TABLE OF CONTENTS
4.0. ACTIVITIES ………………………………………………………...
4.1. BEEF UNIT…………………………………………………
4.1.4. Hoof management………………………………..
4.1.5. Weaning ………………………………………….
4.1.6. Pregnancy diagnosis………………………………
4.1.7. Record keeping…………………………………...
4.1.8. Slaughter of beef animals…………………………
4.1.9. Sale of beef animals……………………………….
4.2. DAIRY UNIT…………………………………………………..
4.2.1. Calf rearing……………………………………….
4.2.2. Feeding of calves and calving……………………
4.2.3. Calving sequence…………………………………
4.2.4. Care of the newly born…………………………...
4.2.5. Milking of cows………………………………….
4.3. SHEEP & GOAT UNIT……………………………………….
4.3.1. Routine management practices…………….........
4.3.2. Hoof management (trimming)…………………….
4.3.3. Inoculation/ Dossing …………………………......
4.4. PIG UNIT
4.4.1. Handling of piglets………………………………...
4.4.2. Iron injection……………………………………....
4.4.3. Teeth clipping …………………………………….
4.4.5. Veterinary care…………………………………….
4.5. POULTRY UNIT……………………………………………..
4.5.1. Requirements ……………………………………...
4.5.2. Brooding unit……………………………………...
4.5.5. Identification of non-laying hens………………….
4.5.6. Record keeping……………………………………
4.5.7. Veterinary care ……………………………………
4.6. EQUINE UNIT……………………………………………….
4.6.1. Hoof management…………………………………
4.6.2. Equine brucellosis…………………………………
4.6.3. Equine Feeding……………………………………
4.6.4. Temperature checking ……………………………
4.7. GAME UNIT
4.8. RATION AND FEED FORMULATIONS
5.0. CHALLENGES/GENERAL OBSERVATION………………………..
TomyParents; Johnny Musalo &Cleopatra Mwaba,for their parentalsupport
andperseverance, andto my brothers and sisterswhomissed me during the vacation as
well as my friends
My gratitude gotoMr. & Mrs. Harvey, the owners & directorsofshiwa ngandu estates
and board chairs of Chambeshi water and sewerage company (CWSC).
Mr.Fastone,supervisor for beef and dairy sections. Mr. William, supervisor for small
animals and poultry units and Mr. Sunday, supervisor for the equine section,notonly for
their hospitality butalsoprovisionofallthetechnicalguidancewithoutwhichmystay at the
Finally,Iwould also liketoextendmygratitudeto theGovernmentof the republic of
Zambia (GRZ)fortheirlogisticalsupport via the bursaries committee (BC).
GRZGovernmentof the republic of Zambia
Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa
Southern Africa Development Community
Everything but Arms
Gross Domestic Product
Zambia is endowed with a large land resource base of 42 million hectares of which only
1.5 million hectares is cultivated every year. There are abundant water resources for
irrigation and the country has 40 percent of the water in Central and Southern Africa.
The agricultural sector continues to be the backbone of the Zambian economy as it
contributes to the growth of the economy and also to exports. Primary agriculture
contribute about 35 percent to the country’s total nontraditional exports (all the
country’s exports other than copper and cobalt) and about 10 percent of the total export
earnings for the country. The sector also provides employment to 70 percent of the
labor force. As such, agriculture has continued to receive priority attention by the
government, through increased budget support aimed at increasing agriculture
productivity to ensure food security, income generation, creation of employment
opportunities and poverty reduction.
Given the vast resource endowment in terms of land, labor and water, Zambia
has the potential to expand its agricultural production. Furthermore the country is
bordered by eight countries and is a member of the Common Market for Eastern and
Southern Africa (COMESA) and the Southern African Development Community
(SADC) it has market access to the European Union through the Everything but Arms
(EBA) initiative, access to the US market through the African Growth Opportunities Act
(AGOA) and access to the Chinese and Japanese markets through various initiatives.
Furthermore the Government has embarked on a land development programme which
involves opening up new farming blocks for commercial development and expansion of
the agriculture sector.
Livestock Farming in Zambia: A recent parliamentary report
reviews the current state of livestock farming in Zambia. The livestock sector is worth
over $1.5bn in Zambia, accounting for around 35% of agriculture’ share of national
gross domestic product (GDP). The good news is that the sector has experienced stead
growth in recent years. Beef and dairy products are growing around 7% and 10%
annually respectively. The poultry industry has also doubled in size over the last ten
years. However, despite these positive trends the sector continues to face many
challenges which are helpfully highlighted in the report. These include inadequate
development funding and taxation reform from GRZ; rampant livestock disease
outbreak; poor disease control mechanisms; poor supply of breeding stocks; high cost of
cheap and long term finance; poor infrastructure such as roads, and a lack of processing
facilities in the form of abattoirs and milk collection centers, among others; high energy
costs; shortage and high cost of feedstock; absence of input support; inadequate and
inappropriate research; poor extension support; poor organization of marketing services;
and high number of levies on livestock and livestock products. There’s currently no
livestock development policy to deal with these challenges. The government is allegedly
in the process of developing one. But it’s unclear how robust such a policy is likely to
because one of the things that are clear from the report is that GRZ is working with poor
statistics. The exact numbers of livestock in the country are not known. Without proper
data it is challenging to formulate strategies that address the key problems.
