Forces of HabitDrugs and the Making of the Modern World<br />David T. Courtwright<br />By Libby Dimenstein<br />
The Psychoactive Revolution<br />The distribution of drugs and the spread of drug-use<br />The economy of drugs<br />Medic...
Psychoactive Substances<br />The Big Three<br />Alcohol<br />Wine, beer, and spirits<br />Tobacco<br />Caffeine<br />Coffe...
The Big Three- Alcohol<br />Alcohol<br />Wine<br />Around since ca. 6000 BCE near the Black and Caspian seas<br />Popular ...
The Big Three- Tobacco<br />Tobacco<br />Known to Europeans when Columbus came to America in 1492<br />Grown all over the ...
The Big Three- Caffeine<br />Most widely used drug<br />Coffee- First used near Ethiopia, but made popular by Europe<br />...
The Little Three- Opium<br />Comes from opium poppy, most likely originating in Central Europe and spreading to the Medite...
The Little Three- Cannabis<br />First found in Central Asia<br />Indians smoked and ate Ganja, or the tops of female canna...
The Little Three- Coca<br />Coca was first used in the Andes to combat hunger and tiredness <br />Mass consumption was at ...
Regional Drugs- Why aren’t they as popular?<br />The kava beverage, betel, and hallucinogens were never as widely used as ...
Medicinal Use<br />Most drugs became popular through medicinal use<br />Tobacco was used against the Plague<br />Wine was ...
Addiction and Demand<br />Exposure is necessary, but does not guarantee addiction<br />As addiction continues, tolerance g...
Advertisement and Sales<br />Each drug is essentially the same material<br />Sellers must distinguish themselves<br />Sell...
Fuel for Workers<br />Drugs act as incentives for workers and create dependency <br />Opium kept traveling Chinese workers...
Drug Taxation<br />Legal drugs can bring in huge amounts of money for governments<br />Import and export taxes<br />State ...
Prohibition<br />Why prohibition?<br />Users can hurt themselves and those around them<br />Drives up taxes for society<br...
Large Effects<br />Rum and sugar fueled the Atlantic slave trade<br />Coffee sped up the building of the railroad<br />Tob...
Works Cited<br />http://technorati.com/lifestyle/article/new-study-drug-combos-can-be/<br />http://blogs.usyd.edu.au/sydne...
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Forces of habit

  1. 1. Forces of HabitDrugs and the Making of the Modern World<br />David T. Courtwright<br />By Libby Dimenstein<br />
  2. 2. The Psychoactive Revolution<br />The distribution of drugs and the spread of drug-use<br />The economy of drugs<br />Medical vs. recreational<br />Advertising and mass-production<br />Government and drugs<br />Taxation vs. prohibition<br />Smuggling and illicit behavior<br />Power struggles<br />
  3. 3. Psychoactive Substances<br />The Big Three<br />Alcohol<br />Wine, beer, and spirits<br />Tobacco<br />Caffeine<br />Coffee, tea, chocolate, and soft drinks<br />The Little Three<br />Opium<br />Morphine<br />Cannabis<br />Ganja and Marijuana<br />Coca<br />Cocaine<br />
  4. 4. The Big Three- Alcohol<br />Alcohol<br />Wine<br />Around since ca. 6000 BCE near the Black and Caspian seas<br />Popular in the Mediterranean and Christian Europe<br />Spirits<br />Distilling techniques made alcohol cheap and preserved food<br />
  5. 5. The Big Three- Tobacco<br />Tobacco<br />Known to Europeans when Columbus came to America in 1492<br />Grown all over the world<br />Expanding production and consumption in developing countries<br />
  6. 6. The Big Three- Caffeine<br />Most widely used drug<br />Coffee- First used near Ethiopia, but made popular by Europe<br />Tea- Grown in Asia, Africa, and South America, but most popular in Europe<br />Chocolate- First used in the Americas and then discovered by Spanish. Became popular in 19th century Europe<br />Soft drinks- Derived from West African Kola nut and made popular in the 19th century<br />
  7. 7. The Little Three- Opium<br />Comes from opium poppy, most likely originating in Central Europe and spreading to the Mediterranean and Asia<br />First used to treat pain, anxiety, and diarrheal illnesses in cities<br />Fueled huge addiction problem in China<br />Its alkaloid, morphine, relieved pain, and its spread grew as hypodermic medication’s did<br />
