Chapter 17 section 1 notes


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Chapter 17 section 1 notes

  1. 1. Chapter 17 Section 1: The Rise of Dictators The world of the 1930’s was a tremendously unstable place, due to economic crisis and a slow recovery from the devastation of World War I. Several leaders catapulted to power on this shaky foundation. Josef Stalin Benito Mussolini Adolf Hitler
  2. 2. Stalin <ul><li>Stalin emerged as leader of the Soviet Union following Lenin’s death in 1924. </li></ul><ul><li>Initiated a government takeover of farming with terrible consequences. </li></ul><ul><li>What were the consequences? </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin also pursued rapid industrialization, but with costs. </li></ul><ul><li>Utilized “purges” to remove enemies and undesireables. </li></ul><ul><li>Had more than 1,000,000 of his own people executed. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Benito Mussolini: IL Duce (the leader) <ul><li>Fought and was wounded during WWI. </li></ul><ul><li>Formed the revolutionary Fascist Party </li></ul><ul><li>Followed by dissatisfied veterans and opponents of socialism, anarchists </li></ul><ul><li>Relied upon the “Blackshirts” to terrorize and silence those who opposed him. </li></ul><ul><li>An intimidated King appointed him prime minister. </li></ul><ul><li>Suspended elections and outlawed other parties. </li></ul><ul><li>The economy improved under his leadership. </li></ul><ul><li>Invaded Ethiopia in 1936 </li></ul>“The Country is nothing without conquest”
  4. 4. Adolf Hitler <ul><li>World War I Veteran </li></ul><ul><li>Was enraged by the terms of the Treaty of Versailles </li></ul><ul><li>Austrian </li></ul><ul><li>Joined National Socialist German Workers’ Party aka The Nazi Party. </li></ul><ul><li>Nazism: A form of fascism shaped by Hitler’s ideas about racism and racial superiority. </li></ul><ul><li>Powerful public speaker </li></ul><ul><li>Failed in an attempt to overthrow the German government in 1923. </li></ul><ul><li>Mein Kampf: autobiography – outlined his views of Germany’s problems and his plans for Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>Promised to stablize, restore and rebuild. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Hitler’s Rise <ul><li>1919 – Joins Nazi Party </li></ul><ul><li>1921 – By this time Hitler is leader of the party </li></ul><ul><li>1923 – Imprisoned – Writes Mein Kampf </li></ul><ul><li>1923-1932: Becomes more popular, develops a large following </li></ul><ul><li>1932 – Nazi Party becomes the majority party in the Reichstag; Hitler places second in the Presidential election. </li></ul><ul><li>1933 – President Hindenburg names Hitler Chancellor or head of the German government </li></ul><ul><li>1933 – German parliament passes the “enabling bill” which gave Hitler dictatorial power. </li></ul>
  6. 6. German Expansion <ul><li>1936: Rhineland </li></ul><ul><li>1936: Hitler and Mussolini enter into alliance </li></ul><ul><li>1938: Austria </li></ul><ul><li>1938: Munich Pact: British and French Prime Minister’s meet with Hitler and give into his demands in order to keep the peace (appeasement). They agree that they will not stand in the way of Germany’s seizure of the Sudetenland (Western Czechoslovakia). </li></ul>
  7. 7. Spanish Civil War <ul><li>In 1936, Spain held its last free elections – several political factions competed for power. </li></ul><ul><li>During this time labor strife, assassinations and street battles became common place. </li></ul><ul><li>A group backed by liberal parties won </li></ul><ul><li>A few months later, the military led by General Francisco Franco rebelled against the new government. </li></ul><ul><li>New Government: Republicans , Franco – Nationalists </li></ul><ul><li>The Nationalists formed their own government – a dictatorship led by Franco </li></ul><ul><li>A fierce civil war developed, with each side seeking foreign support. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Germany and Italy supported Franco and the Nationalists. </li></ul><ul><li>The Soviet Union sent arms and supplies to the Republicans. Britain, France and the U.S. offered no official support. </li></ul><ul><li>International Brigades – volunteers from 50 countries including the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1939 Franco seized control of Madrid and held control of Spain until 1975. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Europe on the Eve of World War II