Shiwa Ngandu is a grand English-style country estate and house in the Muchinga
province of Zambia, about 12 km west of the Tanzam highway and half-way between
Mpika and Chinsali. Its name is based on a small lake nearby, Lake Ishiba Ngandu
which in the Bemba language means 'lake of the royal crocodile'. The house itself is also
known as "Shiwa House". It was the lifelong project of an English aristocrat, Sir
Stewart Gore-Browne who fell in love with the country after working on the AngloBelgian Boundary Commission determining the border between Rhodesia and the
Democratic Republic of Congo. From his boyhood, Gore-Browne had an ambition to
own an estate like that of his aunt, Dame Ethel Locke King, at Weybridge in England.
Although comparatively wealthy himself, he could not afford such an estate in Britain.
Land in Northern Rhodesia was very much cheaper for white settlers. At the boundary
commission he had come to admire the Bemba workers and so he travelled to their
country looking for a site. Arriving at Lake Shiwa Ngandu in April 1914 with his
Bemba servants and porters, he knew he had found it. World War I intervened but its
horrors only increased his desire to return to Shiwa Ngandu and achieve his dream.
Construction of the mansion and the farm began in 1920 when Zambia was the British
protectorate of Northern Rhodesia. The site was 400 miles from the nearest railhead, a
journey of many days over rivers and swamps
The estate had its own schools, hospitals, playing fields, shops, and post office. Workers
lived and are still living in brick-built cottages and the estate was ruled as a benevolent
autocracy — though by a man with a temper ferocious enough to justify the local
nickname of Chipembere which means 'rhinoceros'. Stewart Gore-Browne died in
Kasama, Zambia in 1967, and to this date is the only white man to have been given a
state funeral in the history of Zambia, with a eulogy given by then President Kenneth
Kaunda. After his death the estate was managed by one of his daughters, Lorna, and her
husband John Harvey. But only six months later in 1992, Lorna and John Harvey were
murdered at Shiwa Ngandu by three men who were caught and convicted.
Since the years following the murders the house fell into disrepair. Recently Shiwa
House has been partially restored and has opened five rooms for paying guests under the
name Shiwa Ngandu Manor House. An airstrip has been built for charter flights. The
estate's remote beauty is once more accessible to visitors. The grave of Sir Stewart is at
rest in the extraordinary African paradise he created. Lorna and John Harvey's sons have
reintroduced wildlife, and established a large cattle ranch. Poaching is under control, and
the estate is proving to be a significant source of employment in the area.
forageswhicharevery useful and of great value onafarm.
The main objective of the practical was to acquire skills in variousagricultural
activitiesimplementedat a farm.
Toacquireskillsintheareaoffeed & ration formulationofvariousfarmanimal
To acquire knowledge and skills in the control and treatment of animal
Toacquireknowledgeinotheragriculturalrelatedactivitiesundertakenat a far
Shiwang’andu estate has a variety of beef cattle both exotic breeds purposed forCommercial
beef production such as Boran, Brahman, Bonsmara, Hereford and Sussex. And local breeds
such as Angoni, Barotse and Tonga.
Cattle may be born horned or polled (hornless) however, the polled trait is genetically
dominant and polled off springs will result if either of the parents is naturally polled.
Principal reason for dehorning
Reduction of dangers of injury and associated financial losses due to hide damage
Reduction in spatial requirements when cattle are kept in confinements i.e. feedlot area,
through space or transportation.
Ease of handling and reduced risk of injury to handlers
Calves should be dehorned when the horn bud can be felt, but preferably with a mouth after
birth. The principal of dehorning is to cauterize the horn bud and the skin area surrounding it
Note: if the horn bud and the skin surrounding it is not properly cauterized, malformed horn
growth or scars will be produced.
Hot iron method
Caustic stick method
Dehorning older cattle
Horn growth up to 50mm can be removed close to the head with a sharp knife. Cautery
of the wound and the surrounding will prevent further growth. In a case where the horn
has grown with a wide base with hot iron, the use of a guillotine dehorner is
recommended. The blades of the instrument are sharp that not only is the horn base
gouged out, but also 5mm width of the skin surrounding it. This method is used to
remove fully developed horns.
The use of a surgical wire where a local anesthesia is used to block nerves that supply
the horn and its surrounding areas is also used.
Elasticated rings / rubber tubing’s are applied tightly to the horn base and these will
cause the horns to fall off. As a certain amount of discomfort is caused to the animal,
keeping the rubber ring in position may be difficult. Tetany may be introduced or set off
by this method.
Apart from the physical damage they cause, ticks are responsible for the transmission of
diseases such as east coast fever, theileriosis, red water, gall stickness, biliary fever, heart
water, spirochaetosis, and tick paralysis.
