Presentation on corporate frauds


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A presentation about frauds those took place in financial giants and top most companies of the world during decades. This presentation will be helpful for students information.

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Presentation on corporate frauds

  2. 2. Corporate Frauds???  which arise with the disclosure of misdeeds by trusted executives of large public corporations.  Such misdeeds typically involve complex methods for misusing or misdirecting funds, overstating revenues, understating expenses, overstating the value of corporate assets or underreporting the existence of liabilities.  Sometimes with the cooperation of officials in other corporations or affiliates.
  3. 3. Top Ten Corporate Frauds! 1. Enron (USA) – 2001 – Lose of more than $11 billion to shareholders 2. Worldcom (USA) – Profits inflated by $3.8 Billions 3. Bank of Credit and Commerce International (UK) - £5.6bn deficit (at closure) 4. Subprime Mortgage (USA) – 2008 – Merged with JP Bank with $3 Billions 5. Bernard L. Madoff Investment Securities (USA) - $50 billion 6. American International Group (AIG) (USA) - 7. Barlow Clowes (United Kingdom) – 1990s - £150m to compensate 8. Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac (USA) – 2006 - fined $400 million 9. Daewoo Group (South Korea) – 2005- $54.20 Billions 10. Satyam Computers (India) – 2009 - Rs. 7,100 crores Inflated its net worth by up to $1.7 billion
  4. 4. Just Ten… No! Company Year Company Year Company Year Company Year Nugan Hand Bank 1980 MicroStrategy 2000 El Paso Corporation 2002 Reliant Energy 2002 ZZZZ Best 1986 Unify Corporation 2000 Freddie Mac 2002 Sunbeam 2002 Barlow Clowes 1988 Computer Associates 2000 Global Crossing 2002 Tyco International 2002 MiniScribe 1989 Xerox 2000 Halliburton 2002 WorldCom 2002 Polly Peck 1990 One.Tel 2001 2002 Royal Ahold 2003 Bank of Credit and Commerce International 1991 Enron 2001 ImClone Systems 2002 Parmalat 2003 Northern Rock Adelphia 2002 Kmart 2002 HealthSouth Corporation 2003 Clearstream AOL 2002 Merck & Co. 2002 Chiquita Brands International 2004 Phar-Mor 1992 Bristol-Myers Squibb 2002 Merrill Lynch 2002 AIG 2004 Informix 1996 CMS Energy 2002 Mirant 2002 Bernard L. Madoff Investment Securities LLC 2008 Cendant 1998 Duke Energy 2002 Nicor 2002 Anglo Irish Bank 2008 Waste Management, Inc. 1999 Dynegy 2002 Peregrine Systems 2002
  5. 5. We will Discuss…  Enron (USA)  Worldcom (USA)  Parmalat (Italy)
  6. 6. ENRON  Overview (1985 – 2000s)  Enron Corporation is an energy trading, natural gas, and electric utilities company based in Houston, Texas.  Employed around 21,000 people more than 40 Countries by mid-2001, before it went bankrupt.  Fraudulent accounting techniques allowed it to be listed as the seventh largest company in the US.
  7. 7. ENRON (Contd)  Tactics used by Enron…  EARNINGS/(EPS) MANIPULATION  From at least 1998 through late 2001, Enron's executives and senior managers engaged in wide-ranging (Diversification) schemes to deceive the investing public about the true nature and profitability.  By manipulating Enron's publicly reported financial results (FS) and making false and misleading public representations.
  8. 8. ENRON (Contd)  Tactics used by Enron…  The scheme's objectives were:  To produce that reported earnings steadily grew by approximately 15-20% Per Annum.  To meet or exceed, without fail, the expectations of investment analysts about Enron's EPS.  To persuade the investing public that Enron's future profitability would continue to grow.
  9. 9. ENRON (Contd)  EARNING MANIPULATION  How?  Quarterly earnings targets were imposed on each of the company's business units based on EPS goals and not on true forecasts.  When the budget targets could not be met, through results from business operations, they were achieved through the use of fraudulent devices.  The primary purpose was to increase the share price which increased from $30 per share in 1998 to $80 in 2001 even after a stock split.
  10. 10. ENRON (Contd)  EARNING MANIPULATION  How?  The rising stock prices enriched Enron's senior managers in the form of:  Salary, Bonuses, Grants of Artificially Appreciating Stock Options, Restricted Stock, and Phantom stock, and Prestige within their professions and communities.
  11. 11. ENRON (Contd)  EARNING MANIPULATION  Other Methods…  Manipulating reserve accounts to maintain the appearance of continual earnings, growth and to mask volatility in earnings by concealing earnings during highly profitable periods and releasing them for use during less profitable periods.  Concealing losses in individual "business segments" through fraudulent manipulation of "segment reporting," and deceptive use of reserved earnings to cover losses in one segment with earnings in another.  Manufacturing earnings through fraudulent inflation of asset values and avoiding losses through the use of fraudulent devices designed to "hedge," or lock-in, inflated asset values.  Structuring of financial transactions using improper accounting techniques in order to achieve earnings objectives.
  12. 12. ENRON (Contd)  CONCEALMENT OF UNCOLLECTIBLE RECEIVABLES  How?  Conceal huge receivables (valued in the hundreds of millions of dollars), accumulated during the California energy crisis.  That California public utilities owed to Enron and believed it would not be collected.  The California utilities were refusing to pay these amount, and they likely were headed for bankruptcy.  Enron concluded that it should book a large reserve for these unrecoverable receivables.
  13. 13. ENRON (Contd)  CONCEALMENT OF EES FAILURES BY MANIPULATING REPORTING  How?  In the first quarter of 2001, new EES managers discovered and quantified hundreds of millions of dollars in inflated valuations of EES contracts that would have to be recorded as losses. This would wipe out EES's modest reported profits and reveal it was a badly mismanaged business that was losing large amounts of money. EES “Enron Energy Services”
