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Cod Powerpoint

  1. 1. Cod By Mark Kurlansky - Presented by Andy Serrato
  2. 2. <ul><li>Cod have impacted global history by affecting the world politically, socially, and economically. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Cod- An overview <ul><li>Cod is a fish found in various regions around the world, but most notably in the Atlantic ocean. These cod are called Atlantic Cod. </li></ul><ul><li>The Atlantic Cod are the largest cod, once being able to grow over 2 feet in length. </li></ul><ul><li>60% of all fish eaten are cod. </li></ul><ul><li>Cod are omnivorous. </li></ul><ul><li>Cod are very healthy for humans, and contain a lot of protein. </li></ul><ul><li>Atlantic Cod are currently at risk due to over fishing in the North Atlantic, and in 1994 were announced “extinct.” </li></ul>
  4. 4. Political Impact of Cod <ul><li>The founding of the New World was heavily relied on cod. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Searching, mapping, and settling relied on cod as the primary food source. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New England began trading cod along North America in the seventeenth century. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade with Caribbean. (Cod for salt, indigo, cotton, tobacco, sugar, rum) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Created a “trade triangle” where cod trade with the Caribbean was then traded with Spanish goods via the Caribbean. New England consequently gained European and Caribbean goods. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Britain tried to tax trade from non-British, Caribbean islands to the colonies. (This did not collapse trade due to resulting alliance between colonies and French islands) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This trade stimulated the colonies’ economy and contributed to their ability to become independent. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Political Impact of Cod Cont. <ul><li>In Canada and New England, regional laws were created around cod even after America gained their independence. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1992, Canada banned Northern Atlantic cod fishing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Territorial waters were where countries could fish for cod, and this grew to conflict. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Due to a decrease in cod catch, Iceland extended its territorial waters by 12 miles. This spurred conflict between Iceland and Britain, and three unofficial wars called the “Cod Wars” took place regarding fishing rights in the North Atlantic. The first was comprised of Iceland’s original territorial extension and Britain’s anger, and the later two comprised of more territorial expansion in Iceland along with other European countries supporting Britain’s anger. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Social Impact of Cod <ul><li>Over the past 500 years, there were many fishing communities in Canada and New England. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The formation of these communities is heavily due to cod fishing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some communities still remain , however most have lost the reputation of cod-fishing due to the cod decrease and many laws minimizing cod fishing. This weakened those communities’ economies. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cod fishing is a self-employed job. </li></ul><ul><li>There have been many deaths due to fishing. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1995, 5 American workers per 100,000 died due to their work. Compared in the same year, 100 fishermen died per 100,000. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Economical Impact of Cod <ul><li>In parts of Icealnd, Canada (Newfoundland, specifically) and New England, cod-fishing was the primary market. Due to recent laws and restrictions, these areas’ economies were at risk. </li></ul><ul><li>As cod fishing increased, new technology was created to better suit this fishing. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New ships and ship engines were created, which made railroads possible. This allowed cod to reach inland fast, spreading the cod trade further. British ports soon became railroad centers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This industrial growth allowed different economies to grow, specifically in Britain. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Continuous cod trade also led to strengthening economies. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The New England/Caribbean/European Triangle Trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Newfoundland-Spain-England trade (strengthened England, not Newfoundland) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Newfoundland-Boston trade (Boston would sell Newfoundland’s fish and Newfoundland would receive Massachusetts agriculture products) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This trade strengthened economies, specifically Britain’s and the colonies’. </li></ul>