Invisible Enemies


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Invisible Enemies

  1. 1. Invisible Enemies: Stories of Infectious Diseases By Jeanette Farrell
  2. 2. Seven Infectious Diseases <ul><li>Smallpox </li></ul><ul><li>Leprosy </li></ul><ul><li>Plague </li></ul><ul><li>Tuberculosis </li></ul><ul><li>Malaria </li></ul><ul><li>Cholera </li></ul><ul><li>AIDS </li></ul>
  3. 3. Smallpox <ul><li>No effective defense against disease until 1800s </li></ul><ul><li>Traveled easily </li></ul><ul><li>Many people died; those who survived had scars on their faces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No eyelashes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Face covered with shallow dishes </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Smallpox (Continued) <ul><li>Asia, Africa, and India practiced inoculation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gave minor case of smallpox to patient, leaving victim alive with scars, but immune </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inoculation was brought back to Europe and allowed Edward Jenner to develop a vaccination to defeat smallpox (cowpox) </li></ul><ul><li>Smallpox was eliminated from world by late 1970s </li></ul><ul><li>People worry that smallpox can still be created as a weapon </li></ul>
  5. 5. Leprosy <ul><li>One of least contagious of all infectious diseases </li></ul><ul><li>People who had leprosy were considered outcasts (“untouchables”) </li></ul><ul><li>Carville was a place for people who had leprosy (treated as a disease rather than a curse) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Leprosy (Continued) <ul><li>Slow-growing disease in body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Patches develop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can distort face </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes lost of eyelashes and eyebrows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nose could cave in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No sensation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leprosy bacteria develops in cool places (armadillo) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Leprosy (Continued) <ul><li>Found ways to replace hands, fingers, feet, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Doctors are pushing to eliminate leprosy as a health problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sick people won’t step forward and drugs are still being developed to stop leprosy (Promin) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Plague <ul><li>Plague spread throughout world by use of animals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Black Death (fleas - rats) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nobody suspected that plague was spread by animals </li></ul><ul><li>By 1894, scientists had found out what germ caused the disease, but still did not know how it spread </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People finally discovered that it was rats (India and China) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Plague (Continued)
  10. 10. Plague (Continued) <ul><li>In 1907, people went after rats when plague struck San Francisco for the second time </li></ul><ul><li>People now know that plague hides in rodents, thus they are better prepared </li></ul><ul><li>Plague will probably never be rid of (drug-resistant) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Tuberculosis <ul><li>Germ reproduces slowly (lungs) </li></ul><ul><li>Kills more people than any other germ besides HIV (Symptoms: coughing up blood, paleness, and thinness) </li></ul><ul><li>Traveled around world before Columbus </li></ul><ul><li>Disease of the city (close contact) </li></ul><ul><li>Laennec’s invention of the stethoscope helped learn more about tuberculosis </li></ul>
  12. 12. Tuberculosis (Continued) <ul><li>Strange methods were used to treat TB before it was really known how to stop it (bleeding) </li></ul><ul><li>Koch isolated germ that causes TB </li></ul><ul><li>Years later, drugs were found that could stop TB </li></ul><ul><li>However, it became drug-resistant </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists are still working on ways to stop TB </li></ul>
  13. 13. Malaria <ul><li>People thought it came from swamps </li></ul><ul><li>Actually came from parasite in stomach of Anopheles mosquito </li></ul><ul><li>Many people die from disease every year (more than one million) (Symptoms: chills and fever) </li></ul><ul><li>One solution was fever-tree bark </li></ul><ul><li>Sickle-cell trait can resist malaria </li></ul>
  14. 14. Malaria (Continued) <ul><li>Malaria was driven from North America and Europe (farming) </li></ul><ul><li>Ronald Ross discovered malaria parasite (1897) </li></ul><ul><li>People are trying to get rid of malaria with use of pesticides and bug-proofing homes (screens) </li></ul><ul><li>Still exists mostly near equator </li></ul>
  15. 15. Cholera <ul><li>Cholera led to many deaths, some within three hours after being struck with disease (1830s) (Symptoms: blue face, vomit, diarrhea) </li></ul><ul><li>Thought it came from the dirtiness of the cities </li></ul><ul><li>Could have been hiding in India for thousands of years before spreading through trade </li></ul>
  16. 16. Cholera (Continued) <ul><li>Snow discovered that it spread through contaminated water (water pumps, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Cleaning up is the only way to fully eliminate disease (there are ways to treat it) </li></ul>
  17. 17. AIDS <ul><li>First showed up in gay people in 1970s and 1980s (led to prejudice) </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually, doctors discovered that it traveled through bodily fluids and blood </li></ul><ul><li>Also discovered that HIV caused AIDS (worldwide = #1 killer…disease-wise) </li></ul>
  18. 18. AIDS (Continued) <ul><li>Using condoms, fresh needles for injections, and restricting sexual activity will reduce risk of HIV and AIDS </li></ul><ul><li>Treatments are available, but there is no vaccine to fully cure it </li></ul><ul><li>Future is bright for the discoveries of cures for AIDS and other diseases </li></ul>
  19. 19. AIDS (Continued)