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1968(Draft 2)
1968(Draft 2)
1968(Draft 2)
1968(Draft 2)
1968(Draft 2)
1968(Draft 2)
1968(Draft 2)
1968(Draft 2)
1968(Draft 2)
1968(Draft 2)
1968(Draft 2)
1968(Draft 2)
1968(Draft 2)
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1968(Draft 2)

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  • January 1: Day of Peace -Pope convinced S. Vietnamese and Americans to make a 12 hr. extension to truce Viet Cong announced 72 hr. ceasefire Midnight- started back fightingKilling 19 and wounding 17 S. Vietnamese French pres- Charles de Gaulle gives speech -other countries would be turning to France for peace -speech was unusually mellowFrance in a prosperous moment- fought Vietnam before -Ho Chi Minh -born into French colony -Spent life fighting French- hated French-Pres tried to reestablish colony in Vietnam and Algeria -lost both -Since 1962 France had been at peace -economy grew -wages increased 3.6 percent each year-rapid increase in the acquisition of consumer goods-increased number of young people attending universities America -civil rights -Negros turned into blacks-Northern blacks were violent; Southern blacks were peaceful-MLK (Southern black) studied Ghandi -Stokely Carmichael (Northern black) studied Mau Mau -For the most part nonviolence effectiveness was questioned -Stokely Carmichael turned SNCC into Black Power organization Riot protectionWatts Police contemplated buying bulletproof armed vehicles armed with .30 caliber machine gun Smoke screen, tear gas, fire extinguishing launchers, a siren so loud that could disable rioters A Detroit suburb purchased an army half track The City of Chicago purchased helicopters and trained police force in using heavy weapons and crowd control techniques to prep for 1968Vietnam US Presidential Election Nigerian Civil War Palestinians vs. Jews
  • The election of Alexander Dubček -reformed the Communist government-Czechoslovakia no longer in isolation-gave citizens more freedom- such as the right to travel, speech and media Reform didn’t go well with the Soviets -sent troops to invade Czechoslovakia
  • Disagreement among civil rights leaders on demonstration methods-Violent vs. Non-violent -Both sides agree that they need an event that attracts media attention-Violent is more effective MLK and the Life Magazine Photographer MLK Selma Demonstration-woman punches police officer; officer clubs her back-pictures were taken, front page news As civil rights became more media conscious MLK was becoming the star-Accused of stealing the spotlight and using the moment -It was really the other way around-Spoke well and charisma worked well w/ the media Media coverage was vital to the movement To get coverage, they needed to provide daily short term news stories, sound bites Anything that was “exciting” was a candidate to get on TVPresence of cameras had a impact on civility in debates -Leaders raised their voices for no reason to get the attention of cameramen -Because of this MLK’s nonviolent camp was losing-Complained that cameraman encouraged civil rights leaders to say violent and inflammatory things Vietnam War opposition -MLK last Civil Rights leader to speak out -reluctant to oppose the government during a time of war -Mobe leader, David Dillinger tried to bring MLK into anti war movement against the advise of his advisors -antiwar cause had to many black leaders and it was ailenating potential supporters -Many whites saw it as stepping out of legitimate turf as a civil rights leaderPres. Johnson gives State of the Union address -got more coverage than any State of the Union Address-cancelled 2⅟₂ worth of shows to cover the speech-announced the safe streets act More severe LSD sale penaltiesGun control to stop “mail order murders”Talked about Vietnam Responded to an officer of talks Calls for a New Year’s ceasefire Recalls enemy’s violation of truce After speech polls Johnson was more hawkish (or warlike) than Nixon or ReaganNixon and Reagan known for hawkishness; deemed unelectable Reporter said Johnson was unconvincing Post Johnson SOU Speech Anti-War Movements-MLK called for a march on Washington to protest Vietnam War -Protest by 5000 women dressed in black protesting Vietnam War -Led by Jeanette Rankin -Broadway for Peace -big names such as Barbra Streisand, Harry Belafonte, Paul Newman and others -proceeds went to campaigns of of anti-war candidates -Wall Street went Anti-War -full page ad about why peace is good for investors and why war is bad for the market-At a dinner Robert Kennedy asked for a show of hands of people who approved of the war and those who didn’t-700 anti- war-30-40 pro war -In spite of all of the rigamoro surrounding the SOU speech Johnson was still front runner in the electoral polls -48% approved of the way he handled his job -upward trend -Eartha Kitt dinner incident-Denounced the Vietnam War at Lady Bird Johnson’s “ladies lunch”-told the truth of why crimes are happening in a room full of privileged white womenIR8 Rice Walter Cronkite
