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Invisible Enemies


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  • 1. Invisible Enemies: Stories of Infectious Diseases By Jeanette Farrell
  • 2. Seven Infectious Diseases
    • Smallpox
    • Leprosy
    • Plague
    • Tuberculosis
    • Malaria
    • Cholera
    • AIDS
  • 3. Smallpox
    • No effective defense against disease until 1800s
    • Traveled easily
    • Many people died; those who survived had scars on their faces
      • No eyelashes
      • Face covered with shallow dishes
  • 4. Smallpox (Continued)
    • Asia, Africa, and India practiced inoculation
      • Gave minor case of smallpox to patient, leaving victim alive with scars, but immune
    • Inoculation was brought back to Europe and allowed Edward Jenner to develop a vaccination to defeat smallpox (cowpox)
    • Smallpox was eliminated from world by late 1970s
    • People worry that smallpox can still be created as a weapon
  • 5. Leprosy
    • One of least contagious of all infectious diseases
    • People who had leprosy were considered outcasts (“untouchables”)
    • Carville was a place for people who had leprosy (treated as a disease rather than a curse)
  • 6. Leprosy (Continued)
    • Slow-growing disease in body
      • Patches develop
      • Can distort face
      • Causes lost of eyelashes and eyebrows
      • Nose could cave in
      • No sensation
    • Leprosy bacteria develops in cool places (armadillo)
  • 7. Leprosy (Continued)
    • Found ways to replace hands, fingers, feet, etc.
    • Doctors are pushing to eliminate leprosy as a health problem
      • Sick people won’t step forward and drugs are still being developed to stop leprosy (Promin)
  • 8. Plague
    • Plague spread throughout world by use of animals
      • Black Death (fleas - rats)
    • Nobody suspected that plague was spread by animals
    • By 1894, scientists had found out what germ caused the disease, but still did not know how it spread
      • People finally discovered that it was rats (India and China)
  • 9. Plague (Continued)
  • 10. Plague (Continued)
    • In 1907, people went after rats when plague struck San Francisco for the second time
    • People now know that plague hides in rodents, thus they are better prepared
    • Plague will probably never be rid of (drug-resistant)
  • 11. Tuberculosis
    • Germ reproduces slowly (lungs)
    • Kills more people than any other germ besides HIV (Symptoms: coughing up blood, paleness, and thinness)
    • Traveled around world before Columbus
    • Disease of the city (close contact)
    • Laennec’s invention of the stethoscope helped learn more about tuberculosis
  • 12. Tuberculosis (Continued)
    • Strange methods were used to treat TB before it was really known how to stop it (bleeding)
    • Koch isolated germ that causes TB
    • Years later, drugs were found that could stop TB
    • However, it became drug-resistant
    • Scientists are still working on ways to stop TB
  • 13. Malaria
    • People thought it came from swamps
    • Actually came from parasite in stomach of Anopheles mosquito
    • Many people die from disease every year (more than one million) (Symptoms: chills and fever)
    • One solution was fever-tree bark
    • Sickle-cell trait can resist malaria
  • 14. Malaria (Continued)
    • Malaria was driven from North America and Europe (farming)
    • Ronald Ross discovered malaria parasite (1897)
    • People are trying to get rid of malaria with use of pesticides and bug-proofing homes (screens)
    • Still exists mostly near equator
  • 15. Cholera
    • Cholera led to many deaths, some within three hours after being struck with disease (1830s) (Symptoms: blue face, vomit, diarrhea)
    • Thought it came from the dirtiness of the cities
    • Could have been hiding in India for thousands of years before spreading through trade
  • 16. Cholera (Continued)
    • Snow discovered that it spread through contaminated water (water pumps, etc.)
    • Cleaning up is the only way to fully eliminate disease (there are ways to treat it)
  • 17. AIDS
    • First showed up in gay people in 1970s and 1980s (led to prejudice)
    • Eventually, doctors discovered that it traveled through bodily fluids and blood
    • Also discovered that HIV caused AIDS (worldwide = #1 killer…disease-wise)
  • 18. AIDS (Continued)
    • Using condoms, fresh needles for injections, and restricting sexual activity will reduce risk of HIV and AIDS
    • Treatments are available, but there is no vaccine to fully cure it
    • Future is bright for the discoveries of cures for AIDS and other diseases
  • 19. AIDS (Continued)