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  • 1. A History of Warfare By: John Keegan
  • 2. Keegan’s Thesis
    • War is not only a political and economic detriment, but more so a detriment to culture.
  • 3. Karl von Clausewitz
    • He was a 19 th century Prussian General as well as a military theorist.
    • Wrote several books about warefare including his most famous called On War .
    • Clausewitz’s argument is that war is created for a political end.
    • Keegan does not agree, he states that his theory is “incomplete” and possibly “dangerous”
  • 4. Aztecs
    • The Aztecs were one of Keegan’s examples of warfare and culture
    • Aztec weapons were designed to wound not to kill
    • This way the wounded could be taken as prisoners and then sacrificed to the gods.
    • This had a major impact when war broke out with the Europeans
    • Due to culture the Aztecs did not have the weapons to take on the Europeans
  • 5. Samurai
    • In the 16 th Century gunpowder was introduced to Japan.
    • The Samurai saw guns as a threat to the ritualistic swordsmanship that they practiced.
    • They then confiscated every gunpowder weapon.
    • This put Japan at a military disadvantage due to culture.
  • 6. Changing Warfare
    • The examples that Keegan uses come from four major time periods.
    • He calls them Stone, Flesh (Horse), Iron, and Fire (Gunpowder)
    • He claims that the only way that the nature of war will change is if a material change meets a culture willing and able to exploit it