ANTINUCLEAR ANTIBODYAnti-nuclear antibodies (ANAs, also known asanti-nuclear factor or ANF) are autoantibodiesthat bind to contents of the cell nucleus. Innormal individuals, the immune system producesantibodies to foreign proteins (antigens) but notto human proteins (autoantigens). In someindividuals, antibodies to human antigens areproduced
Subtypes Of ANAsThere are many subtypes of ANAs such as, anti-Ro antibodies anti-La antibodies anti-Sm antibodies anti-nRNP antibodies anti-Scl-70 antibodies anti-dsDNA antibodiesanti-histone antibodies antibodies to nuclear pore complexes anti-centromere antibodies anti-sp100 antibodies
Subtypes Of ANAsEach of these antibody subtypes binds todifferent proteins or protein complexeswithin the nucleus. They are found in manydisorders including autoimmunity, cancerand infection, with different prevalence ofantibodies depending on the condition.
Nuclear ProteinsProteins that have beenSynthesized in the nucleusAnd thereafter whereDistributed to theirrespective sites in the cell
Detection TechniqueIndirect immunofluorescence is the referencemethod for screening and titration ofcirculating autoantibodies in human serum.Using three different tissues fromrat(liver,kidney and stomach) enablesautontibodies to be more easily identifying bycomparing the results obtained with each tissue.
Types of ANAsThere are Three major antibodiesdetected Antinuclear antibodies (ANA)Antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA)Antismooth muscle antibodies(ASMA)
PrincipleAn indirect immunofluorescence technique isutilized where patient samples and appropriatecontrols are incubated with the substrate slides.The unreacted antibodies are washed off and anappropriate fluorescence labeled conjugate isapplied.Unbound conjugate is washed off, and slides areviewed with a fluorescence microscope.Positive samples produce apple-greenfluorescence.
PATTERN OF FLUORESCENCESpeckledHomogenousRimNucleolar
Importance Of ANASerologic hallmarks of patients withsystemic autoimmune disease (ANAdiseases).Can provide further diagnostic andprognostic data concerning patients whohave minimal symptoms or who haveclinical features of more than oneautoimmune disease.
Limitations of ANATheir presence does not mandate the presence ofillness, since they can also be found in otherwisenormal individuals.Accurate interpretation of different nuclearpatterns is confounded several difficulties as:One nuclear pattern may obscure and preventthe recognition of another pattern if severalantibodies are present simultaneously.