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  • 1. Topic #1 Shifting Global Power Part II The Rise and Fall of Islamic Empires, 600 CE to 1918
  • 2. Power Vacuum in the Middle East The Fall of Rome left a vacuum  The Eastern half of the Roman Empire, based at Constantinople, remained, but would be at war with the new emerging Muslim powers in the region for centuries (600s-1400s)  The Persian Empire was also weak, soon incorporated into the Arab/Muslim Empires 
  • 3. Islam Unifying Force Mohammad formed a new religion in the 600s CE  It eventually unified the Arab tribes into one nation, first under the Umayyads and then the Abbasids 
  • 4. Umayyad Empire, 661-750 CE
  • 5. Abbasid Empire, 750-1258
  • 6. Abbasid “Golden Age” of Islamic Empires Wealth and trade routes across Asia  Bagdad new capital of Islamic world in 750  House of Wisdom in Bagdad intellectual center as Muslim scholars made breakthroughs in medicine, science, philosophy and mathematics 
  • 7. Arab Scientists We will watch a film, starring Ben Kingsley as Arab scientists Al-Jazari part of the 1001 Inventions Exhibit created by the Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation based in the UK.  Click here for a video 
  • 8. Bagdad hub of learning
  • 9. Algebra is an Arab word  We’ve seen Al-biruni as part of the CNN project
  • 10. Al-Biruni was not alone, Muslim scholars made incredible discoveries in mathematics, including the development of Algebra, improvements in Astronomy and Geometry
  • 11. Mathematical breakthroughs
  • 12. Hindu-Arabic Numerals
  • 13. Muslim Spain as a conduit  Math, Hebrew language was “rediscovered” by Jews, Christian and Muslim scholars in Spain; Greek philosophy was translated and preserved.  Think about the libraries of Cordoba, from the CNN video
  • 14. Ziryab “Black Bird” Musician from Bagdad, relocated to Spain, opened the first music school in Europe, in Cordoba in the 800s  Founder of Andalusian music  Click here for traditional Arab music   You can hear how it has influenced Spanish music (click here)
  • 15. Fall of Bagdad, the Mongols We will look at the rise and fall of the Mongols next, but the Mongols burned Bagdad to the ground and conquered much of the Middle East during the 1200s  The ideas and achievements of the Abbasid lived on, but Islamic power declined overall 
  • 16. Islam was fractured Sunni-Shite split an on-going internal religious divide  Fall of Abbasid in 1200s  Remaining power divided amongst the Ottomans, the Safavid and the Moghals for the most part 
  • 17. Vulnerable to Europeans Ottomans as the “sick man of Europe,” British control through funding and diplomacy  Ottomans ally with Germany during WWI, Allies promise Arab independence, instead they take over which sets in motion many of the problems that have plagued the Middle East ever since (more when we get to part IV) 
  • 18. The Achievements of the Abbasid Why is so little know about this aspect of Islam ?  Obscured by the legacy of European imperialism, the idea of “orientalism”?  This was Edward Said’s argument (click here) 