Safe and Healthy Blood DonorsSafe and Healthy Blood DonorsSelection criteria.Selection criteria.Mehwish ARSHADMehwish ARSHADTRAINEE TECHNOLOGIST.TRAINEE TECHNOLOGIST.
Donor selection determines the eligibility of adonor to donate blood.
Types of blood donors
Blood Donors• Voluntary Donors –Donate Blood on their own• Replacement Donors : from within the patient’sown family or community• Autologous Blood Donor -Are patients whodonate their own blood for self• Apheresis Donor- Donate blood componentsthrough the process of cell separation• Professional Donors -means a person whodonates blood for a valuable consideration, in cashor kind, for any source, on behalf of the recipientpatient includes a paid donor or a commercialdonor.
• Voluntary Non Remunerated Blood Donors arethe low risk donors for• Safe blood• Sustainable blood SupplyReplacement Donors-not a preferred system• Risks of professional Donors.• Risk of hidden information
Policies and GuidelinesDonor RecruitmentDonor RetentionDonor SelectionBlood CollectionDonor Counseling
An adequate supply of low risk donors requires A donor recruitment program A dedicated recruitment section with trainedstaff
The quality of theBTS is influenced bythe quality of eachof the linksBlood donorsCollectionProcessingScreeningand testingTransfusion
Blood safetyThe first & the most important step, in ensuring that blood andits products for transfusion do not have any pathogenicvirus/bacteria, is the PROPER SELECTION of BLOODDONORS.Donor selection should be done carefully.The donor should be in good health to avoid any untowardeffect to the donor or to the recipient.
Pre Donation Information Documents to give information to donors General advicePre- and post- donationInformation about giving blood Deferral informationSelf- deferral on the basis of medical conditionSelf- deferral on the basis of risk behavior
• Registration, consent of the donor &demographic information.• Medical history• Physical examination.• Laboratory tests
Demographic information: So that the donor can beinformed of any laboratory test abnormality or can becalled for future donation. Donor’s name Father’s/Husband’s name Date of birth/Age Gender : Male/Female Residential & Office address with phone numbers.
Donor selection criteria are essentialBased on accepted regional/ international practice Protect the donorEnsures that it is safe for the donor to donate Protect the recipientEnsures that any risk of transfusion- transmittedinfection or other adverse effect is minimized
Medical interview-Collection of information on healthand behaviour for Critical assessment of donorsregarding fitnessWhat to ask and whyMaintain confidentialityGood relationship comes from trustPersonal interviews should not be overheardMaintain right of each donor to privacy Medical examinationHaemoglobin testingWeight
Medical Interview Are you at present in good health? When did you eat last? Are you taking any medicine? Have you been vaccinated recently? Have you ever suffered a convulsion or mentaldisorder? Have you ever had jaundice? Have you lost significant weight loss in last sixmonths ?
Should nothave been treated for rabies in the past one yearbe treated for Malaria in the past three monthshave had any immunizations in the last one monthhave had any dental treatmenthave taken Aspirin in the past 72 hourshave diabetes, heart disease or high BP, cancer, bloodclotting problem or blood diseasehave TB, bronchial asthma or allergic disorder, liverdisease, kidney disease, fits or fainting
Should not• have cough, influenza or sore throat, common cold atthe time of blood donation• have taken any antibiotics or any other medications(Allopathic or Ayurveda or Sidha or Homeo) in thepast 48 hours• have taken alcoholic beverages in the past 24 hours• be pregnant or breast feeding or donate during hermenstrual cycles• have donated blood in past 3 months
Donor should be in good health. Age -18 - 60 years Haemoglobin - not less than 12.5 g/dL Pulse - between 50 and 100/minute with no irregularities Blood Pressure -Systolic 100-180 mm Hg and Diastolic 50 - 100 mm Hg Temperature - Normal Body weight - ≥ 45 kgs. ( for 350 ml.)≥ 60 kgs. ( for 450 ml. ) Both male and female can donate blood Skin at the venepuncture site should be free from any lesion or scar ofneedle. Any pricks may indicate drug
Temporarily Defer the donor if history ofMajor surgery – six monthsMinor surgery – three monthsDonated blood – 3 months.Tooth extraction/manipulation–3 daysReceived blood or blood component transfusion –1yrAspirin – defer if taken within last 3 days forcomponent preparation /plateletpheresis .
Temporarily Defer the donor withHistory of malaria for three months aftertreatment and cessation of symptoms .Tuberculosis for five years after completetreatment and cessation of symptoms.
Permanently Defer Donors with history ofHeart disease : Coronary disease, Rheumaticheart disease,Cardiac medication, cardiac surgeryHypertensionEndocrine :diabetes, hyperthyroidismMalignancyHigh risk group donors for HIV infection
Donor should meet all the acceptable criteria forroutine whole blood donation however :Age of the donor-18 to 50 years.Weight of the donor-> than 55-60kg.TTI Results - non-reactiveThe pre-procedure platelet count should bemore than 150,000 per cubic mm.
Donor should not have taken aspirin or any otherplatelet inhibitor in last 72 hours. The donor should not be fasting prior to the procedure, Donor should have a prominent and easily accessiblecentral anticubital vein in at least one of the arm.
The minimum time gap between two blooddonations should be 12 weeks/3 monthsWhole blood donation must be deferred for atleast 72 hours after plateletpheresisIn case of re-infusion failure, donor should notdonate whole blood for 12 weeks
Donor care – before, during and after donationDonating blood should be a pleasant experienceThe venue must be a safe place for the donorThe venue must be comfortable & clean. Adequately Address Adverse reactionsFacilities to deal with any reactions during or afterdonation
DONOR CARE-BEFORE DONATIONEveryone involved in interviewing & counsellingshould develop a friendly & tactful approach thatencourages donors to be honest & accurate in theiranswers to questions about their medical history.The health check should always be handledprofessionally so that the donors feel they are in goodhandsBe sensitive to the donors feelings of fear &embarrassmentNo chatting with other staff & ignoring the donor
DONOR CARE-DURINGDONATIONStaff must be trained in interpersonal skills andshould always be smart & clean in appearancewith high standard of personal hygieneStaff should have pleasant manners & be capableof conversing freely with donors at the time ofdonation.An act of carelessness or lack of professionalismby staff during or after donation can bedetrimental to the donors coming back again todonate blood.
Observe the donor for 8-10 minutes on the donor chairto prevent adverse reactions. Observe for another 10 minutes in the refreshment areawhilst Donor has refreshment . Inspect the venepuncture site before the donor leaves thedonor room.
Ask the donor to write his comments/suggestions in thedonor refreshment register Thank donors WITH APPRECIATION so that they aremotivated and encouraged to become repeat regularvoluntary blood donor.
Post donation instruction to the donor before leavingblood bankDrink more fluid in next 24 hours.Do not smoke for1/2 hour after donation.Continue with daily routine work but avoid strenuous exercisee.g. Weight lifting for 24 hours.Do not drive for at least half an hour.Volume lost due to blood donation is replenished by 48 hours.Can safely donate again after three months.Report to blood bank in case of any adverse reaction.Document adverse reaction if any on the donor card anddonor register.
Donor SatisfactionDonor SatisfactionCongenialCongenial atmosphereatmosphereCourteousCourteous and trainedand trainedstaffstaffCare and ComfortCare and ComfortConfidentialityConfidentialityCounselingCounselingConstantConstant feed backfeed backContinuousContinuous effortsefforts