The Multimedia Principle
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The Multimedia Principle

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The Multimedia Principle The Multimedia Principle Presentation Transcript

  • The Multimedia Principle Elizabeth J Mcallister Denise O’brien Peter Sabath Marvin Spinner Lisa Valeri Colleen Williams Tonya Wright Gregory Zirkle
  • Do Visuals Make A Difference?
    • Water Cycle
    • Evaporation
    • Condensation
    • Precipitation
    • Convey Information
    • Visuals increase comprehension
    • Visuals simplify information
  • Include Both Words and Graphics
    • Select Graphics that Support Learning
      • Decorative graphics
      • Representational graphics
      • Relational graphics
      • Organizational graphics
      • Transformational graphics
      • Interpretive graphics
  • Four Ways to Use Graphics to Promote Learning:
    • Use graphics to teach five different types of content such as facts, concepts, processes, procedures, and principles
    • Use graphics as topic organizers
    • Use graphics to show relationships
    • Use graphics as lesson interfaces
  • Example 1: Using graphics to teach five different types of content such as facts, concepts, processes, procedures, and principles: This graphic teaches content related to the life cycle of the frog. Graphic Source: http://www.cwmb.sa.gov.au/kwc/programs/a_frogs_life/images/fl-2_clip_image001.gif
  • In this screen capture from the Science News for Kids site, the graphics are used to organize the sections of the website. Clicking on each graphic takes the student to a different section of the website. Graphic Source: http://www.sciencenewsforkids.org / Example 2: Using graphics as topic organizers
  • Example 3: Using graphics to show relationships This graphic shows the learner the relationship between two different types of Buddhism. Venn diagrams are only one type of graphic that shows relationships. Graphic Source: http://www.pps.k12.or.us/schools-c/pages/westsylvan/student/religion/buddhism_pm/venn-diagram.gif
  • Example 4: Using graphics as lesson interfaces This screen capture is from a site which has emergency case simulators for veterinary students. The students using the site have to choose the procedures and type of care appropriate for each emergency case. Graphic Source: http://www.rvc.ac.uk/review/cases/Jess/jess.htm
  • Psychological Reasons for Multimedia Principle
    • Words
    • Communication
    • Distance
  • Education and Words
    • Effective and Efficient
    • Words:
    • Information
    • Ease
  • Information Acquisition Theory
    • Teaching = presenting information
    • Learning = acquiring information
  • Information Delivery
    • Printed words
    • Spoken words
    • Illustrations
    • Photos
    • Graphs
    • Animations
    • Video
    • Narration
  • Information Acquisition Theory
    • Efficient and Effective
    • Information delivery
    • Instruction=presenting words
  • Knowledge Construction Theory
    • Teaching = foster cognitive processing
    • Learning = sense-making of material
  • Knowledge Construction Theory: Instruction
    • Delivery
    • Guide learner
    • Enable
    • Encourage
  • Knowledge Construction Theory: Learning
    • Active Processing:
    • Representation
    • Connection
  • Multimedia Lessons
    • Words and pictures
    • Graphics
    + =
  • Evidence for Using Words and Pictures
    • Studies reveal that students who receive multimedia instruction utilizing words and pictures performed better on subsequent transfers tests than those taught in words alone.
  • Learning is Better from Words Plus Graphics Than from Words Alone. 0 100 80 6 0 4 0 2 0 Words + Graphics Words Alone
  • Research
    • In 11 performed studies:
    • (Mayer, 1989b; Mayer & Anderson, 1991, 1992; Mayer, Bove, Bryman, Mars, & Tapangco, 1996; Mayer & Gallini, 1990; Moreno & Mayer, 1999b, 2002b)
    People who learned from words and graphics produced 55% to 121% more correct solutions. People who learned from words alone.
