid, reliable individual-differences metric. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 1271–1288
Thanks for your time! Edinburgh, 16/06/2011 Mireia Usart ESADE Direction of Educational Innovation and Academic Quality (DIPQA) Av. de Pedralbes, 60-62 E-08034 Barcelona http://www.esade.edu Esade