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Presentation at EC-TEL (Technology Enhancede Learning), Barcelona, October 2010: authenticity in learning game: how it is designed and perceived

Presentation at EC-TEL (Technology Enhancede Learning), Barcelona, October 2010: authenticity in learning game: how it is designed and perceived

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  • 1. Authenticity in Learning Game: How it is designed? and perceived? Celso Gonçalves (PhD in Sep. 2011), Muriel Ney, Nicolas Balacheff Laboratory of Informatics of Grenoble (LIG) Marie-Caroline Croset, Jean-Luc Bosson Techniques for biomedical engineering and complexity management (TIMC) Grenoble, France October 1st, 2010 EC-TEL Barcelona 1
  • 2. What authenticity means in learning? To whom? According to whom? What? Learning by living experiences that are in nature multidimensional (social, conceptual, perceptual…) (Dewey, Petraglia) According to whom? (Science) teachers bring the “real” world into the school. To whom? Students are engaged over time, they come to own the activity. October 1st, 2010 EC-TEL Barcelona 2
  • 3. Outline  Background and proposed model  The serious game LOE  Empirical studies: What attributes make the game LOE authentic? Are students engaged into the game (in moments of interaction)? Do students perceive the game as authentic? What cues enable them to make judgment of authenticity? October 1st, 2010 EC-TEL Barcelona 3
  • 4. The Model October 1st, 2010 EC-TEL Barcelona 4
  • 5. Authenticity and computer environment design Immersion – make players feel they are « there » and « now » Fidelity – realism of a simulation October 1st, 2010 EC-TEL Barcelona 5
  • 6. Perceived authenticity Trust (Human Computer Interaction), Presence (Psychology)… Perception of unrealness in movies (Communication Theory, Brusselles & Bilandzik, 2008): •  This story is a fiction (fictionality) •  It is not like the actual world (external realism) •  It is incoherent (narrative realism) October 1st, 2010 EC-TEL Barcelona 6
  • 7. Proposed model: authenticity in learning games Appropriation of problems, ownership C.G. October 1st, 2010 EC-TEL Barcelona 7
  • 8. The game October 1st, 2010 EC-TEL Barcelona 8
  • 9. The game LOE: Laboratorium of Epidemiology Learning objective: Critical Reading of Medical papers (based on statistics) Learning approach: Learning by doing (make my own research and paper) Students main tasks (170 students in 45 teams, 8 4h-sessions): Design and carry out an epidemiological survey, analyse a medical data base and present results to a congress Game rules: Play the role of a physician (public health) Authorization must be obtained in order to visit patients Papers assessed by congress scientific committee: Best papers October 1st, 2010 EC-TEL Barcelona 9
  • 10. LOE: (simulated) web sites October 1st, 2010 EC-TEL Barcelona 10
  • 11. LOE: simulated hospital and patients (video) Hello 11 11
  • 12. LOE: interactions with caracters of the game October 1st, 2010 EC-TEL Barcelona 12
  • 13. Attributes of authenticity •  Mission –  Mission content and resources –  Original data •  Mise en scene –  Graphical representation –  Structure of the environment •  User freedom –  Constraints –  Level of control of the users •  Interactions –  Characters’ personification –  Behaviour and feedback from characters –  Mode and media of communication October 1st, 2010 EC-TEL Barcelona 13
  • 14. Empirical studies October 1st, 2010 EC-TEL Barcelona 14
  • 15. Students’ engagement: method and results Grid of analysis of moments of interaction The message includes: 1.  Status of the speaker (student, physician) 2.  Name and/or function of addressee 3.  Goal of the interaction 4.  Formallities 5.  Context (teacher, commission) Hi, I’m Mike Smith and I want to come and visit 20 patients in your department Results (phone messages): 1+2+3+4 : 37% of 167 messages (15% to 50%). 24% teams never fulfill theses 4 criteria. October 1st, 2010 EC-TEL Barcelona 15
  • 16. Student’s judgements: method Phone interviews after each of 8 sessions with about 22 students (over 45 teams of 3 to 4 students each): 1.  Looks real or not? 2.  Useful or not? Goal of analysis: When do most students perceived the activity of the day as authentic, or not? What cues enable them to make judgements of authenticity? October 1st, 2010 EC-TEL Barcelona 16
  • 17. Student’s judgements: method and results Perceived authenticity, three dimensions: •  Internal incoherence: write a protocol, what for if data are given •  Unrealistic: talk to an answering machine •  Irrelevant: the patient cannot answer twice to the same question (learn to control data, listen carefully) And interactions. Cues (-> Match cues and attributes): •  Figures are unquestionable: figures and variability make it real. •  Characters (how they are represented, what they say, how they behave): no high presence is required. •  No graphical cues: low visual fidelity is enough. October 1st, 2010 EC-TEL Barcelona 17
  • 18. Conclusions and future work One model to design game and to analyse perceptions: Authenticity in game design, a compromise between realism, coherence and relevance. Two measures of perceived authenticity: -  during the activity: students make the problems their owns, and have appropriate behaviour /real life. -  afterwards: interviews on usefulness and credibility. Future work: What are the attributes that make a game authentic (for adults)? October 1st, 2010 EC-TEL Barcelona 18