Lvf + rvf heart failure

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Right and Left Heart Failure - By Mr Murdin Amit

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Lvf + rvf heart failure

  1. 1. Lifestyles, Fitnessand Rehabilitation Heart Failure CCF/CHF LVF 1st + RVF 2nd = CCF/CHF By : Mr Murdin b Amit Bsc in Health Science (Hons), Ba in Buissness Administration (Hrm)(Hons) Head of Medical Science Subject College of Assistant Medical Officer, Seremban, Negeri Sembilan murdin_1966@yahoo.com HP: 012 - 6044385
  2. 2. Lifestyles, Fitness Heart Failureand Rehabilitation • What is Heart Failure? – The heart is not pumping as well as it should – Usually, the heart has been weakened by an underlying condition • Blocked arteries • Heart attack • High blood pressure • Infections • Heart valve abnormalities
  3. 3. Lifestyles, Fitness Heart Failureand Rehabilitation • What is Heart Failure? – Heart failure can involve the left or right side of the heart or both – Usually the left side is affected first – Heart failure occurs when either side of the heart cannot keep up with the flow of blood
  4. 4. Lifestyles, Fitness Heart Failureand Rehabilitation • What is Heart Failure?
  5. 5. Lifestyles, Fitness Heart Failureand Rehabilitation • What is Left Heart Failure? – Involves the left ventricle (lower chamber) of the heart – Systolic failure • The heart looses it’s ability to contract or pump blood into the circulation – Diastolic failure • The heart looses it’s ability to relax because it becomes stiff • Heart cannot fill properly between each beat
  6. 6. Lifestyles, Fitness Heart Failureand Rehabilitation • What is Left Heart Failure? – Systolic and diastolic heart failure are treated with different types of medications – In both types, blood may “back up” in the lungs causing fluid to leak into the lungs (pulmonary edema) – Fluid may also build up in tissues throughout the body (edema)
  7. 7. Lifestyles, Fitness Heart Failureand Rehabilitation • What is Right Heart Failure? – Usually occurs as a result of left heart failure – The right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs for oxygen – Occasionally isolated right heart failure can occur due to lung disease or blood clots to the lung (pulmonary embolism)
  8. 8. Lifestyles, Fitness Heart Failureand Rehabilitation • How fast does heart failure develop? – Usually a chronic disease – The heart tries to compensate for the loss in pumping function by: • Developing more muscle mass • Enlarging • Pumping faster
  9. 9. Lifestyles, Fitness Heart Failureand Rehabilitation • What Causes Heart Failure? – Health conditions that either damage the heart or make it work too hard • Coronary artery disease • Heart attack • High blood pressure • Abnormal heart valves • Heart muscle diseases (cardiomyopathy) • Heart inflammation (myocarditis)
  10. 10. Lifestyles, Fitness Heart Failureand Rehabilitation • What Causes Heart Failure? • Congenital heart defects • Severe lung disease • Diabetes • Severe anemia • Overactive thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism) • Abnormal heart rhythms
  11. 11. Lifestyles, Fitness Heart Failureand Rehabilitation • What Causes Heart Failure? – Coronary artery disease • Cholesterol and fatty deposits build up in the heart’s arteries • Less blood and oxygen reach the heart muscle • This causes the heart to work harder and occasionally damages the heart muscle
  12. 12. Heart FailureLifestyles, Fitnessand Rehabilitation• What Causes Heart Failure? – Heart attack • An artery supplying blood to the heart becomes blocked • Loss of oxygen and nutrients damages heart muscle tissue causing it to die • Remaining healthy heart muscle must pump harder to keep up
  13. 13. Heart FailureLifestyles, Fitnessand Rehabilitation • What Causes Heart Failure? – High blood pressure • Uncontrolled high blood pressure doubles a persons risk of developing heart failure • Heart must pump harder to keep blood circulating • Over time, chamber first thickens, then gets larger and weaker
  14. 14. Heart FailureLifestyles, Fitnessand Rehabilitation • What Causes Heart Failure? – Abnormal heart valves – Heart muscle disease • Damage to heart muscle due to drugs, alcohol or infections – Congenital heart disease – Severe lung disease
  15. 15. Heart FailureLifestyles, Fitnessand Rehabilitation • What Causes Heart Failure? – Diabetes • Tend to have other conditions that make the heart work harder • Obesity • Hypertension • High cholesterol
  16. 16. Heart FailureLifestyles, Fitnessand Rehabilitation • What Causes Heart Failure? – Severe anemia • Not enough red blood cells to carry oxygen • Heart beats faster and can become overtaxed with the effort – Hyperthyroidism • Body metabolism is increased and overworks the heart – Abnormal Heart Rhythm • If the heart beats too fast, too slow or irregular it may not be able to pump enough blood to the body
  17. 17. Heart FailureLifestyles, Fitnessand Rehabilitation • Signs and Symptoms of Heart Failure – Shortness of Breath (dyspnea) • WHY? – Blood “backs up” in the pulmonary veins because the heart can’t keep up with the supply an fluid leaks into the lungs • SYMPTOMS – Dyspnea on exertion or at rest – Difficulty breathing when lying flat – Waking up short of breath
