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  • superb ppt sir.....can u plz mail me dis @ cbhatia121@gmail.com
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  • Amazing work. can you please mail me a copy of it @ sachin.mangtani@gmail.com
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  • An apt presentation. Kindly forward to e_papassan@yahoo.com Regards
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  • sir can you explain what are the scope of organisation development? plz give me answer on hinal17@yahoo.com and your presentation is very useful. thank you for sharing.
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  • Highly useful presentation. Kindly send copy @ 'kashif.647@hotmail.com'

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Organisation Developement and change managemnt Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Organisation Development and change management PGDBM MSRIM - Batch 2009-2011 Dr.H.Muralidhran
  • 2. Definition
    • ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT DEFINITION :
    • Organization Development (OD) is an applied discipline that supports the creation of effective and healthy organizations consisting of competent, satisfied, and productive employees .
    • OTHER DEFINITIONS FROM OTHER OD PRACTITIONERS: "Organization development (OD) is defined as a long-range effort to improve an organization’s ability to cope with change and its problem-solving and renewal processes through effective management of organization culture."
        •   Don Harvey and Donald R. Brown in An Experiential Approach to Organization Development
  • 3. OD as a process
    • OD is a top management supported initiative
    • It is a long range effort to improve an organization’s problem solving and renewal process
    • Done particularly through a more effective and collaborative diagnosis and management of organizational culture
    • Special emphasis on formal work teams,temporary work teams and inter group culture-
    • Takes assistance of consultant facilitator
    • Uses of the theory and technology of applied behavioral science, including action research.
  • 4. OD is …….
    • Planned – long-range
    • Managed from top - sustained
    • Increased organizational effectiveness and health
    • Use of OD interventions
    • Use of behavior science principles
    • OD Program is a long-range, planned, and sustained effort that unfolds according to a strategy.
  • 5. Characteristics of OD
    • Behavior science base
    • Normative approach
    • Deliberate interventions in organization
    • Normative Re educative strategy
    • Legitimacy of organization and management
    • System approach to change
    • Use of action research model
    • Use of external consultants
    • Long term focus
  • 6. HISTORY OF OD
    • T- Group - 1948 – Douglas Mc Gregor - UC
      • RCGD –Regional Center for Group Dynamics –MIT- Kurt Lewin
    • Action research ` - 1950
    • Survey feedback - 1950
    • Normative background - 1955
    • Participative management - 1955
        • Exploitive authoritative
        • Benevolent authoritative
        • Consultative
        • Participative group
    • Quality of work life - 1960
      • Eric Trist – Tavistock institute of human relations -London
    • Strategic change - 1965
  • 7. FOUNDATIONS OF OD
    • Planned Change
    • Systems Theory
    • Collateral Structures
    • Team Work
    • Educative Strategy
    • Applied Behavioral Science
    • Action Research
  • 8. Planned Change – General Model
    • Entering and contracting
    • Diagnosing
    • Planning and implementing change
    • Evaluating and institutionalizing change
  • 9. Theories of Planned Change
    • Kurt Lewin’s Organizational change theories
      • Resultant Theory
      • Three stage Model Theory
    • Burke Litwin’s model of Organization change
      • First Order Change and Second Order Change
    • Porras and Robertson’s model of Organizational Change
      • Based on work setting
  • 10. Resultant Theory
    • “ The current state of things at any point is the result of opposing forces.”
    • Method Used : Force Field Analysis
    • It provides a framework for looking at the factors ( forces ) that influence a situation, originally social situations. It looks at forces that are either driving movement toward a goal (helping forces) or blocking movement toward a goal (hindering forces
  • 11. Three Stage Model theory
    • Unfreezing – Creating readiness
    • Lack of confirmation
    • Creation of guilt
    • Psychological Safety
    Unfreezing Changing Refreezing
    • Changing - viewing things differently
    • Identifying a new mentor or new role.
    • Scanning environment for data
    • Refreezing – Integrating with the new scenario
    • The new personality
    • New Relationships
  • 12. Action research
    • Problem identification
    • Consultation with behavioral science expert
    • Data gathering and preliminary diagnosis
    • Feedback to a key client / group
    • Joint diagnosis of the problem
    • Joint action planning
    • Action
    • Data gathering after action - (Loops back to point 4)
  • 13. Action research
  • 14. Contemporary Action Research.
