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Student Resistance A History of the Unruly Subject By: Mark Edelman Boren
Introduction: The Fourth “R” What is student resistance? “A continually occurring, vital, and global phenomenon which is significant enough to provoke a major response from opposing powers” Reading Writing Arithmetic Resistance
Early Defiance and Medieval Violence In Bologna, Italy, students began to demand their own “terms” with their towns. They were willing to fight for power. Similarly, In Paris 1200, -Students’ servants were thrown out In protest, the servants rushed into the establishment and attacked the innkeeper and a few locals and fought The University wanted to relocate “Medieval Student Actions” ”Town-and-Gown” Student vs. nonstudent, violent attacks, mostly over something small -European Universities wanted physical and political power over town -Within universities, student vs. student rivals
The Student Body Inflamed Due to the Reformation, enrollment at the universities momentarily declined. Had issues with religion Protestants vs. Catholics Throughout Europe, during the Enlightenment, thousands of public/private schools opened so children all over the country attended charity schools. German groups influenced groups around Europe and tried to overthrow Russia. In France, in 1830, started plotting against the French monarchy and started a revolution. In the United States, with medieval European town-and-gown riots effecting Bostonians ways, students were against behavioral policies
The Modernization of Student Power and Rise of the Student Leader Students were rebelling violently to express their ideas, but had little government importance -In Germany Students learned that if theycouldmobilize small groups effectively make massive blocks of organized power that could unite with groups of workers to topple governments.” -In Vienna City, the students had toppled the government but could not sustain control, What makes for a successful revolt does not necessarily make a successful revolt -In Russia, Alexander I wanted to expand on schooling, realized more of a chance to for revolts. -Government spies came into classrooms making sure curriculum went accordingly -If students started to resist, would have consequences eventually would be locked out of university -Started to protest against state regulations, students acted as unified body, boycotted, strikes, and demonstrations 1865: Moscow banded student groups -Radicals turned to terrorism & assassinations turned common
Success, Sabers, and Sacrifice, 1900-1919 First decades of 20th century had global rise in student activism In Germany, students wanted self-determination and self-definition Because Japan controlled government and trade in China, students in 1919 had the May Fourth Movement: protested against Japanese control in Chinaunited students, labor wokers to fight for their culture and tradition back In China and Latin America, students were able to state their ideas and concerns to the general public and gain popular support formed organizations. Governments felt threatened and fought and resisted
Reform and Terrorism in the 1920s and 1930s National Student Federation-organization joining hundreds of student governments at universities and colleges throughout the nation linked students across the country through a political network that could pass information and concerns to its constituents rapidly, provide local student representatives with issues and models and means to address them In Germany, Nazi party had student groups become branches of their party, ended up having more support. Some tried to fight against it, was too weak. In Latin America could finally form a Latin American Student Congress, gave a voice and power China, students and workers went on strike for foreign goods violent actions
Student Militancy and Warfare 1940-1959 Most universities closed during WW2, and many student activism revolts could not happen. Took awhile to start again after war. Japanese students were extremely effective at organizing, strategizing, and demonstrating, and they had great impact on national opinion and their federal government Chinese students were generally not major players in national politics at the time. And once the Communists came to power in China, student voices were effectively silenced; China’s new government knew how to suppress the threat of the student opposition Student actions in Latin America led to reforms and to revolutions, but not all were characterized by violence India’s resistance, if any, had no violence due to Gandhi’s influence. After independence, may of the student organizations disintegrated. In the US, formed groups against sexism, racism, and anti-communist
Student Resistance through the 1960s-1980s While in Japan and China, mostly resisted against the US and formed groups with violence, people opposed to the Communist party in China Tiananmen Square in China, hundreds died, after this resistance was shattered But the Untied States, many fought against racial segregation in universities and Anti-Vietnam Most known riot was at Kent University: As the resistance in students slowly ended, extreme terrorists acted up
Student Activism Over-all & Today Student resistance started during the formation of medieval students and branched off Still today, students are finding new ways to resist via Internet THESIS: Student resistance is one of the key factors in social power dynamics, meaning student resistance plays an important role on social power.