DIPPING USING A DIP TANK
Shiwa estate has a cattle dip tank with the capacity of 14,000 liters and that of 1,500 liters for
Shiwa estate 14,000 liters dip tank for cattleShiwa estates 1,500 dip tanks for small animals
THE DIPTANK AND REQUIREMENT CHECKLIST
Have a dip tank properly calibrated in liters (volume).
Provide a proper dip fluid measure
Measure the amount of water added
Prevent flood water from entering the tank
DIPTANK MANAGEMENT CHECKLIST
Check the level replenish if needed with thoroughly premixed dip solution. Agitate/stir
with a suitable tool weather replenishment is needed or not do not use cattle to
agitate/stir the dip solution.
Open the drainage pipe and close the flood water overflow from the drainage race.
Have available a prolonged stick with which to help your calves
Have sample bottles available if dip wash testing is required
Lock up dip concentrates in a cool place, avoid under the sun.
Periodic breaks may be necessary during dipping to allow the scum removal.
CATTLE MANAGEMENT CHECKLIST
Do not dip in wet weather
Rest and water cattle before dipping
Dip in groups-according to age/size
Ensure that animals are completely submerged
Ensure continuous through movement because overcrowding may cause injuries and
Allow dip wash to drain thoroughly from animals- a 25m draining race at a walking
pace should be sufficient.
Allow cattle to dry in a holding paddock before returning them to grazing
Count cattle and ensure that all are dipped except…….
Cows close to calving
Animals with open wounds
Animals with abnormal skin conditions
POST DIP CHECKLIST
Lock up all dipping utensils
Remove scum from dip wash surfaces
Record tank level
Close drainage race opening, open overflow and clean the race. Clean the foot bath.
Seal dipping area to avoid accidental entry of stock.
After draining the dip tank, it is re-filled with clean water.
Then lime is added
Then afterwards a dip of particular interest that is capable of combating the
suspected/diagnosed ticks should be added
A prepared diptankGood ventilated dip tank to allow fresh air
Animals being directed to the dip tankAnimals after dipping, drying up in the holding crush pen
ALTERNATIVE METHODS OF DIPPING
Effective spray races are acceptable alternatives to dip tanks. However, a similar precaution
and restriction apply. This mechanism makes use of the sweating ability of animals. Here the
dip is poured on the back of the animal along the vertebral column, starting from the lumbar
to the thoracic region. The dip then spreads to the rest of the body by means of sweating.
Pouracide was used as a covering liquid for cattle, it control ticks on cattle. Protect against
house flies and biting flies. Control gesigsvliee. Biting and sucking lice and dead
sandtampans, cattle basement. Rain fast convenient. Residual effect. Strookaanwending
Pouracide-covering liquid dip for cattle
Graduated Measuring bottle
Being instructed on how to dip using pouracideDipping
animals in a crush pen
Intact male calves grow faster than the castrated ones, but this advantage is offset by the
greater shock that the animals experience at a later age. Male beef animals are castrated to:
Prevent undesired mating.
Produce cattle of more docile temperament.
Produce cattle that meet the market specifications.
The age of castration is determined at the stage when the animal can be easily handled but it
should be between birth and 6 months. In adult animals, a handling device such the tilt easy
castration. There are three methods of castration:
This is the only method that gives full assurance of sterilization because the testicles are
removed completely. This method can be used by any age but on animals beyond 12months
without anaesthesia is hence requiring veterinary assistance.
The animal should be firmly restrained on the ground. The scrotum and the handler’s hands
must be washed with any disinfectant suitable. The testicles are then palpated and once held,
the scrotum can be cut in two ways:
For very young animals with little testicles, the lower third of the scrotum is cut off.
The testicles are exposed by applying pressure at the point of attachment of the scrotum
to the abdomen.
For animals with more developed testicle, a lateral incision is made through the scrotum
to expose the testicles. A large opening is encouraged to allow ease drainage of the
wound. The cord is cut with the scraping action over a distance of about 2-3 cm with
the knife held at an angle. This which reduces bleeding. After this the wound should be
treated with a suitable wound oil or powder to reduce infection. Fly repellants can also
Elastrator (rubber ring) castration
This method is used before the calf is a week old. The rubber elastrator ring should be applied
with care to ensure that both testicles are completely through the ring. The ring should be
close to the body, thus constricting the spermatic cord. Although this method works, it does
not give total certainty of complete sterilization.
This method of this procedure is derived from the name of the instrument used. The
instrument used is called burdizzo. In this procedure, both the spermatic cord and the blood
vessels leading to the testicles. This is done when the spermatic cord and the blood vessels
have developed superficially.to distinguish between the in calves, usuallyit’s done at the age
of 3 months. Calves are castrated either by lying down or standing. Each spermatic cord is cut
individually but the pressure marks slightly offset at different levels to allow blood to
circulate to the rest of the scrotum. After the jaws have been closed over the spermatic cord,
the testicle is given a sharp jerk to ensure complete severance. As further insurance, the
spermatic cord may be severed again this time below the first position.