    • Choose positive subjects
    • Collect positive stories with broad participation
    • Examine data and develop possibility propositions
    • Develop a vision with broad participation
    • Develop action plans
    • Evaluation (Loops back to point 5)
  • 15. Burke–Litwin Model of Change
    • First Order Change
      • happens when some features of the organization change
      • Leads to:
        • transactional change
        • Organisational climate
    • Second Order Change
      • happens when the organization undergoes certain fundamental changes.
      • Leads to:
        • transformational change
        • Change in organizational culture
  • 16. Transactional Factors
  • 17. Transformational Factors
  • 18. Burke – Litwin Model Contd
    • There are two distinct sets of organizational dynamics.
    • Transactional leaders contribute to normal performance by guiding and motivating the employees towards the goals.
    • Transformational leaders are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on the employees.
  • 19. Burke – Litwin Model
  • 20. Porras and Robertson Model
    • This model states that OD Interventions alter features of work setting causing changes in individual and organizational improvements.
    • The work setting plays a central role in this model and consists of four factors.
  • 21. Work Setting Factors
  • 22. Systems Theory
    • “ System is an arrangement of interrelated parts”- Hanna.
    • Systems operate through the input-throughput- output mechanism.
    • Inputs - money, people, raw materials, information etc
    • Through put – conversion or transformation
    • Output - final product/service
  • 23. Features of Open Systems
    • Goal Oriented
    • Follows law of Entropy
    • Emphasis on feedback
    • Coded information
    • Dynamic Homeostasis
    • Existence of Subsystems
    • Differentiation
    • Equifinality
  • 24. System in Interaction
  • 25. Congruence among system elements.
    • Input factors
    • Environment
    • Resources
    • History
    • Organizational Elements
    • Strategy
    • Work
    • People
    • Formal and Informal Organization
    • Output Factors
    • System
    • Unit
    • Individual
  • 26. Congruence among System Elements
  • 27. Analysis of the System Theory
    • Parts of the Organizational System
    • Parts of the Environment
    • Major Variables
    • Relationship between the variables
    • Serious mistakes made in business arise because of neglect of one or more of these four factors.
  • 28. Benefits of System Theory
    • Effective Problem Solving
    • Effective leadership
    • Effective Communication
    • Effective Planning
    • Effective Organizational development
    • Avoiding founder's syndrome.
  • 29. Participation and Empowerment
    • Challenge the process
      • opportunity search
      • Risk and Experiments
    • Inspired Vision
      • Envision the past, present and future
    • Enabling
      • Foster collaboration
      • Strengthen others
    • Modeling the way
      • Set example
      • Plan small wins
    • Encourage the heart
      • Recognition of the individual
      • Celebrate accomplishments.
  • 30. Empowerment contd
    • Concept of open Book Management
    • Understanding the company's financials.
    • Self motivated employees
    • A direct stake in the business
  • 31. Parallel Learning Structure
    • A supplementing structure coexisting with the usual.
    • Features are:
    • A created structure
    • Operates in parallel
    • Questions the constraints
    • Engages inquiry, initiation and experimentation
    • Ensures Organization effectiveness
  • 32. Normative-Re educative Strategy
    • Change can be brought about by 3 kinds of strategies.
    • Empirical and Rational Strategies
    • Normative and Re educative Strategy
    • Power-Coercive Strategy
    • OD Practioners propose the normative and educative strategy for Organization Development
  • 33. Planned change – some factors
    • Magnitude of change
    • Degree of organisation
      • Identification of relevant people or groups
      • Convention
      • Organisation
      • Evaluation
  • 34. Applied Behavioral Science
    • Applied Behavioral Science is a combination of Research , Theory and Science .
    • Includes basic understanding of theory, practice, principles and concepts. ( Diagnosis)
    • Includes techniques, strategies, models, process and paradoxes. ( Treatment)
    • Illustrates awareness, observation and interpretation.
  • 35. OD Practitioner
    • Specialize in OD as a profession
    • Specialized in OD
    • Mangers and administrators who have gained expertise
  • 36. Competencies of an effective OD Practitioner - Knowledge
    • Organization behavior
    • Individual psychology
    • Group dynamics
    • Management and organization theory
    • Research methods / statistics
    • Comparative cultural perspectives
    • Functional knowledge of business
  • 37. Competencies of an effective OD Practitioner - Skills
    • Managing the consulting process
    • Analysis / Diagnosis
    • Designing and choosing appropriate ,relevant interventions
    • Facilitation process
    • Developing client capability
    • Evaluating organization change
    • Entering > contracting > Diagnosing > Intervening > Evaluating
  • 38. Competencies of an effective OD Practitioner
    • Intrapersonal skills
    • Interpersonal skills
    • General consultation skills
    • Organisation development theory
  • 39. The professional OD Practitioner - Role
    • Position
      • Internal / external
    • Marginality
    • Emotional demands
    • Use of knowledge and experience
    • Entering > contracting > Diagnosing > Intervening > Evaluating
  • 40. Career of OD practitioner
    • ……
    • … .
