VMB 303 VACATIONAL PRACTICALS

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THIS PRACTICAL WAS DONE AT SHIWA ESTATES ZAMBIA, BY MUSALO BRIAN CHISANGA, A THIRD YEAR STUDENT IN THE SCHOOL OF VETERINARY MEDICINE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF ZAMBIA .

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VMB 303 VACATIONAL PRACTICALS

  1. 1. TABLE OF CONTENTS DEDICATION…………………………………………………………………... ACKNOWLEDGEMENT……………………………………………………..... ACRONMYS………………………………………………………………….... 1.0. INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………… 2.0. AIM…………………………………………………………………. 3.0. OBJECTIVES……………………………………………………….. 4.0. ACTIVITIES ………………………………………………………... 4.1. BEEF UNIT………………………………………………… 4.1.1. Dehorning………………………………………... 4.1.2. Dipping………………………………………….. 4.1.3. Castration………………………………………… 4.1.4. Hoof management……………………………….. 4.1.5. Weaning …………………………………………. 4.1.6. Pregnancy diagnosis……………………………… 4.1.7. Record keeping…………………………………... 4.1.8. Slaughter of beef animals………………………… 4.1.9. Sale of beef animals………………………………. 4.2. DAIRY UNIT………………………………………………….. 4.2.1. Calf rearing………………………………………. 4.2.2. Feeding of calves and calving…………………… 4.2.3. Calving sequence………………………………… 4.2.4. Care of the newly born…………………………... 4.2.5. Milking of cows…………………………………. 4.3. SHEEP & GOAT UNIT………………………………………. 4.3.1. Routine management practices……………......... 4.3.2. Hoof management (trimming)……………………. 4.3.3. Inoculation/ Dossing …………………………...... 4.3.4. Dipping……………………………………………. 4.4. PIG UNIT 4.4.1. Handling of piglets………………………………... 4.4.2. Iron injection…………………………………….... 4.4.3. Teeth clipping ……………………………………. 4.4.4. Castration…………………………………………. 4.4.5. Veterinary care……………………………………. 4.5. POULTRY UNIT…………………………………………….. 4.5.1. Requirements ……………………………………... 4.5.2. Brooding unit……………………………………... 4.5.3. Feeding…..……………………………………….. 4.5.4. Debeaking…………………………………………. 4.5.5. Identification of non-laying hens…………………. 4.5.6. Record keeping…………………………………… 4.5.7. Veterinary care …………………………………… 4.6. EQUINE UNIT………………………………………………. 4.6.1. Hoof management………………………………… 4.6.2. Equine brucellosis………………………………… 4.6.3. Equine Feeding…………………………………… 4.6.4. Temperature checking …………………………… 4.7. GAME UNIT 4.8. RATION AND FEED FORMULATIONS 5.0. CHALLENGES/GENERAL OBSERVATION……………………….. 6.0. RECOMMENDATION………………………………………………... 7.0. CONCLUSION………………………………………………………… 8.0. REFERENCES…………………………………………………………
  2. 2. DEDICATION TomyParents; Johnny Musalo &Cleopatra Mwaba,for their parentalsupport andperseverance, andto my brothers and sisterswhomissed me during the vacation as well as my friends
  3. 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT My gratitude gotoMr. & Mrs. Harvey, the owners & directorsofshiwa ngandu estates and board chairs of Chambeshi water and sewerage company (CWSC). Mr.Fastone,supervisor for beef and dairy sections. Mr. William, supervisor for small animals and poultry units and Mr. Sunday, supervisor for the equine section,notonly for their hospitality butalsoprovisionofallthetechnicalguidancewithoutwhichmystay at the estatecouldhavebeeninvain.Allowmealsoacknowledge individuals: Mr. Sikoki,Mr.V.Lungu, andothermembersofstaff theroleplayedby Mr.Bright, too Mr. thefollowing Munthali,Mrs.Lucky many to bementionedwhoimpartedinmethetechnicalknowledgeintheir specialties. Further appreciation supportandtomycomrades, goes Mr. to myparentsandsiblingsforthespiritualandmoral C Mwamba, Mr.N KabindaandMr.E. Mwewa,formakingmyexperience favorable. Finally,Iwould also liketoextendmygratitudeto theGovernmentof the republic of Zambia (GRZ)fortheirlogisticalsupport via the bursaries committee (BC).
  4. 4. ACRONMYS AI Artificial Insemination BC Bursaries committee PD Pregnancy Diagnosis GRZGovernmentof the republic of Zambia UNZA UniversityofZambia VMB VeterinaryMedicine-Biomedicals COMESA Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa SADC Southern Africa Development Community EBA Everything but Arms GDP Gross Domestic Product
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION Zambia is endowed with a large land resource base of 42 million hectares of which only 1.5 million hectares is cultivated every year. There are abundant water resources for irrigation and the country has 40 percent of the water in Central and Southern Africa. The agricultural sector continues to be the backbone of the Zambian economy as it contributes to the growth of the economy and also to exports. Primary agriculture contribute about 35 percent to the country’s total nontraditional exports (all the country’s exports other than copper and cobalt) and about 10 percent of the total export earnings for the country. The sector also provides employment to 70 percent of the labor force. As such, agriculture has continued to receive priority attention by the government, through increased budget support aimed at increasing agriculture productivity to ensure food security, income generation, creation of employment opportunities and poverty reduction. Given the vast resource endowment in terms of land, labor and water, Zambia has the potential to expand its agricultural production. Furthermore the country is bordered by eight countries and is a member of the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) and the Southern African Development Community (SADC) it has market access to the European Union through the Everything but Arms (EBA) initiative, access to the US market through the African Growth Opportunities Act (AGOA) and access to the Chinese and Japanese markets through various initiatives. Furthermore the Government has embarked on a land development programme which involves opening up new farming blocks for commercial development and expansion of the agriculture sector. Livestock Farming in Zambia: A recent parliamentary report reviews the current state of livestock farming in Zambia. The livestock sector is worth over $1.5bn in Zambia, accounting for around 35% of agriculture’ share of national gross domestic product (GDP). The good news is that the sector has experienced stead growth in recent years. Beef and dairy products are growing around 7% and 10% annually respectively. The poultry industry has also doubled in size over the last ten years. However, despite these positive trends the sector continues to face many challenges which are helpfully highlighted in the report. These include inadequate development funding and taxation reform from GRZ; rampant livestock disease outbreak; poor disease control mechanisms; poor supply of breeding stocks; high cost of cheap and long term finance; poor infrastructure such as roads, and a lack of processing facilities in the form of abattoirs and milk collection centers, among others; high energy costs; shortage and high cost of feedstock; absence of input support; inadequate and inappropriate research; poor extension support; poor organization of marketing services; and high number of levies on livestock and livestock products. There’s currently no livestock development policy to deal with these challenges. The government is allegedly in the process of developing one. But it’s unclear how robust such a policy is likely to because one of the things that are clear from the report is that GRZ is working with poor statistics. The exact numbers of livestock in the country are not known. Without proper data it is challenging to formulate strategies that address the key problems. Shiwa Ngandu is a grand English-style country estate and house in the Muchinga province of Zambia, about 12 km west of the Tanzam highway and half-way between Mpika and Chinsali. Its name is based on a small lake nearby, Lake Ishiba Ngandu which in the Bemba language means 'lake of the royal crocodile'. The house itself is also known as "Shiwa House". It was the lifelong project of an English aristocrat, Sir Stewart Gore-Browne who fell in love with the country after working on the AngloBelgian Boundary Commission determining the border between Rhodesia and the