  14. 14. ENRON (Contd)  CONCEALMENT OF EES FAILURES BY MANIPULATING REPORTING  Senior management decided to conceal these EES losses from investors by offsetting them with Enron Wholesale trading profits earned in that quarter.  As well as Profits improperly reserved in prior periods.  This was accomplished through a "reorganization" of Enron's business segments that was made effective for the first quarter of 2001, enabling Enron to avoid reporting the losses in the EES segment.
  16. 16. ENRON (Contd)  At the end!  Enron filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy, allowing it to reorganise while protected from creditors.  Enron has sought to salvage its business by spinning off various assets.  Enron's core business, the energy trading arm, has been tied up in a complex deal with UBS Warburg. The bank has not paid for the trading unit, but will share some of the profits with Enron.  Centrica, part of the former British Gas, has bought Enron's European retail arm for £96.4m.  Dynegy, a smaller rival, has won a key pipeline in the US after merger talks fell through. The pipeline was then resold to Warren Buffet.
  17. 17. WorldCom  Overview (1983 – 2000s)  WorldCom was one of the big success stories of the 1990s. It was a symbol of aggressive capitalism.  Founded by Bernie Ebbers, one of the most aggressive acquirer during the US mergers and acquisitions boom of the 1990s.  WorldCom's asset value had soared to $180bn before the US capital market started witnessing a downtrend.
  18. 18. WorldCom  Admitted in March 2002 that it will have to restate its financial results to account for: -  Billions of dollars in improper bookkeeping after an internal audit.  Showed transfers of about $3.06 billion for 2001 and $797 million for the first quarter of 2002.  There transactions were not made in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles.
  19. 19. WorldCom  In August 2002, An internal audit has revealed an additional $3.3bn of improperly reported earnings.  Taking the total to more than $7bn, double the level previously reported.  $3.3bn was money from the company's reserves, which was misrepresented as operating income.  As a result of the discovery, WorldCom said that its financial statements for the year 2000 will have to be reissued.  Also said it may now write off $50.6bn in intangible assets.
  20. 20. WorldCom  The company filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection on 22 July.  Chapter 11 is a process that protects it from its creditors while it tries to restructure.  It became the largest bankruptcy in US history, listing $107bn in total assets and $41bn in debts.  In May 2003, WorldCom agreed to pay a record amount to the US financial watchdog.
  21. 21. WorldCom  MCI (formerly WorldCom), while neither admitting nor denying any wrongdoing, came to a settlement over its massive accountancy scandal.  It will pay $500m to the Securities and Exchange Commission, the highest fine ever imposed by the regulator.  The original figure of $1.5bn was scaled down as MCI declared itself bankrupt and so received favorable treatment.  The settlement sorts out the civil lawsuits that have been filed.  But the criminal cases relating primarily to the actions of former employees at the company are still pending.
  22. 22. WorldCom  Summary…  Scandal Discovered in March 2002.  Changes  Overstated cash flow by booking $3.8 billion in operating expenses as capital expenses.  Gave founder Bernard Ebbers $400 million in off-the-books loans.  The company found another $3.3 billion in improperly booked funds, taking the total misstatement to $7.2 billion, and it may have to take a goodwill charge of $50 billion.
  23. 23. WorldCom  Finally…  Former CFO Scott Sullivan and ex-controller David Myers have been arrested and criminally charged.  On 9th March 2005, four foreign banks agreed to pay $428.4 millions for settling the class action law suit by investors accusing them of hiding risks at WorldCom before its collapse.
  24. 24. Parmalat  Overview (1961 – 2000s)  An Italian dairy and food company and Europe's biggest dairy company.  Declared bankrupt in late 2003.  36,000 workers around the world and 5,000 Italian dairy farms dependent on the company.  At the end of 2003, one of the biggest corporate accounting scandals in history came to light as a 8 billion euro.
  25. 25. Parmalat  In 1999, Parmalat set up a subsidiary in the Cayman Islands called “Bonlat”.  The first indication of financial problems came in early 2003.  As the company tried to sell 500 million euro in bonds.  After this CFO Fausto Tonna resigned in March replaced by Alberto Ferraris.
  26. 26. Parmalat  The crisis became public in November as the Parmalat Scandal.  Questions were raised about transactions with mutual fund Epicurum, (Another company linked to Parmalat)  Ferraris resigned less than a week later replaced by Luciano Del Soldato.  In December, Del Soldato resigned, unable to get cash from Epicurum fund, needed to pay debts and make bond payments.
  27. 27. Parmalat  Tanzi himself resigned as chairman and CEO.  Parmalat's bank, Bank of America, then released a document showing 3.95 billion Euros in Bonlat's bank account as a forgery.  Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi initiated a Fraud investigation and appointed Bondi to administer the company's rescue.
  28. 28. Parmalat  Calisto Tanzi, once a symbol of unlimited success, was detained hours after the firm was declared officially insolvent and eventually charged with financial fraud and money laundering.  Italians were shocked that such a vast and established empire could crumble so quickly.  Tanzi reportedly admitted during questioning in prison, that he diverted funds from Parmalat into Parmatour and elsewhere.
  29. 29. Thanking You For Patience! REGARDS Mati ur Rehman Arshad Hussain Javed Gulab Security Analysis (Specialization-IV) Masters in Business Administation, Iqra University, Quetta Campus