  • College demonstrations become popular that it influenced high school and junior high schools to protest -Bed-Stuy school protest for better schools and more dancesColumbia protests-new gym that displaces poor blacks in Harlem -anti- war movement- day long boycott of classes -3500 students, 1000 facultyUniversity of Wisconsin- Madison -protesters planted 400 white crosses on the lawn in front administration building “Bascom Hill Memorial Cemetery, Class of 1968”Howard University -500-1000 students took hold of administration buildingProtesting lack Black history courses Hippies taken over NYC Grand Central Station -militant anti- war demonstration -these hippies were Yippies! University of Rome -1st day 200 students were injured -2nd day faulty members were protesting police brutality -Italian communists failed in calming students down German student organization -organized around protesting the Vietnam War Spain demonstrating against a fascist regime Brazil armed violence failed to keep students in place -3 protesters killed were warnings
  • Transcript

    • 1. Due to the subject matters that this presentation covers, such as sex, drugs, race relations, and other adult topics, viewer discretion is advised. Thank You <br />
    • 2. 1968The year that Rocked our world <br />Presentation by: Nia Johnson<br />
    • 3. The First Week <br />January 1 :Day of peace<br />Pope 12 hr. extension to<br /> Viet Cong announced ceasefire<br />France <br />President gives New Years speech <br />Fought Vietnam and Algeria after WWII<br />France in Prosperity <br />America<br />Civil Rights<br />Riot protection <br />Vietnam <br />US Presidential Election<br />
    • 4. Prague Spring- Summary <br />The Election of Alexander Dubček <br />reformed the Communist government to give more freedoms to the people <br />Added some democracy into the government <br />Reformed too fast, instead of gradually <br />Reforms didn’t go well with the Soviets <br />sent troops to invade Czechoslovakia <br />Saw tit as a threat to communism <br />Dubček expelled as communist leader<br />Most of reforms undid <br />
    • 5. Violent vs. Non Violent Protests/LBJ and Vietnam/Anti- War Protests/Eartha Kitt<br />Disagreement among civil rights leaders on demonstration methods<br />Both sides agree that they need an event that attracts media attention<br />MLK<br />Star of the Show <br />Media coverage vital to Civil Rights Movement <br />To get coverage, they needed to provide daily short term news stories, sound bites <br />Anything that was “exciting” was a candidate to get on TV<br />Presence of cameras had a impact on civility in debates <br />Pres. Johnson gives State of the Union address <br />Got more coverage than any State of the Union Address<br />Announced the safe streets act <br />Talked about Vietnam <br />Post Johnson SOU Speech Anti-War Movements<br />MLK called for a march on Washington to protest Vietnam War <br />Protest by 5000 women dressed in black protesting Vietnam War <br />Broadway for Peace <br />Wall Street went Anti-War<br />At a dinner Robert Kennedy asked for a show of hands of people who approved of the war and those who didn’t <br />In spite of all of the rigamoro surrounding the SOU speech Johnson was still front runner in the electoral polls <br />Eartha Kitt dinner incident<br />
    • 6. Student Protests (Part 1) <br />College demonstrations influenced high school and junior high schools to protest <br />Columbia protests<br />new gym that displaces poor blacks in Harlem <br />anti- war movement- day long boycott of classes <br />University of Wisconsin- Madison <br />protesters planted 400 white crosses on the lawn in front administration building <br />Howard University <br />500-1000 students took hold of administration building<br />Protesting lack Black history courses <br />Hippies taken over NYC Grand Central Station <br />militant anti- war demonstration <br />University of Rome <br />1st day 200 students were injured <br />2nd day faulty members were protesting police brutality <br />Italian communists failed in calming students down <br />German student organization<br />organized around protesting the Vietnam War <br />Spain demonstrating against a fascist regime <br />Brazil armed violence failed to keep students in place <br />