  • Finding the Multimedia Effect
    • “ The multimedia principle, which suggests that learning and understanding are enhanced by adding pictures to text rather than presenting text alone, appears to be well supported by findings from empirical research.” (Fletcher and Tobias, 2005, p. 128)
  • Graphic Organizers
    • When pictorial material is presented at the start of a lesson, students perform better in subsequent tests.
    • Students learn better with symbols and graphics than from symbols alone.
  • Defining “Novices” and “Experts”
    • Novices = learners who have “low knowledge of the domain”
    • Experts = learners who have “high knowledge of the domain”
  • Evidence: Why does this principle work best for novices?
    • Mayer, R.E., & Gallini, J.K. (1990). When an illustration is worth then thousand words? Journal of Educational Psychology , 88 , 64-73.
    • Novices learn better from text and illustrations than from isolated words
    • Experts learn equally well from words alone or from text and illustrations
  • Using words to create mental images
    • Novices have trouble creating mental images from words
    • Novices need help doing this by supplementing words with illustrations
    • Experts (i.e. experienced learners), on the other hand, are able to independently create mental images with words
  • More Evidence
    • Ollerenshaw, A., Aidman, E., & Kidd, G. (1997). Is an illustration always worth ten thousand words? Effects of prior knowledge, learning style, and multimedia illustrations on text comprehension. International Journal of Instructional Media , 24 , 227-238.
    • Animations that supplement text benefit low-knowledge learners (i.e. novices)
    • Animations do not necessarily benefit high-knowledge learners (i.e. experts)
  • Summary
    • Prior knowledge of learners must be factored into design of instruction
    • Novices need more visuals (animations, illustrations, etc.) to supplement text
    • Experts need fewer visuals to supplement text; too many visuals can be distracting
  • Static Illustrations or Animations?
    • Static Illustrations
      • force students to mentally animate and make connections.
      • constitutes active learning
      • see example
    • Animation
      • does not force students to mentally animate
      • students cannot control pace or order
      • constitutes passive learning
      • see example
  • “ Cool moist air moves over a warmer surface and becomes heated.” “ Warmed moist air near the earth’s surface rises rapidly.” “ As the air in this updraft cools, water vapor condenses into water droplets and forms a cloud.” “ The cloud’s top extends above the freezing level, so the upper portion of the cloud is composed of tiny ice crystals.” “ Eventually, the water droplets and ice crystals become too large to be suspended by the updrafts.” “ As raindrops and ice crystals fall through the cloud, they drag some of the air in the cloud downward, producing downdrafts.” “ When downdrafts strike the ground, they spread out in all directions, producing the gusts of cool wind people feel just before the start of the rain.” “ Within the cloud, the rising and falling air currents cause electrical charges to build.”
  • Research
    • Research by Betrancourt, Hegarty, Kriz & Cate, etc has failed to find that animations are more effective
    • In fact, Mayer, Hegarty, Mayer & Campbell (2005) show that students performed 32% better when presented with text and illustrations as compared to animations.
  • Should Animation Ever Be Used?
    • There are some instances when animations may be useful:
      • When showing how to perform a motor skill
        • Ex: Folding paper
      • When relationships are revealed that are not otherwise visible
        • Ex: Seed germination
  • What We Don’t Know About Visuals
  • Which is more effective?
    • Animation
    • Static Graphic
  • Are the effects long term?
  • Do we have the time to create them?
  • What are the cost benefits?
  • Motivation in color?
  • Does it matter which?
  • These are questions not answered in the principal
  • More research is needed…
  • References Clark, R.C., & Mayer, R.E. (2008). Applying the multimedia principle. E-learning and the science of instruction (3rd ed., pp. 447-478). San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer. Graphic Sources: http://www.cwmb.sa.gov.au/kwc/programs/a_frogs_life/images/fl-2_clip_image001.gif http://www.sciencenewsforkids.org/ http://www.pps.k12.or.us/schools-c/pages/westsylvan/student/religion/buddhism_pm/venn-diagram.gif http://www.rvc.ac.uk/review/cases/Jess/jess.htm