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Forces Of Habit

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  • 1. Forces of Habit Drugs, and the Making of the Modern World By Casey McCarthy
  • 2. Alcohol and Tobacco
    • Wine: Religion, flushing, water contamination
    • Spirits: non-perishable, more alcohol
    • Alcoholism: cultural norms
    • Tobacco: price, thirty years’ war, social categories, opposition, hygiene, smoking
  • 3. Caffeine
    • Coffee: Ethiopia to Middle East to Europe, coffee houses, smoke/ drink, America, cost
    • Tea: China, European colonial powers, Africa
    • Cacao: Maya/ Aztecs to Spanish- chocolate, elite, W. Africa
    • Kola: medicine, drinks, coke in WWI, culture, addictive
    • Sugar: Koran, medicine, drugs, molasses, slavery
  • 4. Opium
    • Opium - treat everything, Arab to Iran, India, China
    • China - Opium Wars, revolution, migration, US
    • Morphine - pure, heal untreatable
    • Heroin industry- unemployment, alienation, youth drug, available
  • 5. Cannabis and Coca
    • Ganja complex- cannabis- India- ganja, spread across Old World, opium of poor, cheap labor
    • Marijuana complex- Mexico to U.S., cigarettes, availability, pleasure, hippy, youth, other drugs, 60s- young generation, media, travel
    • Coca/ Cocaine- sustained labor, drinks, anesthetic, cheap- abuse, pot to coke, flying
  • 6. Puzzle of Distribution
    • No kava, betel, qat
    • Europe- medicine, recreation, trade
    • Strength of initial aversion, cosmetic affect, perishability, ability to conceal, sickness, cost, cultural value
  • 7. The Sorcerer’s Apprentices
    • - Medicinal to recreational
    • Therapeutic specificity
    • “ miracle” substances
    • Distinctions
    • Isolation of alkaloids
    • Development of medication
    • Discovery of synthetic/ semi-synthetic drugs
    • Abuse- prohibition, restrictions
  • 8. A Trap Baited with Pleasure
    • Need to alter normal consciousness
    • Civilization and captivity
    • Mood elevation
    • Withdrawal
    • Addiction
    • People or drug problem?
  • 9. Escape from Commodity Hell
    • -competition
    • -monopolies
    • -improve product, cut cost
    • -patents
    • -open new markets
    • -advertisement
    • -brand loyalty
    • -higher nicotine content
  • 10. Opiates of the People
    • Labor treadmill
    • Escapism
    • Animals
    • Military
    • Currency
    • Prostitution
    • Slavery
  • 11. Taxes and Smuggling
    • Government dependency
    • Prohibition- U.S.
    • India- women rebel
    • Repeal
    • High taxes= high smuggling rates
    • Low taxes= high exposure rates
    • Legalization/ black market
  • 12. Restriction and Prohibition
    • Individualism
    • Harm to innocents
    • Criminal violence
    • Social costs
    • Religious disapproval
    • Association
    • Collective wellbeing
    • Minors
    • Industrialization
  • 13. Regulatory Categories
    • Pure prohibition
    • Prohibitory prescription
    • Maintenance
    • Regulatory prescription
    • Restricted adult access
    • Unrestricted adult access
    • Universal access
  • 14. Licit v. Illicit Drugs
    • Degree of danger/ availability
    • Economic value
    • Mass addictions
    • Personal habits of leaders
    • Celebrity use
    • Popular resistance
    • Drug Wars
    • Legalization/ harm reduction
    • Class interest, political calculation, public health, resentment
    • AIDS, violence
    • “ Owls”, “hawks”, and “doves”
    • Alcohol vs. Tobacco