  6. 6. Democratic Republic of Congo. From his boyhood, Gore-Browne had an ambition to own an estate like that of his aunt, Dame Ethel Locke King, at Weybridge in England. Although comparatively wealthy himself, he could not afford such an estate in Britain. Land in Northern Rhodesia was very much cheaper for white settlers. At the boundary commission he had come to admire the Bemba workers and so he travelled to their country looking for a site. Arriving at Lake Shiwa Ngandu in April 1914 with his Bemba servants and porters, he knew he had found it. World War I intervened but its horrors only increased his desire to return to Shiwa Ngandu and achieve his dream. Construction of the mansion and the farm began in 1920 when Zambia was the British protectorate of Northern Rhodesia. The site was 400 miles from the nearest railhead, a journey of many days over rivers and swamps The estate had its own schools, hospitals, playing fields, shops, and post office. Workers lived and are still living in brick-built cottages and the estate was ruled as a benevolent autocracy — though by a man with a temper ferocious enough to justify the local nickname of Chipembere which means 'rhinoceros'. Stewart Gore-Browne died in Kasama, Zambia in 1967, and to this date is the only white man to have been given a state funeral in the history of Zambia, with a eulogy given by then President Kenneth Kaunda. After his death the estate was managed by one of his daughters, Lorna, and her husband John Harvey. But only six months later in 1992, Lorna and John Harvey were murdered at Shiwa Ngandu by three men who were caught and convicted. Since the years following the murders the house fell into disrepair. Recently Shiwa House has been partially restored and has opened five rooms for paying guests under the name Shiwa Ngandu Manor House. An airstrip has been built for charter flights. The estate's remote beauty is once more accessible to visitors. The grave of Sir Stewart is at rest in the extraordinary African paradise he created. Lorna and John Harvey's sons have reintroduced wildlife, and established a large cattle ranch. Poaching is under control, and the estate is proving to be a significant source of employment in the area. 2.0. AIM Theaimofthepracticalwastofamiliarize theparticipantswithskillsinvarious productionandotherlivestock-relatedactivities such forageswhicharevery useful and of great value onafarm. as Growing livestock crops &
  7. 7. 3.0. OBJECTIVES The main objective of the practical was to acquire skills in variousagricultural activitiesimplementedat a farm. Theobjectiveswere:  Toacquireskillsintheareaoffeed & ration formulationofvariousfarmanimal species  To acquireskillsinbreeding,artificialinseminationandpregnancydiagnosis  To acquire knowledge and skills in the control and treatment of animal diseases  Toacquireknowledgeinotheragriculturalrelatedactivitiesundertakenat a far
  8. 8. 4.0. ACTIVITIES 4.1. BEEFUNIT Shiwang’andu estate has a variety of beef cattle both exotic breeds purposed forCommercial beef production such as Boran, Brahman, Bonsmara, Hereford and Sussex. And local breeds such as Angoni, Barotse and Tonga. 4.1.1. DEHORNING Cattle may be born horned or polled (hornless) however, the polled trait is genetically dominant and polled off springs will result if either of the parents is naturally polled. Principal reason for dehorning  Reduction of dangers of injury and associated financial losses due to hide damage  Reduction in spatial requirements when cattle are kept in confinements i.e. feedlot area, through space or transportation.  Ease of handling and reduced risk of injury to handlers Dehorning calves Calves should be dehorned when the horn bud can be felt, but preferably with a mouth after birth. The principal of dehorning is to cauterize the horn bud and the skin area surrounding it Note: if the horn bud and the skin surrounding it is not properly cauterized, malformed horn growth or scars will be produced. Malformed horn Scared horn Dehorning methods  Hot iron method  Caustic stick method  Collodion method Dehorning older cattle  Horn growth up to 50mm can be removed close to the head with a sharp knife. Cautery of the wound and the surrounding will prevent further growth. In a case where the horn has grown with a wide base with hot iron, the use of a guillotine dehorner is recommended. The blades of the instrument are sharp that not only is the horn base gouged out, but also 5mm width of the skin surrounding it. This method is used to remove fully developed horns.
  9. 9.  The use of a surgical wire where a local anesthesia is used to block nerves that supply the horn and its surrounding areas is also used.  Elasticated rings / rubber tubing’s are applied tightly to the horn base and these will cause the horns to fall off. As a certain amount of discomfort is caused to the animal, keeping the rubber ring in position may be difficult. Tetany may be introduced or set off by this method. 4.1.2. DIPPING Apart from the physical damage they cause, ticks are responsible for the transmission of diseases such as east coast fever, theileriosis, red water, gall stickness, biliary fever, heart water, spirochaetosis, and tick paralysis. DIPPING USING A DIP TANK Shiwa estate has a cattle dip tank with the capacity of 14,000 liters and that of 1,500 liters for small animals Shiwa estate 14,000 liters dip tank for cattleShiwa estates 1,500 dip tanks for small animals THE DIPTANK AND REQUIREMENT CHECKLIST  Have a dip tank properly calibrated in liters (volume).  Provide a proper dip fluid measure  Measure the amount of water added  Prevent flood water from entering the tank DIPTANK MANAGEMENT CHECKLIST  Check the level replenish if needed with thoroughly premixed dip solution. Agitate/stir with a suitable tool weather replenishment is needed or not do not use cattle to agitate/stir the dip solution.  Open the drainage pipe and close the flood water overflow from the drainage race.  Have available a prolonged stick with which to help your calves  Have sample bottles available if dip wash testing is required  Lock up dip concentrates in a cool place, avoid under the sun.  Periodic breaks may be necessary during dipping to allow the scum removal. CATTLE MANAGEMENT CHECKLIST  Do not dip in wet weather  Rest and water cattle before dipping  Dip in groups-according to age/size  Ensure that animals are completely submerged  Ensure continuous through movement because overcrowding may cause injuries and drowning.