A burdizzo must be kept with its mail closed because this weakens the instrument. Burdizzos
that are not efficient are a common cause of stag downgrading at the slaughter. The efficiency
can be checked by choosing the jaws of the jaws of the instrument over a piece of a string
held between two pieces of writing paper. If the string is not completely severed, it is
advisable to have the bearing of the burdizzo checked.
4.1.5. CATTLE HOOF MANAGEMENT
Bad hoof health is an increasing and expensive problem in intensive dairy and beef
productions all over the world. Preventive interventions are important in order to obtain a
sustainable production, both from an economical and animal welfare aspect. Hoof disorders
are possible to prevent by a correct management and early detection of affected animals,
regular claw trimming and a clean and dry environment are also essential. There is a high
correlation between low production and cattle that are not capable of waking comfortably to
the feed bunk or out into the bush pasture to graze. Also lame cows spend more time down
and often in soil areas so they are generally dirtier and if its diary, their udders become more
susceptible to mastitis from the opportunistic pathogens in dairy environments. And when it
comes to reproduction, cows that are lame will not show heats or many times stop
Regular claw trimming
To trim the claws of cattle the animal was sedated using a general anesthesia. We used
Xylazine 2% injectable solution. Each ml solution contains 20mg Xylazine (as Hcl).
Xylazine- Directions for use in cattle
Since the animal was weighing 400kg 1ml of Xylazine was injected intramuscularly-IM,
noting that the practice was sedation.
Trimming the hoof
What is weaning?
This is the process where calves are separated from their Dams to aid management. Weaning
enables supplements to be preferably used (fed) and herd size to be controlled for pasture
Calves are normally weaned between the age of 7-8 months
Calves should be weaned before body score condition of the cow declines below 2.5
Where grazing and supplementation is restricted i.e. years of drought; weaning should
be brought forward to cow body condition score of 3.0 and calves subsequently hand
Weaning at less than 5 months of age will retard the calf growth
In years of plenty or suitable supplementation and grazing of cows, weaning can be
delayed to 9-10 months and this has the following advantages:
a) Calves will be heavier (weight) than their earlier weaned counterparts
b) Calves will adjust more readily when separated from cows whose milk flow is
c) Cows dry up more easily when milk flow is at a low level
4.1.6. PREGNANCY TEST
PREGNANCY DIAGNOSIS (PD): Pregnancy diagnosis (PD), is carried out by a competent
persons, 6-10 weeks after the end of the bulling season. The benefits of PD are:
Helps culling and selection
Enables selective feeding of the breeding herd according to pregnancy status and age
thus reduces the feed bill
Enables early detection and treatment of infertility problems
Abnormalities of the reproductive organ can be detected when the PD is done and
appropriate action taken.
It can serve as an indication of calf loses from birth to weaning where there is no
accurate record of births
Help to prevent slaughter of in-calf animals, which is a crime.
Ideally, any method of marking animals for identification or recording should be permanent,
easily applied and clear enough to read from a distance.
METHODS OF MARKING CATTLE
Many different methods and combinations are used to identify animals, since no ideal method
has yet been found.
Branding involves cauterization of the skin to kill the hair follicles and so leave a visible scar.
Branding irons require skillful use. Over-cauterization restricts the blood supply to the
enclosed area and results in a wound that heals very slowly.
HOT IRON BRANDING
Good, hot brands are permanent and can be read from a fair distance though they may be less
satisfactory if the animals’ skin is very wooly.
Examples of Brands
Letter brands: SE- Shiwa
Estates Number brands: 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9.
Heating the iron bars
Number brand (right pelvic limb thigh)
Letter brand (left pelvic limb thigh)
These come in many designs, but none have yet been approved to meet the twin requirements
of permanency and legibility at a distance. Ear tags can therefore not be used as a permanent
form of identification, but are useful aids to management. At shiwa estates we were using
plastic flag shaped tags. Flag-shaped ear tag: two discs joined through the ear, one or both
bearing a wide, flat plastic surface on which identification details are written or printed in
large, easily legible script.
tagging equipmentinserting the tag onto a machine
Practicing ear tagging
Calf after inserting the tag
Ear notching is the practice of cutting a small (usually triangular) section out of the edge of
an animal’s ear in order to identify the owner of that animal, similar to branding of horses and
cows. It is commonly performed on very young animal, six weeks old or less. Accuracy is
good and less cost of operation & less maintenance required for notching machine. Each ear
is broken up into sections from the base around to the top of the ear. Each section can have no
more than 2 notches in it and then they are added up on each ear to determine the number. It
isn't practiced as much now as in the past since ear-tags and tattooing are more readily
Ear notching utensils
A Just ear notched calf
An ear notched calf with healing oil applied on the notches
4.1.8. Slaughter of beef animals
Stunning: this involves the procedure of straining and locating the site where shooting
by euthanasia has to be done
Bleeding: this involves cutting all the structures that run along the neck such as the
jugular veins, carotid artery, trachea, esophagus etc.
Dehiding: involves the removal of the hide or animal skin
Evisceration: involves the removal of the thoracic and abdominal viscera or contents all
the way from the mouth through to the anus.
Inspection: checking if the meat is fit for human consumption. This is basically done by
checking the lymph node, liver, spleen and lungs.
