Forces of habit
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Forces of habit






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Forces of habit Forces of habit Presentation Transcript

  • Forces of HabitDrugs and the Making of the Modern World
    David T. Courtwright
    By Libby Dimenstein
  • The Psychoactive Revolution
    The distribution of drugs and the spread of drug-use
    The economy of drugs
    Medical vs. recreational
    Advertising and mass-production
    Government and drugs
    Taxation vs. prohibition
    Smuggling and illicit behavior
    Power struggles
  • Psychoactive Substances
    The Big Three
    Wine, beer, and spirits
    Coffee, tea, chocolate, and soft drinks
    The Little Three
    Ganja and Marijuana
  • The Big Three- Alcohol
    Around since ca. 6000 BCE near the Black and Caspian seas
    Popular in the Mediterranean and Christian Europe
    Distilling techniques made alcohol cheap and preserved food
  • The Big Three- Tobacco
    Known to Europeans when Columbus came to America in 1492
    Grown all over the world
    Expanding production and consumption in developing countries
  • The Big Three- Caffeine
    Most widely used drug
    Coffee- First used near Ethiopia, but made popular by Europe
    Tea- Grown in Asia, Africa, and South America, but most popular in Europe
    Chocolate- First used in the Americas and then discovered by Spanish. Became popular in 19th century Europe
    Soft drinks- Derived from West African Kola nut and made popular in the 19th century
  • The Little Three- Opium
    Comes from opium poppy, most likely originating in Central Europe and spreading to the Mediterranean and Asia
    First used to treat pain, anxiety, and diarrheal illnesses in cities
    Fueled huge addiction problem in China
    Its alkaloid, morphine, relieved pain, and its spread grew as hypodermic medication’s did
  • The Little Three- Cannabis
    First found in Central Asia
    Indians smoked and ate Ganja, or the tops of female cannabis plants
    Cannabis spread to Africa, Europe, and then finally to the USA by Mexican workers
    Marijuana, unlike Ganja, had no medicinal purpose
  • The Little Three- Coca
    Coca was first used in the Andes to combat hunger and tiredness
    Mass consumption was at first not possible because of difficult transportation
    Cocaine, the coca alkaloid, was easier to transport
  • Regional Drugs- Why aren’t they as popular?
    The kava beverage, betel, and hallucinogens were never as widely used as other drugs. Why?
    Initial aversion
    Cosmetic defects
    Unwanted side effects
    Shipping convenience
    Religious beliefs
  • Medicinal Use
    Most drugs became popular through medicinal use
    Tobacco was used against the Plague
    Wine was used against fever and fatigue
    Hard liquor renewed strength
    The big medical dilemma- treat the patient and receive benefits vs. no benefits and no chance of addiction
  • Addiction and Demand
    Exposure is necessary, but does not guarantee addiction
    As addiction continues, tolerance grows
    To get the initial effect, users must consume more
    There is always a demand for drugs
  • Advertisement and Sales
    Each drug is essentially the same material
    Sellers must distinguish themselves
    Sellers can:
    Make better products
    Cut costs
    Creating new markets
    Buck Duke created a cigarette empire
    Huge advertising
    New markets
    Tailored advertising
  • Fuel for Workers
    Drugs act as incentives for workers and create dependency
    Opium kept traveling Chinese workers in debt
    Colombians smoked cannabis to survive their work
    Tobacco calmed nerves in the Civil War
    Native Americans traded all they had for liquor
  • Drug Taxation
    Legal drugs can bring in huge amounts of money for governments
    Import and export taxes
    State monopolies
    Tax dependency
    Governments wish to stop the use of dangerous drugs, but cannot afford to lose the tax money
    Attempted alcohol prohibition in India
    High and low taxes
    If taxes are too high, smuggling will occur
    Tea and tobacco smuggling in Britain
    If taxes are too low, unregulated use of drugs will occur
  • Prohibition
    Why prohibition?
    Users can hurt themselves and those around them
    Drives up taxes for society
    Against religion
    Association of a drug with a disliked group
    Endangers future of society
  • Large Effects
    Rum and sugar fueled the Atlantic slave trade
    Coffee sped up the building of the railroad
    Tobacco provided money for the American Revolution
  • Works Cited
    Courtwright, David T. Forces of Habit. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2001.