  18. 18. Heart FailureLifestyles, Fitnessand Rehabilitation • Signs and Symptoms of Heart Failure – Persistent Cough or Wheezing • WHY? – Fluid “backs up” in the lungs • SYMPTOMS – Coughing that produces white or pink blood- tinged sputum (Froty Sputum)
  19. 19. Heart FailureLifestyles, Fitnessand Rehabilitation • Signs and Symptoms of Heart Failure – Edema • WHY? – Decreased blood flow out of the weak heart – Blood returning to the heart from the veins “backs up” causing fluid to build up in tissues • SYMPTOMS – Swelling in feet, ankles, legs or abdomen – Weight gain
  20. 20. Heart FailureLifestyles, Fitnessand Rehabilitation • Signs and Symptoms of Heart Failure – Tiredness, fatigue • WHY? – Heart can’t pump enough blood to meet needs of bodies tissues – Body diverts blood away from less vital organs (muscles in limbs) and sends it to the heart and brain • SYMPTOMS – Constant tired feeling – Difficulty with everyday activities
  21. 21. Heart FailureLifestyles, Fitnessand Rehabilitation • Signs and Symptoms of Heart Failure – Lack of appetite/ Nausea • WHY? – The digestive system receives less blood causing problems with digestion – Physiological disturbance to Vagus nerve • SYMPTOMS – Feeling of being full or sick to your stomach
  22. 22. Heart FailureLifestyles, Fitnessand Rehabilitation • Signs and Symptoms of Heart Failure – Confusion/ Impaired thinking • WHY? – Changing levels of substances in the blood ( sodium) can cause confusion – Lack of O2 reach to the brain • SYMPTOMS – Memory loss or feeling of disorientation – Relative or caregiver may notice this first
  23. 23. Heart FailureLifestyles, Fitnessand Rehabilitation • Signs and Symptoms of Heart Failure – Increased heart rate • WHY? – The heart beats faster to “make up for” the loss in pumping function • SYMPTOMS – Heart palpitations – May feel like the heart is racing or throbbing
  24. 24. Heart FailureLifestyles, Fitnessand Rehabilitation • New York Heart Association (NYHA) Functional Classification Class % of patients Symptoms I 35% No symptoms or limitations in ordinary physical activity II 35% Mild symptoms and slight limitation during ordinary activity III 25% Marked limitation in activity even during minimal activity. Comfortable only at rest IV 5% Severe limitation. Experiences symptoms even at rest
  25. 25. Heart FailureLifestyles, Fitnessand Rehabilitation • Treatment Options – The more common forms of heart failure cannot be cured, but can be treated • Lifestyle changes • Medications • Surgery
  26. 26. Heart FailureLifestyles, Fitnessand Rehabilitation • Lifestyle changes – Stop smoking – Loose weight – Avoid alcohol – Avoid or limit caffeine – Eat a low-fat, low-sodium diet – Exercise
  27. 27. Heart FailureLifestyles, Fitnessand Rehabilitation • Lifestyle changes – Reduce stress – Keep track of symptoms and weight and report any changes or concern to the doctor – Limit fluid intake – See the doctor more frequently
  28. 28. Heart FailureLifestyles, Fitnessand Rehabilitation • Medications used to treat Heart Failure – ACE Inhibitors (Enalapril 5-10mg bd/tds) • Cornerstone of heart failure therapy • Proven to slow the progression of heart failure • Vasodilator – cause blood vessels to expand lowering blood pressure and the hearts work load
  29. 29. Heart FailureLifestyles, Fitnessand Rehabilitation • Medications used to treat Heart Failure – Diuretics (water pills) – Frusemide 40-80mg • Prescribed for fluid build up, swelling or edema • Cause kidneys to remove more sodium and water from the bloodstream • Decreases workload of the heart and edema • Fine balance – removing too much fluid can strain kidneys or cause low blood pressure
  30. 30. Heart FailureLifestyles, Fitnessand Rehabilitation • Medications used to treat Heart Failure – Potassium • Most diuretics remove potassium from the body • Potassium pills compensate for the amount lost in the urine • Potassium helps control heart rhythm and is essential for the normal work of the nervous system and muscles
  31. 31. Heart FailureLifestyles, Fitnessand Rehabilitation• Medications used to treat Heart Failure – Vasodilators • Hydrallazine 100mg stat or Prazosin 1-2mg bd/tds • Cause blood vessel walls to relax • Occasionally used if patient cannot tolerate ACE • Decrease workload of the heart
  32. 32. Heart FailureLifestyles, Fitnessand Rehabilitation • Medications used to treat Heart Failure – Digitalis preparations • Digoxin 0.25mg-0.5mg bd • Increases the force of the hearts contractions, increases the blood stroke volume • Relieves symptoms • Slows heart rate and certain irregular heart beats
  33. 33. Heart FailureLifestyles, Fitnessand Rehabilitation • Medications used to treat Heart Failure – Beta-blockers (Tab Metoprolol 50-200mg) • Lower the heart rate and blood pressure • Decrease the workload of the heart – Blood-thinners (coumadin) • Used in patients at risk for developing blood clots in the blood vessels, legs, lung and heart • Used in irregular heart rhythms due to risk of stroke
  34. 34. Heart FailureLifestyles, Fitnessand Rehabilitation • Treatment options – Surgery and other Medical Procedures • Not often used in heart failure unless there is a correctable problem • Coronary artery bypass • Angioplasty • Valve replacement • Defibrillator implantation • Heart transplantation • Left ventricular assist device (LVAD)

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