  8. 8. The Little Three- Cannabis<br />First found in Central Asia<br />Indians smoked and ate Ganja, or the tops of female cannabis plants<br />Cannabis spread to Africa, Europe, and then finally to the USA by Mexican workers<br />Marijuana, unlike Ganja, had no medicinal purpose<br />
  9. 9. The Little Three- Coca<br />Coca was first used in the Andes to combat hunger and tiredness <br />Mass consumption was at first not possible because of difficult transportation<br />Cocaine, the coca alkaloid, was easier to transport<br />
  10. 10. Regional Drugs- Why aren’t they as popular?<br />The kava beverage, betel, and hallucinogens were never as widely used as other drugs. Why?<br />Initial aversion<br />Cosmetic defects<br />Unwanted side effects<br />Shipping convenience<br />Cost<br />Religious beliefs<br />
  11. 11. Medicinal Use<br />Most drugs became popular through medicinal use<br />Tobacco was used against the Plague<br />Wine was used against fever and fatigue<br />Hard liquor renewed strength<br />The big medical dilemma- treat the patient and receive benefits vs. no benefits and no chance of addiction<br />
  12. 12. Addiction and Demand<br />Exposure is necessary, but does not guarantee addiction<br />As addiction continues, tolerance grows<br />To get the initial effect, users must consume more<br />There is always a demand for drugs<br />
  13. 13. Advertisement and Sales<br />Each drug is essentially the same material<br />Sellers must distinguish themselves<br />Sellers can:<br />Advertise<br />Make better products<br />Cut costs<br />Creating new markets<br />Buck Duke created a cigarette empire<br />Huge advertising<br />New markets<br />Tailored advertising<br />
  14. 14. Fuel for Workers<br />Drugs act as incentives for workers and create dependency <br />Opium kept traveling Chinese workers in debt<br />Colombians smoked cannabis to survive their work<br />Tobacco calmed nerves in the Civil War<br />Native Americans traded all they had for liquor<br />
  15. 15. Drug Taxation<br />Legal drugs can bring in huge amounts of money for governments<br />Import and export taxes<br />State monopolies<br />Tax dependency<br />Governments wish to stop the use of dangerous drugs, but cannot afford to lose the tax money<br />Attempted alcohol prohibition in India<br />High and low taxes<br />If taxes are too high, smuggling will occur<br />Tea and tobacco smuggling in Britain <br />If taxes are too low, unregulated use of drugs will occur<br />
  16. 16. Prohibition<br />Why prohibition?<br />Users can hurt themselves and those around them<br />Drives up taxes for society<br />Against religion<br />Association of a drug with a disliked group<br />Endangers future of society<br />
  17. 17. Large Effects<br />Rum and sugar fueled the Atlantic slave trade<br />Coffee sped up the building of the railroad<br />Tobacco provided money for the American Revolution<br />
  18. 18. Works Cited<br />http://technorati.com/lifestyle/article/new-study-drug-combos-can-be/<br />http://blogs.usyd.edu.au/sydneylife/2009/08/<br />http://www.discountcigarettesonline.org/<br />http://www.goodejuice.com/store/index.php?main_page=product_info&cPath=1&products_id=173<br />http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:A_small_cup_of_coffee.JPG<br />http://www.lookwe.com/entouziyaInfo.asp?id=1<br />http://toxicopoeia.com/?get=plants&type=medicinal&plant=Papaver%20Somniferum<br />http://www.drug-facts.org/Morphine_Facts.htm<br />http://www.drug-rehabs.org/cocaine-drug-pictures.php<br />http://www.seylec.com/id29.html<br />http://destrantalk.blogspot.com/2010/09/transgender-health-brought-to-you-by.html<br />http://venturebeat.com/2010/11/24/sproxil-takes-on-africas-drug-counterfeiters/<br />http://www.flickr.com/photos/joan_thewlis/2802351505/<br />http://www.healthhype.com/tag/tobacco<br />http://www.thegreenhead.com/2009/01/liquor-tasting-shot-glasses.php<br />http://www.britishbattles.com/american-revolution.htm<br />http://antibioticsandalcohol.com/<br />Courtwright, David T. Forces of Habit. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2001.<br />
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