Forces Of Habit

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Forces Of Habit

  1. 1. Forces of Habit Drugs, and the Making of the Modern World By Casey McCarthy
  2. 2. Alcohol and Tobacco <ul><li>Wine: Religion, flushing, water contamination </li></ul><ul><li>Spirits: non-perishable, more alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Alcoholism: cultural norms </li></ul><ul><li>Tobacco: price, thirty years’ war, social categories, opposition, hygiene, smoking </li></ul>
  3. 3. Caffeine <ul><li>Coffee: Ethiopia to Middle East to Europe, coffee houses, smoke/ drink, America, cost </li></ul><ul><li>Tea: China, European colonial powers, Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Cacao: Maya/ Aztecs to Spanish- chocolate, elite, W. Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Kola: medicine, drinks, coke in WWI, culture, addictive </li></ul><ul><li>Sugar: Koran, medicine, drugs, molasses, slavery </li></ul>
  4. 4. Opium <ul><li>Opium - treat everything, Arab to Iran, India, China </li></ul><ul><li>China - Opium Wars, revolution, migration, US </li></ul><ul><li>Morphine - pure, heal untreatable </li></ul><ul><li>Heroin industry- unemployment, alienation, youth drug, available </li></ul>
  5. 5. Cannabis and Coca <ul><li>Ganja complex- cannabis- India- ganja, spread across Old World, opium of poor, cheap labor </li></ul><ul><li>Marijuana complex- Mexico to U.S., cigarettes, availability, pleasure, hippy, youth, other drugs, 60s- young generation, media, travel </li></ul><ul><li>Coca/ Cocaine- sustained labor, drinks, anesthetic, cheap- abuse, pot to coke, flying </li></ul>
  6. 6. Puzzle of Distribution <ul><li>No kava, betel, qat </li></ul><ul><li>Europe- medicine, recreation, trade </li></ul><ul><li>Strength of initial aversion, cosmetic affect, perishability, ability to conceal, sickness, cost, cultural value </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Sorcerer’s Apprentices <ul><li>- Medicinal to recreational </li></ul><ul><li>Therapeutic specificity </li></ul><ul><li>“ miracle” substances </li></ul><ul><li>Distinctions </li></ul><ul><li>Isolation of alkaloids </li></ul><ul><li>Development of medication </li></ul><ul><li>Discovery of synthetic/ semi-synthetic drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Abuse- prohibition, restrictions </li></ul>
  8. 8. A Trap Baited with Pleasure <ul><li>Need to alter normal consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>Civilization and captivity </li></ul><ul><li>Mood elevation </li></ul><ul><li>Withdrawal </li></ul><ul><li>Addiction </li></ul><ul><li>People or drug problem? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Escape from Commodity Hell <ul><li>-competition </li></ul><ul><li>-monopolies </li></ul><ul><li>-improve product, cut cost </li></ul><ul><li>-patents </li></ul><ul><li>-open new markets </li></ul><ul><li>-advertisement </li></ul><ul><li>-brand loyalty </li></ul><ul><li>-higher nicotine content </li></ul>
  10. 10. Opiates of the People <ul><li>Labor treadmill </li></ul><ul><li>Escapism </li></ul><ul><li>Animals </li></ul><ul><li>Military </li></ul><ul><li>Currency </li></ul><ul><li>Prostitution </li></ul><ul><li>Slavery </li></ul>
  11. 11. Taxes and Smuggling <ul><li>Government dependency </li></ul><ul><li>Prohibition- U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>India- women rebel </li></ul><ul><li>Repeal </li></ul><ul><li>High taxes= high smuggling rates </li></ul><ul><li>Low taxes= high exposure rates </li></ul><ul><li>Legalization/ black market </li></ul>
  12. 12. Restriction and Prohibition <ul><li>Individualism </li></ul><ul><li>Harm to innocents </li></ul><ul><li>Criminal violence </li></ul><ul><li>Social costs </li></ul><ul><li>Religious disapproval </li></ul><ul><li>Association </li></ul><ul><li>Collective wellbeing </li></ul><ul><li>Minors </li></ul><ul><li>Industrialization </li></ul>
  13. 13. Regulatory Categories <ul><li>Pure prohibition </li></ul><ul><li>Prohibitory prescription </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Regulatory prescription </li></ul><ul><li>Restricted adult access </li></ul><ul><li>Unrestricted adult access </li></ul><ul><li>Universal access </li></ul>
  14. 14. Licit v. Illicit Drugs <ul><li>Degree of danger/ availability </li></ul><ul><li>Economic value </li></ul><ul><li>Mass addictions </li></ul><ul><li>Personal habits of leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Celebrity use </li></ul><ul><li>Popular resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Drug Wars </li></ul><ul><li>Legalization/ harm reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Class interest, political calculation, public health, resentment </li></ul><ul><li>AIDS, violence </li></ul><ul><li>“ Owls”, “hawks”, and “doves” </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol vs. Tobacco </li></ul>

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