  10. 10.  Allow dip wash to drain thoroughly from animals- a 25m draining race at a walking pace should be sufficient.  Allow cattle to dry in a holding paddock before returning them to grazing  Count cattle and ensure that all are dipped except……. DIPPING EXCEPTIONS Cows close to calving Calves Animals with open wounds Animals with abnormal skin conditions POST DIP CHECKLIST  Lock up all dipping utensils  Remove scum from dip wash surfaces  Record tank level  Close drainage race opening, open overflow and clean the race. Clean the foot bath.  Seal dipping area to avoid accidental entry of stock.  After draining the dip tank, it is re-filled with clean water.  Then lime is added  Then afterwards a dip of particular interest that is capable of combating the suspected/diagnosed ticks should be added A prepared diptankGood ventilated dip tank to allow fresh air Animals being directed to the dip tankAnimals after dipping, drying up in the holding crush pen
  11. 11. ALTERNATIVE METHODS OF DIPPING SPRAY RACES Effective spray races are acceptable alternatives to dip tanks. However, a similar precaution and restriction apply. This mechanism makes use of the sweating ability of animals. Here the dip is poured on the back of the animal along the vertebral column, starting from the lumbar to the thoracic region. The dip then spreads to the rest of the body by means of sweating. Pouracide was used as a covering liquid for cattle, it control ticks on cattle. Protect against house flies and biting flies. Control gesigsvliee. Biting and sucking lice and dead sandtampans, cattle basement. Rain fast convenient. Residual effect. Strookaanwending Pouracide-covering liquid dip for cattle Graduated Measuring bottle Being instructed on how to dip using pouracideDipping animals in a crush pen
  12. 12. 4.1.4. CASTRATION Intact male calves grow faster than the castrated ones, but this advantage is offset by the greater shock that the animals experience at a later age. Male beef animals are castrated to:  Prevent undesired mating.  Produce cattle of more docile temperament.  Produce cattle that meet the market specifications. The age of castration is determined at the stage when the animal can be easily handled but it should be between birth and 6 months. In adult animals, a handling device such the tilt easy castration. There are three methods of castration: Knife castration This is the only method that gives full assurance of sterilization because the testicles are removed completely. This method can be used by any age but on animals beyond 12months without anaesthesia is hence requiring veterinary assistance. The animal should be firmly restrained on the ground. The scrotum and the handler’s hands must be washed with any disinfectant suitable. The testicles are then palpated and once held, the scrotum can be cut in two ways: For very young animals with little testicles, the lower third of the scrotum is cut off. The testicles are exposed by applying pressure at the point of attachment of the scrotum to the abdomen. For animals with more developed testicle, a lateral incision is made through the scrotum to expose the testicles. A large opening is encouraged to allow ease drainage of the wound. The cord is cut with the scraping action over a distance of about 2-3 cm with the knife held at an angle. This which reduces bleeding. After this the wound should be treated with a suitable wound oil or powder to reduce infection. Fly repellants can also be used. Elastrator (rubber ring) castration This method is used before the calf is a week old. The rubber elastrator ring should be applied with care to ensure that both testicles are completely through the ring. The ring should be close to the body, thus constricting the spermatic cord. Although this method works, it does not give total certainty of complete sterilization. Burdizzo castration This method of this procedure is derived from the name of the instrument used. The instrument used is called burdizzo. In this procedure, both the spermatic cord and the blood vessels leading to the testicles. This is done when the spermatic cord and the blood vessels have developed superficially.to distinguish between the in calves, usuallyit’s done at the age of 3 months. Calves are castrated either by lying down or standing. Each spermatic cord is cut individually but the pressure marks slightly offset at different levels to allow blood to circulate to the rest of the scrotum. After the jaws have been closed over the spermatic cord, the testicle is given a sharp jerk to ensure complete severance. As further insurance, the spermatic cord may be severed again this time below the first position. A burdizzo must be kept with its mail closed because this weakens the instrument. Burdizzos that are not efficient are a common cause of stag downgrading at the slaughter. The efficiency can be checked by choosing the jaws of the jaws of the instrument over a piece of a string held between two pieces of writing paper. If the string is not completely severed, it is advisable to have the bearing of the burdizzo checked.
