Genghis Khan


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Genghis Khan

  1. 1. Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World By Jack Weatherford Power point by Laura Santoso
  2. 2. The Reign of Terror on the Steppe: 1162 - 1206 Part I
  3. 3. The Blood Clot <ul><li>G.K. was born to an abducted woman with a blood clot in his hand </li></ul><ul><li>Brought up nomadically in the steppe of northern Mongolia (good survival skills) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Steppe: dry plain without trees </li></ul></ul><ul><li>He killed his brother after his father died </li></ul><ul><li>His family was ostracized by his clan </li></ul><ul><li>Was enslaved by a rival tribe, but escaped </li></ul><ul><li>Bonds & characteristics developed in his childhood helped G.K. later </li></ul>
  4. 4. Tale of Three Rivers <ul><li>G.K. chose to go down one river to realign with a clan leader </li></ul><ul><li>After numerous raids and rivalries in the steppe, G.K. lead a large clan underneath the older leader who took him in </li></ul><ul><li>G.K. reformed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>he gave positions based on allegiance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>accepted conquered people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and grouped the army in tens to enforce loyalty </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. War of the Khans <ul><li>G.K.’s older leader secretly betrayed G.K., but G.K. found out and using innovative battle tactics defeated him </li></ul><ul><li>G.K. killed off all leadership threats </li></ul><ul><li>He united all the nomadic tribes </li></ul><ul><li>G.K.’s 10s system kept people loyal </li></ul><ul><li>G.K. created the Great Law to keep peace & prosperity among his people </li></ul><ul><li>Had religious tolerance (Christianity, Buddhism, Islam practiced throughout) </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Mongol World War: 1211 - 1261 Part II
  7. 7. Spitting on the Golden Khan <ul><li>G.K. conquered the Jurched (Chinese) powers, looted their goods and gained control of their trade (silk road) </li></ul><ul><li>G.K. distributes goods among his people evenly, took in skilled people </li></ul><ul><li>Created trade treaty with Muslims (whom he defended), but they attacked his merchants </li></ul><ul><li>G.K. needs to conquer the Muslims to control all major trade exchanges </li></ul>
  8. 8. Sultan Versus Khan <ul><li>The Mongols conquered the cities of central Asia over a course of 4 years </li></ul><ul><li>They gained sophisticated education and much wealth (stored in warehouses) </li></ul><ul><li>Justice to those who surrendered; destruction to those who resisted </li></ul><ul><li>Propaganda used to scare the enemy </li></ul><ul><li>G.K. (now in his 60s) and his sons decided that after G.K.’s death his third oldest son (Ogodei) would be the next Great Khan </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Discovery and Conquest of Europe <ul><li>Ogodei spent their wealth excessively to try to attract traders to their newly built stationary capital </li></ul><ul><li>Paper money was developed </li></ul><ul><li>Needing more wealth, Subodei (G.K.’s general) and Buta (one of G.K.’s grandons) went to conquer Europe </li></ul><ul><li>In a 5 year campaign, the Mongols conquered the Bulgars, Russians, Hungarians, Germans, and the Poles using battle tactics and the combined warfare technology of the Muslims and Chinese </li></ul>
  10. 10. Warring Queens <ul><li>After Ogodei died, wives and mothers competed to have their child success </li></ul><ul><li>Mongke (a grandson of G.K. with a powerful mother) was the only successor to be acknowledged by all as the Great Khan </li></ul><ul><li>Under his rule the Mongols conquered everything up to the Mediterranean (including the Arabs and Crusaders) After Mongke died, the campaign for Sung China died off as well </li></ul><ul><li>Kubilai Khan became next leader but the empire became divided under different administrations </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Global Awakening: 1262 - 1962 Part III
  12. 12. Khubilai Khan and the New Mongol Empire <ul><li>K.K. conquered and unified China and the surrounding countries by appealing to the public </li></ul><ul><li>K.K. reformed/enforced Chinese Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Refined the monetary system (paper money) </li></ul><ul><li>Promoted education and entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>Strong leaders from heaven to the Chinese </li></ul><ul><li>Mongol naval attempts to conquer Japan and Indonesia pushed them to unify </li></ul><ul><li>However, frivolous attitudes would lose the great Mongol Empire developed by G.K. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Their Golden Light <ul><li>Mongol conquests ended, but intercontinental peace prolonged </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial trade routes were maintained even after Mongol decline </li></ul><ul><li>Water transportation, astronomy, agriculture, and printing technology were all encouraged </li></ul><ul><li>Mongols used practical ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Europe benefited in trade and technology without actually getting conquered </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Empire of Illusion <ul><li>A plague spread from intercontinental communication in the 1300s  turmoil </li></ul><ul><li>Europe became isolated, countries cut off from each other b/c of the plague </li></ul><ul><li>The Mongol govt. became unstable and lost control to native rulers in China and their other territories </li></ul><ul><li>Europe had a disowning attitude against Asia and G.K. while Asia admired G.K. </li></ul><ul><li>Future military leaders would look to Mongol techniques (ex: Germans in WWII) </li></ul>