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    Salt Salt Presentation Transcript

    • SaltA World History
      Author: Mark Kurlansky
      Presented by: Kara Banson
    • Thesis/ Roadmap
      Salt was a valuable good that impacted several areas of history since it enabled trading networks, provoked wars, inspired independence, enhanced food flavors, and influenced words that are used today.
    • Overview: Salt Mining Process
      3000 B.C (Sichuan) -salt making began in China
      Li Bang: founded the first natural brine wells (252 B.C) and used bamboo piping
      Solar evaporation of sea water
      System of ponds and sluices: Salt Cay (Bermuda)- ponds drained in order to mend the stone or clay at bottom. The ponds are then refilled and undergo solar evaporation.
      Other systems included: a human powered wheel that pumped brine, later on salt makers took advantage of the steam engine
      Close pan production under vacuum (Morton)
      Salt’s impact on drilling: used to find rock salt. China’s percussion drilling influenced the Europeans to modify. They began using a rotary drill
      1859 Pennsylvania- Edwin Drake was drilling for salt when he discovered oil instead!
    • Trading Networks
      Humans + animals need salt
      Salt preserved food products
      Added taste to bland food
      = demand of salt = trading networks formed
      Successful salt ports:
    • Wars
      American Revolution
      New England- many salt works- salted cod
      Colonists produced a lot of salted cod (Britain could not sell all)
      1700s – colonists did not feel they needed Britain-except their salt
      Britain imposed tariffs= to inhibit American trade
      Americans responded with force = led to battles Britain vs. Colonists
      British blockaded salt reserves = colonists made own salt
      Conclusion: Treaty of Paris
    • Wars (con.)
      Civil War- shortage of salt = strategic advantage
      Confederates vs. the Union
      Union blockade: left the confederates with lack of salt + other goods = famine and disease
      Confederates tried to make own salt and salt substitutes: FAILED
      Salt working- only way to avoid military service
      Union destroyed many salt works in the South and liberated slave workers = Union victory
    • IndependenceGandhi’s salt march
      1923- Britain doubled salt tax in order to balance the budget
      Gandhi led Indian national congress = made Indian independence a massive movement thru salt campaign
      March 12, 1930: Gandhi + 78 selected followers left ashram and walked 240 miles to the sea at Dandi
      April 5- reached Dandi with thousands of followers where he picked up a piece salt, which was against salt laws
      Led to numerous salt protests and salt gathering spread widely
      He was imprisoned –leading to more rebellions and chaos
      1931- Lord Irwin signed Gandhi- Irwin pact ending campaign
      1947- India became independent
    • Uses in Food
      Soy sauce- complicated process originally made by peasants produced by fermenting soybeans and adding water and salt
      Garum sauce-salt and chili powder mixed with minced ginger root found in Italy and Asia
      Tabasco sauce- Edmund Mcllhenny experimented with Mexican red pepper and pickled it with brine to produce a spicy sauce (Avery Island, Louisiana)
      Ketchup-18th century England-anchovy sauce became known as ketchup which means a base of dark thick soy sauce in Indonesian. Later on ketchup became a tomato sauce.
      Other salted foods includes: caviar and prosciutto
      Mainly salt was used to preserve herring, cod, and cheese
    • Word Derivations
      Salary-Roman soldiers were paid in salt. “Salary” literally means “worth his salt” or “earning his salt”
      Salad- Romans salted their greens in order to balance out the natural bitterness
    • Today
      Due to modern geology salt = common commodity + inexpensive
      Small salt producers were bought out by big companies such as Morton
      Morton Salt Company- invented vacuum evaporator- uniform salt crystals
      USA largest salt producer + salt consumer
      Produces 40 million metric tons of salt a year and earns more than $1 billion in sales revenue
      8% of salt production is food
      51 % of salt production is for road salt