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Inventing Japan

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  • 1. Inventing Japan: 1853 - 1964 by Ian Buruma Meg B.
  • 2. Decline of Old Order, Rise of New
    • Comm. Matthew Perry in 1853
    • unrest about weak shogunate -> overthrow, civil war in 1868
    • change in mindset - China is center of world -> Japanese are superior
    • following Western example
      • merge of church and state with Shintoism (believed Christianity had united, strengthened West)
      • support for colonization
      • previously some Dutch learning, but suspicious of Western ideas - those suspected of involvement were killed -> Western ideas accepted
  • 3. Meiji Restoration
    • new constitution - still rule by few
    • Industrial Revolution
    • People’s Rights Movement
      • farmer debt, revolts, debates about politics in towns
    • joining West, rejecting Asia
      • beat China in Sino-Japanese War
      • culture - upper class Westernization
    • propaganda promotes nationalism, unity
    • Russo-Japanese War - brutal trench warfare
  • 4. 1910s - ‘20s
    • industrial boom during WWI then slump afterwards
    • culture - erotic, new ideas like cubism
    • riots for suffrage, punishment for Russia
    • massacres in Manchuria and Korea
    • violent party politics
    • political suppression, thought police
  • 5. Military Control
    • military govt - end of party cabinet system
    • nationalistic propaganda
    • took over Manchuria
    • rural hardship - revolution almost successful
    • Nanking Massacre in China in 1937 - looting, rape, burning neighborhoods
    • waring with Korea, Manchuria, Soviet Union
  • 6. “Holy War of Asian Liberation”
    • Pearl Harbor in 1941 - Japanese proud
      • US stopped providing materials to stay in China
    • joined Axis, bombing of Japanese cities
    • suicide culture
    • Hiroshima, Nagasaki -> accepted Allied terms
    • cruelty in Japanese colonies
  • 7. US Occupation
    • army and navy disbanded
    • soldiers hanged for war crimes
    • MacArthur instituted full suffrage, freedom of speech, parliamentary democracy
      • new constitution based on Meiji constitution
    • American popular culture
    • working on economic problems - hyperinflation
    • supplied US in Korean War
  • 8. The Rise (Again) of Japan
    • end of occupation in 1952
    • massive demonstrations against US Security Treaty
      • US would “consult” Japan
    • Liberal Democrat Party - big buisness - in power for 40 years
    • debates about whether Japanese waring was just or criminal
    • prosperity - held Olympics in Tokyo in 1964