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  1. 1. King Leopold’s Ghost Book By: Adam Hochschild Presentation By: Mackenzie Heman
  2. 2. King Leopold II <ul><li>Early Life : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not interested in school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age 10 : began military training (by 20, made Major General) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appearance : awkward, thin, big nose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold family atmosphere > problems with his family life later on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality : shrewd, sly, sneaky </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disappointed at Belgium's size > interest in gaining property else where, and trade obsessed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Became king in 1865 </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. King Leopold II (Continued) <ul><li>Family Life : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Age 18 : married Archduchess Marie-Henrietta (age 16) of Austro-Hungaria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loathed each other; opposites </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only son died in 1869 (pneumonia); left no heir </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Three daughters : Louise, Stephanie, & Clementine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wouldn’t have any more kids; refused to speak to them after they broke up their marriages; didn’t put in Will </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remarried after Marie’s death to Caroline (age 16) at 65 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loved money, clothes, and luxury (all provided by Leopold) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Henry Morton Stanley <ul><li>Explorer of Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First person to follow the Congo River </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Found no single government force in Central Africa, and no military threat to a foreign regime </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>King Leopold flattered into a 5 year contract to map out Africa & secure his new colony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan : set up base at the Congo’s mouth, set up a road around the rapids to the interior, eventually build a railway </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Road would allow steamboat parts to be transported for later use and would allow trading stations to be made </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harsh leader- had no problems issuing awful punishments to the African workers </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Henry Shelton Sanford <ul><li>Leopold’s connection to the U.S president and the United States </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Praise the King and what he wanted to do in Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Said treaties with native chiefs were legitimate, would get ride of Arab slave traders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Helped recruit Stanley for Leopold </li></ul>
  6. 6. Purchasing the Congo <ul><li>1876 : Geographical Conference </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Established his image as a philanthropist & advanced African Ambitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted to open African interior to abolish slave trade Wanted Ivory and Rubber (later on) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>United States Help : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-could transfer all there black americans to the U.S </li></ul></ul><ul><li>April 1884 : The United States recognized Leopold’s claim/ International African Societies claim to Congo (1 st ) </li></ul><ul><li>Berlin Conference : got France & England to recognize </li></ul><ul><li>May 1885 : Congo Free State </li></ul>
  7. 7. Congolese Govt. <ul><li>Capital : Boma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contained a Catholic church, hospitals & a military base </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Government administer directly from Europe (real headquarters = in Brussels) </li></ul><ul><li>In Congo : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3-4 Belgian administrators who reported to Leopold (one man rule over the Congo) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower Level: whites in charge of districts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Revenue = trade for rubber and ivory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used black porters and slaves to gather (not paid) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Military Control Over Congo <ul><li>Controlled by the Force Publique </li></ul><ul><li>Punished Africans for : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Race (thought to be lazy & like animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because everyone was doing it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If African workers didn’t meet gathering requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Punishment Tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chicotte : a whip of hippo hide cut into long, sharp-edged tips (applied to back) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>25 lashes- unconsciousness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>100+ lashes- fatal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mutilation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cut of right hands of workers who didn’t gather enough, trophies, or to be able to count them as dead (got $ for) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. George Washington Williams <ul><li>Black American who wanted to place black Americans back in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>At first, dazzled by Leopold, once in the Congo however, horrified </li></ul><ul><li>Express outrage in the Open Letter : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stanley= tricking African’s for land & he’s a tyrant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Govt.= very cruel to prisoners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Making African women concubines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White officers were killing natives for sport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enslaving natives, against agreement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Started awareness of Leopold’s terrible regime </li></ul>
  10. 10. William Sheppard <ul><li>1 st Black American missionary in the Congo </li></ul><ul><li>Sent to Congo to establish Presbyterian missionaries with a white superior (Lapsley) </li></ul><ul><li>Well liked by the whites and natives of Congo (trades, and befriends natives) </li></ul><ul><li>1 st outsider to enter the unpenetrated Kuba Kingdom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly advanced kingdom </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stayed in Congo because of popularity </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Rubber Regime <ul><li>1890’s : Congo rubber trade begins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extremely profitable, got Leopold out of debt </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Labor done by forced natives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Officers invaded village and forced men to gather rubber (held women and child hostages) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Given quota that HAD TO meet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hands cut off, family killed, murdered if did not </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paid with a piece of cloth, sometimes people </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Rubber Regime Effects
  13. 13. Population Decrease <ul><li>Murder: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-for fun, didn’t meet quota, to set an example, if rebelled </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Starvation, Exhaustion, Exposer </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-Villagers flee > officers burned villages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-Worked to death, died doing their job </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-Forced to support whites, couldn’t support themselves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-Hostage treatment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Disease – highest death rate </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-New diseases from Europe </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-Malaria, smallpox, sleeping sickness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Decreasing birth rates </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>men sent to work, couldn’t father or take care of kids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Women don’t have kids because they don’t want to be pregnant when in hiding </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Edmund Dene Moral <ul><li>Congo trader, discovered: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arms were sent to Congo on purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Somebody was skimming profits form Congo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Africans were not being paid for their work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Began movements again King Leopold </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Publicized documents from natives, Leopold’s cover-ups, Leopold’s gaining of money instead of Belgium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Started the Congo Reform Association </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roger Casement= inside man, gave info </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Opened the world to the terrors of the Congo </li></ul>
  15. 15. Selling The Congo <ul><li>Bad publicity about Congo > sells to Belgium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Belgium assumed Congo’s debts (110 million Francs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paid 45.5 million Francs to Leopold for personal projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leopold received 50 million Francs for his “good” deeds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nov. 1908 : Belgium takes control over Congo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes were not dramatic, forced labor remained </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1960 : Congo becomes it’s own nation </li></ul>
  16. 16. “ The Congo State is certainly not a business” “ The native doesn’t like making rubber. He must be compelled to do it.” “ My Goal is ultimately humanitarian. I killed a hundred people..but that allowed five hundred others to live.” “ We must fight them until their absolute submission is obtained, or their complete extermination…” Yet I cannot say I have subjugated the people…They prefer to die…”