Storage – cold room
4.1.9. Sale of beef animals
On-hoof -live weight
On-hook - dressed weight
4.2. DAIRY UNIT
4.2.1. CALF REARING
Production of the individual herd depends on the production of the calves. Annual calf crop
provide herd develop meat and through selection of the best calves, there is genetic
improvement made to cows. Milk production is considered to be the by-the way product of
calf rearing, hence it’s very important on the dairy farm. Poor management practices during
the early life of a calf affects the performance as it grows into a cow. Due to this, a good
manager has to set the following as part of his goals for good calf rearing. At shiwang’andu
farm estate, these goals are set and strictly followed in order to achieve maximum production
and objective achievements. Milk used for both farm use and market. These goals include;
Obtaining a healthy vigorous cow
Obtain a cow with good body capacity for roughage.
Obtain a cow heat that produces the first calf at 2.5 years.
Obtain a long living cow.
Obtain a growth rate of about 400-600g/day on average.
The live-weight of cows in the dairy section at shiwang’andu farm estate is above 550kg.
Changes to calf welfare begins with timing the conception of the core cow through
pregnancy. Even after calving, management to a cow must be continued to ensure reconception every after a year.
4.2.2. FEEDING OF CALVES AND SPEEP CALVING
Initially, a pregnant cow is either carrying a cow or a bull but the assumption is that it is
carrying the replacement heifer. Care and good management of a calf starts as early as when
the mother cow is pregnant. The gestation period of a cow is 287 days which is
approximately 9 months. Two months before calving at the pregnancy age of about 7months,
a cow is dried off using drug which is injected directly into the udder through the teat
papillae. Dry off period is a time when the dairy cow is stopped from being milked in order to
prepare it for parturition and postpartum care for the calf such as suckling. In the last 2-3
weeks, the cow must be seamed up, this is done by giving it extra feed to prepare it for
calving. Pregnant cows should not either be overfed or underfed. They should be given
enough time to exercise because the body and nutrition status of a cow in late pregnancy
influences the calf birth and survival.
4.2.3. THE CALVING SEQUENCE
The cow is taken into a clean paddock
When the calving age is nearly due, the cow is taken into a clean paddock usually a week
before the actual day of parturition. To know that the cow is about to calve, there are a
number of sign that the cow itself puts on and these help the farmer to know that their cow is
due, but one of its prominent sign is that 1-2 weeks before calving, the udder becomes
swollen beyond usual. When this is observed, the cow is then into a clean paddock.
About 24hours before calving, the body temperature decreases
When it a day before parturition, the body temperature reduces due to……/. This is a sign
also important as tells the farmer to prepare for necessary requirements to ensure that the
cow’s delivery is successful.
The shine fluid is secreted from the vagina
This is just a confirmation that parturition is about to start. The vulva starts widening and the
cow starts pushing. The first part to appear is the fetal membrane as it widens the birth canal
and thereafter, it bursts to release some fluid also called the water bag. The fetal membrane
then appears with the front claws and the nose of the calf.
Assistance is only given when the animal finds it difficult to give natural birth. This is done
by tying disinfected ropes to the legs and pull them forward. There are also postpartum
complications such as retained placenta which needs the veterinarian to help the animal
remove the placenta physically via vagina.
4.2.4. CARE OFA NEWLY BORN CALF
After birth, the navel is disinfected with iodine or copper sulphate depending on what is
available. Carbonic solution is also a considerable option to use as a disinfectant. These
prevent infection and assist healing of the umbilicus. It must be ensured that the calf is
breathing normally and if not, assist by cleaning the nasal cavity by tickling the nose using a
piece of straw. The calf should be given colostrum for 12-24 hours to gain protection against
prevailing infection. Naturally, passive immunity is acquired through the antibodies
immunoglobins G and M (1gG and 1gM) that exist in colostrum, no transfer of antibodies.
No transfer of antibodies from the mother to the fetus occur.
4.2.5. MILKING OF THE COW
Milking is done twice a day, in the morning around 05:00 hrs. And in the afternoon around
16:00hrs. There are about 16 milking cows at the farm and all of them are Friesian breed
implying that the milk production is very high. On average, each animal produces about 12
liters per milking session. Before milking the animals are first brought into the milking pallor
and given feed to reduce their attention when milking. Usually the hind limbs are tied
together although some animals can be milked without tying them. Before actual milking
starts, the milk is tasted for mastitis. Mastitis is simply the inflammation of the mammary
gland. Causes of this may be mechanical, chemical or bacterial. Milk with mastitis is not
good for consumption either by animals or human beings. Each teat has to be tested
individually. A faster way of testing for mastitis is squeezing milk direct from the udder
ontoa clean gumboot. If the milk has mastitis, it will be sour like and will show some spots on
the boot. In the absence of mastitis, the milk will easily slip over the boot. The udders are
then washed with water and the salve cream is applied to soften them. This is so to reduce
injury due to friction of the teat as milking is done. Clean milking buckets are used for
Dairy cow being milked.
