Allison a pp plagues and peoples

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Allison a pp plagues and peoples

  1. 1. Plagues and Peoples<br />By William H. McNeill<br />Presentation by: Allison Aghjayan<br />
  2. 2. Thesis and Roadmap<br />Thesis<br />Diseases impacted the development of world civilizations.<br />Roadmap<br /><ul><li>Early humans and diseases
  3. 3. Disease spread in Eurasia 500 bc-ad 1500
  4. 4. Transoceanic Exchanges 1500 - 1700
  5. 5. Impact of Modern Medicine 1700 - present</li></li></ul><li>Early Humans and Diseases<br /><ul><li>“Out of Africa” theory of evolution
  6. 6. Warm climates bred more diseases than colder climates</li></li></ul><li>Disease Spread in Eurasia 500 bc – ad 1500<br /><ul><li>Historians know diseases were a part of peoples everyday lives
  7. 7. Biblical mention of plagues, wrath of God
  8. 8. Moslem texts mention coping with disease, death by an epidemic was martyrdom
  9. 9. Black Plague
  10. 10. Small, isolated outbreaks around ad 600
  11. 11. In China and Mediterranean (Plague of Justinian)
  12. 12. 1300s Europe, N. Africa, China, Mediterranean
  13. 13. Mongols spread disease to rats on Asian steppe, rats spread throughout world.
  14. 14. Records only in Europe, lowered pop. Affecting economy
  15. 15. Quarantine methods tried
  16. 16. Jewish people</li></li></ul><li>Transoceanic Exchange 1500 - 1700<br /><ul><li>Hernando Cortez’s conquest of Aztecs in early 1500s
  17. 17. Detrimental population affects to Aztecs, Incas, Cayapo of S. America
  18. 18. Health improved in Europe
  19. 19. Syphilis Debate
  20. 20. Detrimental, but similar to Yaws </li></li></ul><li>Modern Medicine 1700 - present<br /><ul><li>Smallpox inoculations, 1721 England
  21. 21. Edward Jenner figured out cowpox ll smallpox
  22. 22. Cholera epidemic in 1800’s
  23. 23. Calcutta, India
  24. 24. Vaccine by Robert Koch in 1893
  25. 25. Medical advances
  26. 26. Edwin Chadwick innovated sewers in cities
  27. 27. Boards of health in England 1832, cholera
  28. 28. Pasteurization
  29. 29. AIDS virus in Africa</li></ul>Cholera prevention add put forth by New York City board of Health during 1832 outbreak.<br />
  30. 30. Microparasites vs. Macroparasites<br /><ul><li>Micro-Diseases that ravaged people
  31. 31. Macro-
  32. 32. Human actions that acted like a disease
  33. 33. Ex: Roman imperialism
  34. 34. Taxes crushed peasants
  35. 35. Military campaigns killed people
  36. 36. Ex: China
  37. 37. Food surpluses taken from peasants during good harvests and bad often left peasants hungry</li>

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