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  • 1. Gorbachev, Yeltsin, & Putin By: Archie Brown and Lilia Shevtsova © 2001
    • Bryan Harmat
  • 2. Significant Leaders
    • Vladimir Lenin (1917-1922)
    • Josef Stalin (1922-1953)
    • Nikita Khrushchev (1958-1964)
    • Leonid Brezhnev (1964-1982)
    • Mikhail Gorbachev (1985-1991)
    • ---------------------------------------------------------
    • Boris Yeltsin (1991-1999)
    • Vladimir Putin (1999-2008)
  • 3. Changes
    • Yury Andropov (15 months) & Konstantin Chernenko (13 months)
      • General Secretaries of the Communist Party (Highest office in the Soviet Union)
      • Ruled between Brezhnev and Gorbachev
      • Enough time to create a change in the atmosphere where a new leader (Gorbachev) would be able to make significant changes with support
    • Gorbachev and Yeltsin favored change but Putin “admired the old Soviet ways”
  • 4. Mikhail Gorbachev
  • 5. Gorbachev
    • The end of the communist monopoly of power is mostly thanks to Gorbachev
    • Opened up the market during the reconstruction period (called “Perestroika”)
      • This was during a time when the market was bad and this made it more like a capitalist market
  • 6. Gorbachev
    • Declared “freedom to choose” for the Eastern European countries that were under control of the Soviet Union (after WWII) which let the countries to choose what kind of government they would have
  • 7. Mistakes Gorbachev Made
    • Gorbachev did not enforce laws in the “outer kingdoms” because he thought this would cause a split
    • He never wanted to break up the Soviet Union
  • 8. Gorbachev to Yeltsin transition
    • Unfortunately, the end of Gorbachev's rule came from a coup that resulted in the Soviet Union splitting.
    • Gorbachev – last Gen. Sec. Of Soviet Union
    • Boris Yeltsin took over as president of Russia after the coup. They were political rivals.
    • He said that Russian Law had supremacy over Soviet Law
      • This made the other Soviet States angry, ultimately causing the split
  • 9. Boris Yeltsin
  • 10. Yeltsin
    • He was a successful ruler
    • He took advice from a much narrower scope of people than Gorbachev did
    • After he accomplished a task he often took to drinking and had periods of depression
    • He would do anything to save his power
      • Often contradicting himself (ex. he said he believes in democracy but he wanted a lot of power like a dictator)
  • 11. Yeltsin
    • Presidential power began to decline. This is when a prime minister began to have power. Russia still has a two seat executive branch today. (President & Prime Minister)
  • 12. Yeltsin to Putin transition
    • To prevent uprisings, Yeltsin left office early and appointed Putin as his successor in late 1999.
      • Some people point out that this is a monarch-like system and that there were no other choices for office, but a majority of Russians seem content with the system and Yeltsin's choice.
  • 13. Vladimir Putin
  • 14. Putin
    • Did not have an official party affiliation and therefore he drew support from a wide variety of people trying to win him over. He tried his best to remain ambiguous about many things.
    • People liked him because he was a common man and he spoke “street slang” - they were tired of “talkative rulers”
    • He is still in office today, but not as president – he is the Prime Minister of Russia.
  • 15. Putin
    • At the time of the writing of this book, Putin was only in office for slightly more than 1 year so mostly what is said about him is just projections of what he will do.
    • He did create reforms to help end political corruption because he took away the parliamentary immunity from the provincial chief executives (they are like governors in our system) so they could be prosecuted for crimes they commit.
  • 16. Important Points
    • Gorbachev ended the monopoly of the communist rule
    • Yeltsin was a good ruler even though he left early and was a drinker.
      • He accomplished what he wanted to do (dismantling the old Soviet system and replacing it)
    • Putin is working on reforms to reduce government corruption