  13. 13. 4.1.5. CATTLE HOOF MANAGEMENT Bad hoof health is an increasing and expensive problem in intensive dairy and beef productions all over the world. Preventive interventions are important in order to obtain a sustainable production, both from an economical and animal welfare aspect. Hoof disorders are possible to prevent by a correct management and early detection of affected animals, regular claw trimming and a clean and dry environment are also essential. There is a high correlation between low production and cattle that are not capable of waking comfortably to the feed bunk or out into the bush pasture to graze. Also lame cows spend more time down and often in soil areas so they are generally dirtier and if its diary, their udders become more susceptible to mastitis from the opportunistic pathogens in dairy environments. And when it comes to reproduction, cows that are lame will not show heats or many times stop reproductive cycling. Regular claw trimming To trim the claws of cattle the animal was sedated using a general anesthesia. We used Xylazine 2% injectable solution. Each ml solution contains 20mg Xylazine (as Hcl). Xylazine- Directions for use in cattle Sedation Minor surgery Major surgery 0.2ml/100kg bw 0.5ml/100kg bw 1.00ml/100kg bw Since the animal was weighing 400kg 1ml of Xylazine was injected intramuscularly-IM, noting that the practice was sedation. Deformed hoof Sedated bull
  14. 14. Trimming the hoof 4.1.5. WEANING What is weaning? This is the process where calves are separated from their Dams to aid management. Weaning enables supplements to be preferably used (fed) and herd size to be controlled for pasture management. Weaning age  Calves are normally weaned between the age of 7-8 months  Calves should be weaned before body score condition of the cow declines below 2.5  Where grazing and supplementation is restricted i.e. years of drought; weaning should be brought forward to cow body condition score of 3.0 and calves subsequently hand reared  Weaning at less than 5 months of age will retard the calf growth  In years of plenty or suitable supplementation and grazing of cows, weaning can be delayed to 9-10 months and this has the following advantages: a) Calves will be heavier (weight) than their earlier weaned counterparts b) Calves will adjust more readily when separated from cows whose milk flow is greatly reduced c) Cows dry up more easily when milk flow is at a low level 4.1.6. PREGNANCY TEST PREGNANCY DIAGNOSIS (PD): Pregnancy diagnosis (PD), is carried out by a competent persons, 6-10 weeks after the end of the bulling season. The benefits of PD are:  Helps culling and selection  Enables selective feeding of the breeding herd according to pregnancy status and age thus reduces the feed bill  Enables early detection and treatment of infertility problems  Abnormalities of the reproductive organ can be detected when the PD is done and appropriate action taken.  It can serve as an indication of calf loses from birth to weaning where there is no accurate record of births  Help to prevent slaughter of in-calf animals, which is a crime.
  15. 15. 4.1.7. KEEPING RECORD CATTLE IDENTIFICATION Ideally, any method of marking animals for identification or recording should be permanent, easily applied and clear enough to read from a distance. METHODS OF MARKING CATTLE Many different methods and combinations are used to identify animals, since no ideal method has yet been found.  BRANDING Branding involves cauterization of the skin to kill the hair follicles and so leave a visible scar. Branding irons require skillful use. Over-cauterization restricts the blood supply to the enclosed area and results in a wound that heals very slowly. HOT IRON BRANDING Good, hot brands are permanent and can be read from a fair distance though they may be less satisfactory if the animals’ skin is very wooly. Examples of Brands   Letter brands: SE- Shiwa Estates Number brands: 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9. Heating the iron bars Practicing Branding
  16. 16. Number brand (right pelvic limb thigh)  Letter brand (left pelvic limb thigh) EAR TAGGING These come in many designs, but none have yet been approved to meet the twin requirements of permanency and legibility at a distance. Ear tags can therefore not be used as a permanent form of identification, but are useful aids to management. At shiwa estates we were using plastic flag shaped tags. Flag-shaped ear tag: two discs joined through the ear, one or both bearing a wide, flat plastic surface on which identification details are written or printed in large, easily legible script. Ear tagging equipmentinserting the tag onto a machine Practicing ear tagging  EAR NOTCHING Calf after inserting the tag
  17. 17. Ear notching is the practice of cutting a small (usually triangular) section out of the edge of an animal’s ear in order to identify the owner of that animal, similar to branding of horses and cows. It is commonly performed on very young animal, six weeks old or less. Accuracy is good and less cost of operation & less maintenance required for notching machine. Each ear is broken up into sections from the base around to the top of the ear. Each section can have no more than 2 notches in it and then they are added up on each ear to determine the number. It isn't practiced as much now as in the past since ear-tags and tattooing are more readily available. Ear notching utensils A Just ear notched calf An ear notched calf with healing oil applied on the notches 4.1.8. Slaughter of beef animals • • • Stunning: this involves the procedure of straining and locating the site where shooting by euthanasia has to be done Bleeding: this involves cutting all the structures that run along the neck such as the jugular veins, carotid artery, trachea, esophagus etc. Dehiding: involves the removal of the hide or animal skin
  18. 18. • • • Evisceration: involves the removal of the thoracic and abdominal viscera or contents all the way from the mouth through to the anus. Inspection: checking if the meat is fit for human consumption. This is basically done by checking the lymph node, liver, spleen and lungs. Storage – cold room 4.1.9. Sale of beef animals • • On-hoof -live weight On-hook - dressed weight 4.2. DAIRY UNIT 4.2.1. CALF REARING Production of the individual herd depends on the production of the calves. Annual calf crop provide herd develop meat and through selection of the best calves, there is genetic improvement made to cows. Milk production is considered to be the by-the way product of calf rearing, hence it’s very important on the dairy farm. Poor management practices during the early life of a calf affects the performance as it grows into a cow. Due to this, a good manager has to set the following as part of his goals for good calf rearing. At shiwang’andu farm estate, these goals are set and strictly followed in order to achieve maximum production and objective achievements. Milk used for both farm use and market. These goals include;  Obtaining a healthy vigorous cow  Obtain a cow with good body capacity for roughage.  Obtain a cow heat that produces the first calf at 2.5 years.  Obtain a long living cow.  Obtain a growth rate of about 400-600g/day on average. The live-weight of cows in the dairy section at shiwang’andu farm estate is above 550kg. Changes to calf welfare begins with timing the conception of the core cow through pregnancy. Even after calving, management to a cow must be continued to ensure reconception every after a year. 4.2.2. FEEDING OF CALVES AND SPEEP CALVING Initially, a pregnant cow is either carrying a cow or a bull but the assumption is that it is carrying the replacement heifer. Care and good management of a calf starts as early as when the mother cow is pregnant. The gestation period of a cow is 287 days which is approximately 9 months. Two months before calving at the pregnancy age of about 7months, a cow is dried off using drug which is injected directly into the udder through the teat papillae. Dry off period is a time when the dairy cow is stopped from being milked in order to prepare it for parturition and postpartum care for the calf such as suckling. In the last 2-3 weeks, the cow must be seamed up, this is done by giving it extra feed to prepare it for calving. Pregnant cows should not either be overfed or underfed. They should be given enough time to exercise because the body and nutrition status of a cow in late pregnancy influences the calf birth and survival. 4.2.3. THE CALVING SEQUENCE The cow is taken into a clean paddock