    • 7. Student Protests (Part 2)<br />Japanese students were violently protesting the presence of U.S. military in Japan <br />blocked a US air carrier from docking a Japanese port<br />Cronkite’s visit to Japan covering Eisenhower’s visit<br />UK Student Protests <br />started out with protesting Vietnam then moved to local issues <br />attacked anyone that represented the UK government <br />turned the water in the fountain in Trafalgar Square red <br />Violence took less effort than nonviolence <br />few rebels embraced it <br />SNCC thrilled world with creative nonviolent ideas <br />influenced students as far away as Poland to stage sit-ins <br />”We Shall Overcome”<br />Black freshman sit-in at Woolworth in Greensboro<br />SDS<br />inspired by Greensboro sit-ins<br />Tom Hayden, SDS leader, went on a trip to Berkley <br />Hayden went South to bring food to blacks displaced from their homes for registering to vote <br />hardship and loneliness in the South inspired him to take SDS large scale <br />Freedom Rides <br />invention of SNCC<br />rode busses around the South; whites sat in black sections and vice versa<br />used wrong bathroom <br />provoked white racism all over the South <br />White Southerners responded with violence <br />
    • 8. The Influence of Poetry <br />1968 was a time when poetry mattered<br />NYC offered dial-a-poem<br />-Government pilot program sent poets around the country to public high schools<br />Robert Lowell<br />Allen Ginsberg<br />Lei Roi Jones <br />Ezra Pound<br />Even though he was an Anti-Semitic fascist, he was the key to poetry of 1968<br />Influenced Dylan Thomas, Lawrence Feringhetti, Allen Ginsburg<br />Rod McKuen<br />Other “poets” of the time <br />Bob Dylan<br />The Doors <br />Eugene McCarthy- Candidate and poet<br />Bobby Kennedy <br />
    • 9. Revolution!<br />Fidel Castro <br />started out with non revolutionary image <br />gained a lot of positive media in the U.S.<br />The seducer<br />Cuba and Lei Roi Jones <br />At first your average beat poet <br />Latin American writers attacked him for lack of political commitment <br />Helped him apply revolution to the black community <br />Cuba and Ginsburg<br />seduction less successful <br />didn’t like the police persecution of homosexuals and beats<br />Once people realized that it was a real revolution, opinions changed<br />Bay of Pigs<br />Chinese Cultural Revolution <br />initiated by chairman Mao Zedong to force out elements that undermine the revolution<br />Chinese 1968 generation were defenders of Mao- “Red Guard”<br />In practice the revolution was brutal <br />Chinese Revolution influencing Cuba<br />Che Guevara<br />
    • 10. Hippies and Youth Culture <br />Rock music <br />closely connected to college campuses <br />gave benefit concerts for political causes <br />student represented a large share of record sales <br />album cover were designed for doing drugs and studying it when high <br />LSD<br />made by accident in a Swiss lab <br />acid rock <br />Free Love <br />rock concerts were starts to sexual encounters <br />”Make Love Not War”<br />Columbia Protests<br />Protesting the gym that displaced Harlem residents <br />Occupied a building <br />Violent police attacks<br />
    • 11. The Freedom Can <br />Miss America Pagent <br />-”ideal of American womanhood”<br />-homogeneous pageant <br />-no breaking news at these events <br />-by the ‘60 it was viewed racist and empty headed <br />Feminist Protesters <br />only wanted to speak to female reporters <br />-throwing “beauty products” like girdles, hair curlers, into the trash can<br />-backlash <br />-labeled as bra-burners- even though there is no proof any bras were burned<br />-protesting the degrading nature of Miss America <br />“The Feminine Mystique”<br />Airline stewardesses<br />Feminist movement rooted in the Civil Rights Movement <br />Women’s Fashion <br />
    • 12. The Influence of a Decade<br />This decade help give a voice to oppressed people<br />Fostered a rebellious, generation <br />Gave us rights that we take for granted today <br />
    • 13. The End <br />

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