This kind of milking is usually used for small scale farmers where milk production is not in
high volumes. Shiwang’andu being a commercial farm and a recognized milk supplier to big
companies such as parmalat, a mechanized way of milking which uses the machine called the
De Larvel automatic milking machine is employed.
The automatic milking machine
This machine uses pressure on its operation. It has some adjusting knobs that facilitates
pressure which is very useful in sucking the milk from the udders. The machine has four teat
holders which with pressure hold the teat and suck the milk into the collecting buckets.
After milk from both hand milking and the de larval machine is collected, it is then filtered
into clean milk containers using the milk filters.
Preparation and sieving of milk through the filter paper.
After the milking and filtering is done, the milk is then processed either for storage awaiting
to sold or distributed to the farm workers and animals in need.
4.3.1. Sheep and Goat Routine Management Practices
The following routine management practices should be carried out on a Sheep and Goat
The ewes and nannies should be left alone at lambing and kidding time and only be
assisted in cases of difficulty.
Assistance should be carried out by an experienced shepherd or Veterinarian.
However, hygienic arrangements such as clean hands, disinfections and provision of
antibiotics should be met before any assistance is rendered.
The lambs and kids should be castrated (rendering of the male animal unproductive
either by surgical removal of testicles or cutting the blood supply using a bloodless
castrator) when they are one or two weeks of age if they are not required for breeding
The simplest method is to use the elastrator and rubber ring around the seminal cords to
cut off blood and nerve supply to the testicles and causing the testicles to slough off.
The alternatives are to crush the seminal cords with the burdizzo pincers or to surgically
remove the testicles through an incision made at the base of the scrotum (or purse).
Castration is not necessary if the sheep and goats will be sold at 6 - 8 months of age.
Weaning should be carried out at 4 - 5 months of age but where the sheep and goats are
herded (shepherded) it may be difficult to put this into practice.
Hoof / foot trimming involves cutting of the outer horny part of the hoof where it has
overgrown by using hoof-trimming knives.
Overgrown hooves are a problem during the rainy season and the condition is related to
A foot-bath containing copper sulphate or formalin may be used to control foot-rot.
When goats have foot-rot the wall of the claws will often be under-run exposing all the
4.3.2. Hoof trimming
The aim of hoof trimming is to produce a flat beaming surface for the claw and to make sure
that there are no foreign bodies in the hoof.
The Hoof Trimming Knife
An overgrown hoof and the correct shade after hoof trimming. It is also done to check for
foot-rot. Foot-rot can be identified first as necrotic areas between the claws which smell bad.
As foot-rot progresses the claws may be underrun. By this time the affected sheep and /or
goat will be very lame. In a flock, the sheep and goats animals that kneel graze must be
suspected. When trimming the hooves, care must be taken not to cause any bleeding.
Bleeding occurs when a cut is made into the live tissue.
4.3.3. INOCULATION & DOSSING
Inoculations are administered subcutaneously, this may be done anywhere on the body but an
area of loose skin which is accessible when the animal is standing in the race is preferable
such as the neck and behind the shoulder.
Inoculation gun mounted to a vaccine bottleTesting the inoculation gun
Injecting sheep subcutaneously in the axilla (standing position).
Injecting sheep subcutaneously in the axilla (lateral recumbency).
Note: inoculations are given to reduce the possible transmission of infectious diseases,
equipment should be sterilized by heating and needles changed as frequent as practically
possible. Do not chemicals to clean needles and syringes.
Drug in liquid form may be administered by mouth using a long necked bottled syringe or a
dossing gun. When administering a drench, raise the animals head slightly and slowly
administer the fluid into the side of the mouth allowing the animal to swallow freely. If the
animals head is raised too high or if the tongue is pulled out, it interferes with normal
swallowing and could cause the drench to enter the lungs. The resulting pneumonia can be
fatal. Dosing guns should be checked periodically for accuracy.
Startect de-wormerSheep in a holding pen waiting medication
Administering startect de-wormer orally using a syringe
Goats in a spraying race
4.4. PIG UNIT
Shiwa ngandu estate has a piggery unit and the main breeding stock kept is the Large White
breed as well as some large black breed
Piggery house at shiwa estate
Large black breed
large white breed
BreedingBoars are kept in different pens from sows and they are only brought to the sow’s
penwhen heat signs are observed. Once mating had been successful, the boar is taken back to
its pen. The signs of heat in the soar are:
Enlargement of the vulva
Presence of clear mucus around the vagina
Frequent grunting Restlessness
Gilts are transferred to a farrowing pen when they were about to conceive. Gestation in pigs
takes about 3months 3weeks and 3days (115days).