  19. 19. When the calving age is nearly due, the cow is taken into a clean paddock usually a week before the actual day of parturition. To know that the cow is about to calve, there are a number of sign that the cow itself puts on and these help the farmer to know that their cow is due, but one of its prominent sign is that 1-2 weeks before calving, the udder becomes swollen beyond usual. When this is observed, the cow is then into a clean paddock. About 24hours before calving, the body temperature decreases When it a day before parturition, the body temperature reduces due to……/. This is a sign also important as tells the farmer to prepare for necessary requirements to ensure that the cow’s delivery is successful. The shine fluid is secreted from the vagina This is just a confirmation that parturition is about to start. The vulva starts widening and the cow starts pushing. The first part to appear is the fetal membrane as it widens the birth canal and thereafter, it bursts to release some fluid also called the water bag. The fetal membrane then appears with the front claws and the nose of the calf. Assistance is only given when the animal finds it difficult to give natural birth. This is done by tying disinfected ropes to the legs and pull them forward. There are also postpartum complications such as retained placenta which needs the veterinarian to help the animal remove the placenta physically via vagina. 4.2.4. CARE OFA NEWLY BORN CALF After birth, the navel is disinfected with iodine or copper sulphate depending on what is available. Carbonic solution is also a considerable option to use as a disinfectant. These prevent infection and assist healing of the umbilicus. It must be ensured that the calf is breathing normally and if not, assist by cleaning the nasal cavity by tickling the nose using a piece of straw. The calf should be given colostrum for 12-24 hours to gain protection against prevailing infection. Naturally, passive immunity is acquired through the antibodies immunoglobins G and M (1gG and 1gM) that exist in colostrum, no transfer of antibodies. No transfer of antibodies from the mother to the fetus occur. 4.2.5. MILKING OF THE COW Milking is done twice a day, in the morning around 05:00 hrs. And in the afternoon around 16:00hrs. There are about 16 milking cows at the farm and all of them are Friesian breed implying that the milk production is very high. On average, each animal produces about 12 liters per milking session. Before milking the animals are first brought into the milking pallor and given feed to reduce their attention when milking. Usually the hind limbs are tied together although some animals can be milked without tying them. Before actual milking starts, the milk is tasted for mastitis. Mastitis is simply the inflammation of the mammary gland. Causes of this may be mechanical, chemical or bacterial. Milk with mastitis is not good for consumption either by animals or human beings. Each teat has to be tested individually. A faster way of testing for mastitis is squeezing milk direct from the udder ontoa clean gumboot. If the milk has mastitis, it will be sour like and will show some spots on the boot. In the absence of mastitis, the milk will easily slip over the boot. The udders are then washed with water and the salve cream is applied to soften them. This is so to reduce injury due to friction of the teat as milking is done. Clean milking buckets are used for collection.
  20. 20. Dairy cow being milked. This kind of milking is usually used for small scale farmers where milk production is not in high volumes. Shiwang’andu being a commercial farm and a recognized milk supplier to big companies such as parmalat, a mechanized way of milking which uses the machine called the De Larvel automatic milking machine is employed. The automatic milking machine This machine uses pressure on its operation. It has some adjusting knobs that facilitates pressure which is very useful in sucking the milk from the udders. The machine has four teat holders which with pressure hold the teat and suck the milk into the collecting buckets. After milk from both hand milking and the de larval machine is collected, it is then filtered into clean milk containers using the milk filters. Preparation and sieving of milk through the filter paper. After the milking and filtering is done, the milk is then processed either for storage awaiting to sold or distributed to the farm workers and animals in need.
  21. 21. 4.3. SHEEP/GOAT 4.3.1. Sheep and Goat Routine Management Practices The following routine management practices should be carried out on a Sheep and Goat Farm: The ewes and nannies should be left alone at lambing and kidding time and only be assisted in cases of difficulty. Assistance should be carried out by an experienced shepherd or Veterinarian. However, hygienic arrangements such as clean hands, disinfections and provision of antibiotics should be met before any assistance is rendered. The lambs and kids should be castrated (rendering of the male animal unproductive either by surgical removal of testicles or cutting the blood supply using a bloodless castrator) when they are one or two weeks of age if they are not required for breeding purposes. The simplest method is to use the elastrator and rubber ring around the seminal cords to cut off blood and nerve supply to the testicles and causing the testicles to slough off. The alternatives are to crush the seminal cords with the burdizzo pincers or to surgically remove the testicles through an incision made at the base of the scrotum (or purse). Castration is not necessary if the sheep and goats will be sold at 6 - 8 months of age. Weaning should be carried out at 4 - 5 months of age but where the sheep and goats are herded (shepherded) it may be difficult to put this into practice. Hoof / foot trimming involves cutting of the outer horny part of the hoof where it has overgrown by using hoof-trimming knives. Overgrown hooves are a problem during the rainy season and the condition is related to foot-rot. A foot-bath containing copper sulphate or formalin may be used to control foot-rot. When goats have foot-rot the wall of the claws will often be under-run exposing all the tissue underneath.
  22. 22. 4.3.2. Hoof trimming The aim of hoof trimming is to produce a flat beaming surface for the claw and to make sure that there are no foreign bodies in the hoof. The Hoof Trimming Knife An overgrown hoof and the correct shade after hoof trimming. It is also done to check for foot-rot. Foot-rot can be identified first as necrotic areas between the claws which smell bad. As foot-rot progresses the claws may be underrun. By this time the affected sheep and /or goat will be very lame. In a flock, the sheep and goats animals that kneel graze must be suspected. When trimming the hooves, care must be taken not to cause any bleeding. Bleeding occurs when a cut is made into the live tissue. 4.3.3. INOCULATION & DOSSING INNOCULATION Inoculations are administered subcutaneously, this may be done anywhere on the body but an area of loose skin which is accessible when the animal is standing in the race is preferable such as the neck and behind the shoulder. Inoculation gun mounted to a vaccine bottleTesting the inoculation gun
  23. 23. Injecting sheep subcutaneously in the axilla (standing position). Injecting sheep subcutaneously in the axilla (lateral recumbency). Note: inoculations are given to reduce the possible transmission of infectious diseases, equipment should be sterilized by heating and needles changed as frequent as practically possible. Do not chemicals to clean needles and syringes. DOSING Drug in liquid form may be administered by mouth using a long necked bottled syringe or a dossing gun. When administering a drench, raise the animals head slightly and slowly administer the fluid into the side of the mouth allowing the animal to swallow freely. If the animals head is raised too high or if the tongue is pulled out, it interferes with normal swallowing and could cause the drench to enter the lungs. The resulting pneumonia can be fatal. Dosing guns should be checked periodically for accuracy. Startect de-wormerSheep in a holding pen waiting medication
  24. 24. Administering startect de-wormer orally using a syringe 4.3.4. DIPPING Goats in a spraying race
  25. 25. 4.4. PIG UNIT Shiwa ngandu estate has a piggery unit and the main breeding stock kept is the Large White breed as well as some large black breed Piggery house at shiwa estate Large black breed large white breed BreedingBoars are kept in different pens from sows and they are only brought to the sow’s penwhen heat signs are observed. Once mating had been successful, the boar is taken back to its pen. The signs of heat in the soar are: Frequent urination Enlargement of the vulva Reduced appetite Presence of clear mucus around the vagina Frequent grunting Restlessness Gilts are transferred to a farrowing pen when they were about to conceive. Gestation in pigs takes about 3months 3weeks and 3days (115days). FeedingThe Pigs at the farm are given a pig ration formulated. Each pig is given 2.5kg of the ration once a day. Provision of water in waterers is ad lib because pigs consume 10% of their own body weight in water per day and even more during hot weather. Piglets were allowed to suckle from the mother for 6weeks. Weaning was thereafter done once and the piglets were transferred from a farrowing pen to fattening pen where formulated feed were provided.
  26. 26. 4.4.1. Handling of Piglets During handling, the piglets are caught from behind and held by grasping the hind leg above the hock and then lifted by placing the other hand under its chest 4.4.2. Iron injection Piglets are normally born with relatively low levels of iron which cannot be replenished by the sow’s milk in adequate amounts. This can result in several clinical signs which are associated with iron deficiency e.g. paleness and uneven growth. Iron dextran injection (200mg/piglet) was given intramuscularly on the 6th day. Indicatedthat iron preparations can be administered between 3rd and 7th day of life. This results in greater weight gains at four weeks. 4.4.3. Teeth Clipping Clipping piglets’ teeth is done to prevent them from biting the sow in their fight to get hold of one of her teats and suckle. Bites to the teat can result in the sow preventing her young from feeding or germs infecting the udder. This can be done as soon as possible after birth using forceps or clippers. During clipping, a piece of wooden stick is used to have the piglet’s jaws open. Thereafter, teeth are cut as close as possible to the gums using a nail cutter while avoiding the injuring the tongue. 4.4.4. Castration Castration of male piglets was done using surgical procedures. This was done to boost growth and therefore, enhance meat (pork) production. Veterinary Care The majority of swine diseases are caused by endemic and opportunistic pathogens and diseases usually occur when pathogen population in the environment is great enough to overcome the animal’s resistance or when the stressor decreases the animal’s resistance. In order to avert the pathogens risk of causing diseases, the farm followed strict sanitary measures and also used all-in all-out type of rearing. The pens were cleaned with chlorinated water everyday around 06hours. The waterers were also washed with chlorinated water as a way of disinfecting them. The sties had foot baths at the entrance which had chlorinated water to prevent transferring parasites or pathogens into the house. The foot-baths were used to decrease microbiological contamination of foot-ware
  27. 27. 4.5. POULTRYUNIT Poultry Farming, commercial raising of chickens, turkeys, ducks, and geese for their meat, eggs and feather. Shiwang’andu estate has a poultry unit that keeps layers and village chickens. Of great importance the estate has concentrated on layers as it is the estates third profitable unit to Game and Beef production. The layers are reared for the production of eggs sold to a wide customer base of the northern and Muchinga provinces as the farm has a central location. 4.5.1. REQUIREMENTS There are a number of ―requirements‖ by which animals should be managed so that the best performance is achieved. These requirements are the keys to good management and may be used to test the management of a poultry enterprise in relation to the standard of its management. These requirements are called principles. The importance of each principle changes with the situation and thus the emphasis placed on each may alter from place to place and from time to time. This means that, while the principles do not change, the degree of emphasis and method of application may change. The Principles of poultry husbandry are: Use of good quality and right class of stock Provision of good housing Maintenance of good health Nutrient for economic performance Good stockperson ship Maximum use of management techniques Use of records Good marketing price Systems ofrearingbirdsat the farm-deep litter 4.5.2. BroodingUnit Dayoldchicks that are bought fromthehatcherywere transferredtoabroodinghousesusing hatching trays. Thechicks werekeptinthehouseforabout3weekswithtemperaturesmaintainedat 37oC.
  28. 28. Brooder house preparation Brooding heat light Brooder setup Theactualmethodofprovidingheattothechicksvariesbutmaybeaccomplishedby controlledheatingoftheentirebuildingorprovidingheatusing heating lamps. Thefarmusedbothtypesof broodingsystemsthoughthelamps usedwere electric. Alternatively,charcoalcanalsobeusedby small-scalefarmers who cannotafford highlymechanized equipment- in this case charcoal was used in times of power load shedding. Temperaturefortheday-old chicksisregulatedatabout35ocwiththetemperatures beinggraduallyreduceduntilaboutthethird-forthweekwhennoartificialheatingis used.Thechicks’behaviorisobservedtocheckwhetherthetemperaturesare coldortoohote.g.crowding ofchicksatoneangleindicatedthatwherethechicks areisbetterthantheothersides. 4.5.3. Feeding Inthebroodinghouse, thechicksaregivenchickmashmostly farm-made timescommercialfeedisusedwheneverthefarmlackedrawmaterials. though at Therearedifferencesintermsoffeedingregimesofthebirds largely duetothe purpose ofthebirds.Broilersaregivenbroilerstarterfromday 1to21andthen Broilerfinisher fromday22topointofsale/slaughter.Layersaregivenchickmash fromday
  29. 29. 1toweek10,followedbyGrowers mashuptoweek18(pointoflay)and, thereafter,Layersmash fromweek19tothetimewhen thebirdsareculled. Parent stockaregivenbreedersmash. 4.5.4. Debeaking Debeaking isdoneusinganelectricdebeaking machinebetweenweek16and17in ordertoavertcannibalism.Cannibalisminbirdshasbeenindicatedtooccurasa resultofshortage offeedandmineraldeficienciesinthebirds.Only athirdofthe upperbeak istrimmed. Timingisimportant because debeaking themduring thelayingperiodcould negativelyimpactonlayingsincetheprocessisstressful.Debeakingisonlydone onhenssincecocksalso usetheirbeaks whenmountinghensduringcopulation. 4.5.5. IdentificationofNon-Layinghens Identification oflayinghensisdoneinordertocullallnon-layingones.The followingfactorsforlayingbirdsarelookedforwhenobservingthebirds: Headtobeneat and clean Eyestobebrightandprominent Combandwattleslarge andbrightred Venttobeopenandmoist Abdomentobedeep,softandpliable Thepubicbonestobeflexibleandwideapart Physicalexaminationisalsodoneby checkingthespacebetweenthepelvicbones andthatbetween thepelvicandthekeelbones. Alllayingchickensaccommodated at leastthreefingersandfourfingersbetweenthepelvicbonesandthepelvicandthe keelbonesrespectively. 4.5.6. RecordKeeping Ineachhouse,records werebeingtakeninordertomonitor consumption,drugandvaccineusageandsales. mortality,feed 4.5.7. VeterinaryCare Vaccinationsandtreatmentsaredoneasaprophylactic measureandasaway of gettingridofaprevalentinfectionrespectively.Vaccinationsare carriedoutinorder togenerateimmunity inthebirdssothatintheeventthataviralattackoccurs,the chickensshouldalreadyhavestrongsystemofdefense. Atthefarm,vaccinations aredoneagainstInfectious BursalDisease (Gumboro), NewcastlediseaseandEApoxusingBursine-2,LasotaandTrempoxrespectively at differentunits.