FeedingThe Pigs at the farm are given a pig ration formulated. Each pig is given 2.5kg of the
ration once a day. Provision of water in waterers is ad lib because pigs consume 10% of their
own body weight in water per day and even more during hot weather. Piglets were allowed
to suckle from the mother for 6weeks. Weaning was thereafter done once and the piglets
were transferred from a farrowing pen to fattening pen where formulated feed were
4.4.1. Handling of Piglets
During handling, the piglets are caught from behind and held by grasping the hind leg above
the hock and then lifted by placing the other hand under its chest
4.4.2. Iron injection
Piglets are normally born with relatively low levels of iron which cannot be replenished by
the sow’s milk in adequate amounts. This can result in several clinical signs which are
associated with iron deficiency e.g. paleness and uneven growth. Iron dextran injection
(200mg/piglet) was given intramuscularly on the 6th day. Indicatedthat iron preparations can
be administered between 3rd and 7th day of life. This results in greater weight gains at four
4.4.3. Teeth Clipping
Clipping piglets’ teeth is done to prevent them from biting the sow in their fight to get hold
of one of her teats and suckle. Bites to the teat can result in the sow preventing her young
from feeding or germs infecting the udder. This can be done as soon as possible after birth
using forceps or clippers.
During clipping, a piece of wooden stick is used to have the piglet’s jaws open. Thereafter,
teeth are cut as close as possible to the gums using a nail cutter while avoiding the injuring
Castration of male piglets was done using surgical procedures. This was done to boost
growth and therefore, enhance meat (pork) production.
The majority of swine diseases are caused by endemic and opportunistic pathogens and
diseases usually occur when pathogen population in the environment is great enough to
overcome the animal’s resistance or when the stressor decreases the animal’s
resistance. In order to avert the pathogens risk of causing diseases, the farm followed strict
sanitary measures and also used all-in all-out type of rearing.
The pens were cleaned with chlorinated water everyday around 06hours. The waterers were
also washed with chlorinated water as a way of disinfecting them. The sties had foot baths at
the entrance which had chlorinated water to prevent transferring parasites or pathogens into
the house. The foot-baths were used to decrease microbiological contamination of foot-ware
Poultry Farming, commercial raising of chickens, turkeys, ducks, and geese for their meat,
eggs and feather. Shiwang’andu estate has a poultry unit that keeps layers and village
chickens. Of great importance the estate has concentrated on layers as it is the estates third
profitable unit to Game and Beef production. The layers are reared for the production of eggs
sold to a wide customer base of the northern and Muchinga provinces as the farm has a
There are a number of ―requirements‖ by which animals should be managed so that the best
performance is achieved. These requirements are the keys to good management and may be
used to test the management of a poultry enterprise in relation to the standard of its
management. These requirements are called principles. The importance of each principle
changes with the situation and thus the emphasis placed on each may alter from place to
place and from time to time. This means that, while the principles do not change, the degree
of emphasis and method of application may change. The Principles of poultry husbandry are:
Use of good quality and right class of stock
Provision of good housing
Maintenance of good health
Nutrient for economic performance
Good stockperson ship
Maximum use of management techniques
Use of records
Good marketing price
Systems ofrearingbirdsat the farm-deep litter
Dayoldchicks that are bought fromthehatcherywere transferredtoabroodinghousesusing
hatching trays. Thechicks werekeptinthehouseforabout3weekswithtemperaturesmaintainedat
Brooder house preparation
Brooding heat light
highlymechanized equipment- in this case charcoal was used in times of power load
shedding. Temperaturefortheday-old chicksisregulatedatabout35ocwiththetemperatures
Type of Vaccine Vendor
(H120) 5(if not Vet
EA-Pox/newcastle Trempox/talovac Vet
4.6. EQUINE UNIT
There are 21 horses at the farm 4 young ones and 17 elder ones. The horses are kept separately in
their own boarding stales and are never mixed in the same paddocks with cattle. This is so because
there are some diseases that can easily be transmitted from bovines to equines for example,
fistulous withers which is caused by brucellosis in cattle
Horses can also be sedated to clean their hooves especially young ones that are not yet fully
trained as well as those that are violent. However, all the horses that we managed to care for
were trained enough and hence no sedation was required.
Xylazine- directions for use in horses
Hoof management is done every 3 weeks to remove
Hoof cleaning utensilsRemoving dirty from the hoof frog and sole
Trimming the hoof Trimming the hoof sole and frog
Trimming the hoof wall
4.6.2. EQUINE BRUCELLOSIS
The horse suspected to have brucellosis due to two consecutive abortions.
After an equine has given birth, the foal is fed on milk for the minimum of two to three months then
after, it is introduced to creep feeding. They are weaned at the age between three to four months.
Before this, the foul entirely depend on the milk from the mare and sometimes milk
Weaning the may be so stressful especially to the foal due to the fact that it will miss the mare.
Despite this, the foal has to be prepared for weaning. Normally the way of weaning is by separating
the foals from the mare for a period of time until they get used.
Horses are fed mainly on roughage and also concentrate sometimes. At shiwang’andu farm, horses
graze in open areas which are not very protected from dust and wind. When giving feed
concentrate to horses, it is important to wet the feed with water. This is so because horses are so
susceptible to dust and the fact that their respiratory system is complicated rending them very
vulnerable to dust and wind which brings about respiratory problems.