  30. 30. Vaccination programs Days Disease/action Type of Vaccine Vendor TAD Hatchery Marek’s/Newcastl e(HB1)+IB (H120) 5(if not Vet Paracox in feed) Route of administration Inject/spray Hatchery Mereks/gumboro/ Newcastle 4 Coccidiosis 14 Gumboro Bursine-2 Vet Oral 21 Newcastle LaSota Vet Spray 35 EA-Pox/newcastle Trempox/talovac Vet 105 ND Oral –drinking water Wing stab-right 4.6. EQUINE UNIT There are 21 horses at the farm 4 young ones and 17 elder ones. The horses are kept separately in their own boarding stales and are never mixed in the same paddocks with cattle. This is so because there are some diseases that can easily be transmitted from bovines to equines for example, fistulous withers which is caused by brucellosis in cattle 4.6.1.HOOF MANAGEMENT Horses can also be sedated to clean their hooves especially young ones that are not yet fully trained as well as those that are violent. However, all the horses that we managed to care for were trained enough and hence no sedation was required. Xylazine- directions for use in horses Intravenously-IV Sedation Intramuscularly-IM Sedation 4ml/100kg bw 10ml/100kg bw  Hoof management is done every 3 weeks to remove Hoof cleaning utensilsRemoving dirty from the hoof frog and sole
  31. 31. Trimming the hoof Trimming the hoof sole and frog Trimming the hoof wall 4.6.2. EQUINE BRUCELLOSIS The horse suspected to have brucellosis due to two consecutive abortions.
  32. 32. 4.6.3. FEEDING After an equine has given birth, the foal is fed on milk for the minimum of two to three months then after, it is introduced to creep feeding. They are weaned at the age between three to four months. Before this, the foul entirely depend on the milk from the mare and sometimes milk Foal suckling Weaning the may be so stressful especially to the foal due to the fact that it will miss the mare. Despite this, the foal has to be prepared for weaning. Normally the way of weaning is by separating the foals from the mare for a period of time until they get used. Horses are fed mainly on roughage and also concentrate sometimes. At shiwang’andu farm, horses graze in open areas which are not very protected from dust and wind. When giving feed concentrate to horses, it is important to wet the feed with water. This is so because horses are so susceptible to dust and the fact that their respiratory system is complicated rending them very vulnerable to dust and wind which brings about respiratory problems. Horse grazing green watered areas plus hay (Good)horses feeding in dusty graze lands (Bad)
  33. 33. Feed concentrates are given to the horses around 06:30 AM and around 15:30 PM The horse feeding on wet concentrate alone in its standing pen 4.6.4. TEMPERATURE CHECKING  As the horses are being fed in the morning, the temperature is measured in order to check if there are horses which are not in healthy conditions. Temperature is the major indication of how healthy the horses are. The thermometer is first reset and then placed in the anus after which, the temperature is taken. Temperature being checked  The horses are brushed every morning to remove the dust and to make them shine and clean. This is so because the horses are used riding by tourists who frequently visit the farm.
  34. 34. 4.7. GAME UNIT Shiwang’andu estate is not only specialized in farm operations/ production, but it has vast land that provides a suitable habitat to about 21 different game species. Thus, it’s not just a farm but also has a private game reserve. Because of this as well as the presence of the mighty shiwa manor house that has up to 72 rooms and a private aircraft landing space, most people especially whites go for game viewing, safaris and many other different activities that are found there especially when the hunting season is advertised. The game animals that are found there are: Most of the game animals are ruminants with few selected options such as birds. These animals are mostly killed at the farm on orders. During the hunting season, most animals are killed, skinned and their skull are used for making trophies. These trophies are usually sold outside the country to the tourists who usually visit the farm. Impala meat inspection Impala liver worm inspection The skinned head of a lechwe to be used for making trophies. Skinned lechwe head
  35. 35. (a) (b) (a)Removing flesh from the head after boiling it in water to remain with the skull (b)Drying the skull and the hide in the sun with pure- fine salt to make trophies Whenever game animals were killed, the carcasses and internal organs were given to us to carry out all kinds of inspection and skinning with respect to our objectives and furthermore. Game activities at the farm are well regulated and inspected although a number of challenges such as pouching by the local people, cripple the ability of its massive expansion. Sometimes, game animals is given feed concentrate similar to that of cattle since they are also ruminants. Feeding of game meat seemed a surprise and wastage of feed but it was explained that feed is dropped in well recognized areas where each specie usually graze from. This is not done always but it’s used as a way of supplementing when the green grasslands are dry during the hot season. In cases where an animal gives birth and it dies, their offspring are usually tamed and feed just like a domestic animals. l An orphan Ireland groomed among the goats Well organized game counting is done in respective game camps by specialized and skilled ZAWA staff. This was difficult to learn because it not a common happening.
  36. 36. 4.8. FEEDS AND RATIONS Feed Rations Shiwa Estate Mineral pack with each color signifying a different species. Section No color Dairy Sow/Boar Pig Grower Goat dairy Mature Layer Chicks Grower Horse 1 2 3 Brown 5 Grey 8 Green 2 4 5 Red Blue 6 Yello w purple 7 DCP SALT METHIONI NE LYSIN CAROTEN TOTAL OID PREMIX 5 6 4 MINER ALSStandard premixes 1 2 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 11 18 7 5 15 5 5 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0.5 11 23.5 12 4 2 2 1 0 21 5 5 1 0 0 0 11 1. Dairy Mix To 11kg mineral pack add Ingredients Maize bran Farm soya Sunflower Cotton cake Lime TOTAL Weight (kg) 560 100 100 150 25 946 2. Sow/Boar mix To 18 kg mineral pack add Ingredients Ground maize Farm soya Sunflower Wheat/rice bran Lime Fish meal Anti-bacterial TOTALS Weight(kg) 500 100 150 100 11 5 0.5 884.5
  37. 37. 3. Pig Grower mix To 7kg mineral pack add Ingredients Under grade Maize Sunflower Rice bran Lime Anti-bacterial TOTAL 4. Goat Dairy mix To 11kg mineral pack add Ingredients Maize bran Farm soya Rice Bran Lime TOTAL 5. Mature layer mix To 23.5 kg mineral pack add Ingredients white maize under grade maize Farm soya Bought soya Sunflower Wheat/rice bran Lime Fish meal Grit Anti-bacterial TOTALS 6. Chicks Grower mix To 21 kg mineral pack add Ingredients Ground maize (white+undergrade) Farm soya Bought soya Sunflower Wheat/rice bran Lime Fish meal Grit Anti-bacterial TOTALS Weight (kg) 200 100 100 2 0.4 409.4 Weight (kg) 150 75 200 12 448 Weight(kg) 175 175 50 100 200 100 50 5 50 0.2 928.7 Weight(kg) 400 50 100 150 200 15 9 0 0.4 945.4
  38. 38. 7. Horse (equine) mix To 11kg mineral pack add Ingredients Maize bran Farm soya Rice Bran Lime TOTAL Weight (kg) 150 75 150 5 391 SUMMARY OF RATION FORMULATIONS Ingredients Dairy Sow/Boar Pig Goat Grower Dairy Ground 0 500 0 maize Bought 0 0 0 0 maize white maize 0 0 0 0 Under grade maize Maize Bran Farm soya Bought soya Cotton cake Sunflower Wheat/rice bran Lime Grit Fish meal DCP Minerals Methionine lysine Carotenoid premix Salt TOTALS Mature Layer Or 340/350 0 Chick Grower 0 Horse 0 0 175 200 0 0 0 0 200 0 175 200 0 560 100 0 0 100 0 0 0 150 75 0 0 50 100 0 50 100 150 75 0 150 100 0 0 150 100 0 100 100 0 0 200 0 200 100 0 150 100 0 0 150 25 0 5 1 0 0 0 11 0 5 8 2 1 1 0 2 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 12 0 0 5 1 0 0 0 50 50 5 15 1 1 1 0.5 15 0 9 12 2 2 1 0 5 0 0 5 1 0 0 0 5 0 946 6 0.5 884.5 4 0.4 409.4 5 0 448 5 0.5 928.7 4 0.4 945.4 5 0 391
  39. 39. Feed and ration formulation The farm has driven much of its efforts in any agriculture activities except in small irrigation of the pasture for the animals to supplement especially I the dry season when pasture becomes scarce. Irrigation of the field for grazing Maize, soy bean, wheat and sunflower are also cultivated in the rainy season. The main purpose of cultivating these crops is to provide a cheaper supply of the much needed ingredients for feed formulation of various farm animals. Silage made at the farm to feed cattle
  40. 40. Much grazing is from natural pasture since most of the grazing land is in a swamp like because of Lake Shiwa. Dry Wheat stalks being fed to the animals after mixing with molasses. For ruminants, a cheaper source of the very much needed ammonia which enhance the rumen ecology is obtained from poultry manure. The most ideal method that is used at shiwa ngandu estates is the use of maize bran as litter. This when changed is then taken and used in formulating feeds for cattle. Maize bran poultry litter being collected for use as a source of ammonia for ruminants When formulating / making feed, the ingredients are all measured to ensure that they are in their right proportions or amounts. It is important to ensure this because any excess or deficient ingredient would affect livestock production negatively or might even cause
  41. 41. diseases or lead to malfunctions. After measuring the ingredients, all of them are put into a mixer for about 5 minutes in order to thoroughly mix the feed so that there can be no selective feeding. Weighing balancefeed mixer 5.0 CHALLENGES/GENERALOBSERVATION Thefollowingwerethechallengesandgeneralobservationswhichweremade:     6.0 PoornutritioninPiggery, Goats and sheepunits Absence of footbaths around the farm Animal species left too open such that they mix a lot Lack of controlling the grazing sites i.e. sandy or swampy areas RECOMMENDATION Owing to the general observation and thechallenges thatwereencounteredduringmy stay period at shiwa ngandu estates, Iwould,therefore,liketo makethefollowingrecommendation:  Thereisneedforthestationtoconstruct and put to use footbaths in order to help curb unnecessary diseases.  Thereisneedforthefarm estatetoexpandthefieldsoffoddercropsonareas whicharenotbeingused.E.g.Rhodesgrass, Lucerne, star grass Napier grassorusingalleycroppingthus having leucanea inalleyswithgrasspastures.  The estate needs more paddocks I order to prevent transmission of diseases among animal species i.e. brucellosis due to mixing horses and cattle at the farm. This would also help to prevent game animals infecting farm livestock.  Restricting the grazing areas: horses that graze from sandy areas usually develop respiratory disorders that prove to be fatal because horses do not use their mouth to aidbreathing. And cattle in too dumpy areas/ water logged areas to prevent disease and Cattle being stuck in the mud.
  42. 42. 7.0 CONCLUSION Thepurpose ofthecoursewasachievedthroughanumberofactivitiescouldnotbe doneduetotimeconstraintandseasonality educativeandanumberofskillswereacquired. 8.0 REFERENCES 9.0 APPENDICES oftheactivities.Thestaywasquite

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