Horse grazing green watered areas plus hay (Good)horses feeding in dusty graze lands (Bad)
Feed concentrates are given to the horses around 06:30 AM and around 15:30 PM
The horse feeding on wet concentrate alone in its standing pen
4.6.4. TEMPERATURE CHECKING
As the horses are being fed in the morning, the temperature is measured in order to check if
there are horses which are not in healthy conditions. Temperature is the major indication of
how healthy the horses are. The thermometer is first reset and then placed in the anus after
which, the temperature is taken.
Temperature being checked
The horses are brushed every morning to remove the dust and to make them shine and clean.
This is so because the horses are used riding by tourists who frequently visit the farm.
4.7. GAME UNIT
Shiwang’andu estate is not only specialized in farm operations/ production, but it has vast
land that provides a suitable habitat to about 21 different game species. Thus, it’s not just a
farm but also has a private game reserve. Because of this as well as the presence of the
mighty shiwa manor house that has up to 72 rooms and a private aircraft landing space, most
people especially whites go for game viewing, safaris and many other different activities that
are found there especially when the hunting season is advertised. The game animals that are
found there are:
Most of the game animals are ruminants with few selected options such as birds. These
animals are mostly killed at the farm on orders. During the hunting season, most animals are
killed, skinned and their skull are used for making trophies. These trophies are usually sold
outside the country to the tourists who usually visit the farm.
Impala meat inspection Impala liver worm inspection
The skinned head of a lechwe to be used for making trophies. Skinned
(a)Removing flesh from the head after boiling it in water to remain with the skull
(b)Drying the skull and the hide in the sun with pure- fine salt to make trophies
Whenever game animals were killed, the carcasses and internal organs were given to us to
carry out all kinds of inspection and skinning with respect to our objectives and furthermore.
Game activities at the farm are well regulated and inspected although a number of challenges
such as pouching by the local people, cripple the ability of its massive expansion.
Sometimes, game animals is given feed concentrate similar to that of cattle since they are
also ruminants. Feeding of game meat seemed a surprise and wastage of feed but it was
explained that feed is dropped in well recognized areas where each specie usually graze
from. This is not done always but it’s used as a way of supplementing when the green
grasslands are dry during the hot season. In cases where an animal gives birth and it dies,
their offspring are usually tamed and feed just like a domestic animals.
An orphan Ireland groomed among the goats
Well organized game counting is done in respective game camps by specialized and skilled
ZAWA staff. This was difficult to learn because it not a common happening.
4.8. FEEDS AND RATIONS
Feed Rations Shiwa Estate
Mineral pack with each color signifying a different species.
1. Dairy Mix
To 11kg mineral pack add
2. Sow/Boar mix
To 18 kg mineral pack add
3. Pig Grower mix
To 7kg mineral pack add
Under grade Maize
4. Goat Dairy mix
To 11kg mineral pack add
5. Mature layer mix
To 23.5 kg mineral pack add
under grade maize
6. Chicks Grower mix
To 21 kg mineral pack add
Ground maize (white+undergrade)
Feed and ration formulation
The farm has driven much of its efforts in any agriculture activities except in small irrigation
of the pasture for the animals to supplement especially I the dry season when pasture
Irrigation of the field for grazing
Maize, soy bean, wheat and sunflower are also cultivated in the rainy season. The main
purpose of cultivating these crops is to provide a cheaper supply of the much needed
ingredients for feed formulation of various farm animals.
Silage made at the farm to feed cattle
Much grazing is from natural pasture since most of the grazing land is in a swamp like
because of Lake Shiwa.
Dry Wheat stalks being fed to the animals after mixing with molasses.
For ruminants, a cheaper source of the very much needed ammonia which enhance the
rumen ecology is obtained from poultry manure. The most ideal method that is used at shiwa
ngandu estates is the use of maize bran as litter. This when changed is then taken and used in
formulating feeds for cattle.
Maize bran poultry litter being collected for use as a source of ammonia for ruminants
When formulating / making feed, the ingredients are all measured to ensure that they are in
their right proportions or amounts. It is important to ensure this because any excess or
deficient ingredient would affect livestock production negatively or might even cause
diseases or lead to malfunctions. After measuring the ingredients, all of them are put into a
mixer for about 5 minutes in order to thoroughly mix the feed so that there can be no
Weighing balancefeed mixer
PoornutritioninPiggery, Goats and sheepunits
Absence of footbaths around the farm
Animal species left too open such that they mix a lot
Lack of controlling the grazing sites i.e. sandy or swampy areas
Owing to the general observation and thechallenges thatwereencounteredduringmy stay
period at shiwa ngandu estates, Iwould,therefore,liketo
Thereisneedforthestationtoconstruct and put to use footbaths in order to help curb
grassorusingalleycroppingthus having leucanea inalleyswithgrasspastures.
The estate needs more paddocks I order to prevent transmission of diseases among
animal species i.e. brucellosis due to mixing horses and cattle at the farm. This would
also help to prevent game animals infecting farm livestock.
Restricting the grazing areas: horses that graze from sandy areas usually develop
respiratory disorders that prove to be fatal because horses do not use their mouth to
aidbreathing. And cattle in too dumpy areas/ water logged areas to prevent disease and
Cattle being stuck in the mud.