  • 41. Professional values of OD Practitioner
    • Social and political skills
    • Humanizing the organization
    • Open problem solving climate
    • Value conflicts
      • Role conflict
      • Role ambiguity
  • 42. Ethical dilemmas
      • Misrepresentation
      • Misuse of data
      • Coercion
      • Value and goal conflict
      • Technical ineptness
  • 43. Ethical dilemmas
  • 44. The Process of Organisation Development
    • Entering and contracting
    • Diagnosing organizations
    • Diagnosing groups and jobs
    • Collecting and analyzing diagnostic information
    • Designing interventions
    • Leading and managing change
    • Evaluating and institutionalizing organization development interventions
  • 45. The Process of Organisation Development
    • Entering and contracting
    • Diagnosing organizations
    • Diagnosing groups and jobs
    • Collecting and analyzing diagnostic information
    • Designing interventions
    • Leading and managing change
    • Evaluating and institutionalizing organization development interventions
    • OD Relationship
      • Clarifying the organisational issue
      • Determining the relevant client
        • Where and who has the problem
      • Selecting an appropriate OD Practitioner
  • 46. The Process of Organisation Development
    • Entering and contracting
    • Diagnosing organizations
    • Diagnosing groups and jobs
    • Collecting and analyzing diagnostic information
    • Designing interventions
    • Leading and managing change
    • Evaluating and institutionalizing organization development interventions
    • Developing a contract
      • How to carry out the OD process
      • Establishes the expectation of parties
      • Ground rules under which the parties will operate
    • Contracting involves
  • 47. The Process of Organisation Development
    • Entering and contracting
    • Diagnosing organizations
    • Diagnosing groups and jobs
    • Collecting and analyzing diagnostic information
    • Designing interventions
    • Leading and managing change
    • Evaluating and institutionalizing organization development interventions
    • CONTRACTING INVOLVES
    • Expectations (Matching)
    • Time and resources
    • Ground rules for working together
    • Personal process issues in entering and contracting
      • Not everything will be ideal for an OD Practitioner
      • Establishing a healthy relationship
      • OD practitioners capability to bring about change and manage change
      • Client feeling exposed
  • 48. The Process of Organisation Development
    • Entering and contracting
    • Diagnosing organizations
    • Diagnosing groups and jobs
    • Collecting and analyzing diagnostic information
    • Designing interventions
    • Leading and managing change
    • Evaluating and institutionalizing organization development interventions
    • The process of understanding how the organisation is currently functioning and provides the information necessary to design change interventions.
    • Focuses on
      • how to collect and analyse data
      • Understand the organisational issues
      • Determine how to work together to develop actions steps based on diagnosis
  • 49. The Process of Organisation Development
    • Entering and contracting
    • Diagnosing organizations
    • Diagnosing groups and jobs
    • Collecting and analyzing diagnostic information
    • Designing interventions
    • Leading and managing change
    • Evaluating and institutionalizing organization development interventions
    • Diagnosis is a collaborative process between organization members and the OD consultant to collect pertinent information, analyze it, and draw conclusions for action planning and intervention.
  • 50. The Process of Organisation Development
    • Entering and contracting
    • Diagnosing organizations
    • Diagnosing groups and jobs
    • Collecting and analyzing diagnostic information
    • Designing interventions
    • Leading and managing change
    • Evaluating and institutionalizing organization development interventions
    • NEED FOR DIAGNOSTIC MODELS
    • Models depict the relationship among different features of the organisation, its context and their effectiveness.
    • Simplification of reality
  • 51. The Process of Organisation Development
    • Entering and contracting
    • Diagnosing organizations
    • Diagnosing groups and jobs
    • Collecting and analyzing diagnostic information
    • Designing interventions
    • Leading and managing change
    • Evaluating and institutionalizing organization development interventions
    • Models
      • Open system model
        • Inputs -> Transformation -> Outputs
        • Boundaries
        • Feedback
        • Equifinality – Similar results can be achieved with different initial conditions
        • Alignment – (Congruence)
  • 52. The Process of Organisation Development
    • Entering and contracting
    • Diagnosing organizations
    • Diagnosing groups and jobs
    • Collecting and analyzing diagnostic information
    • Designing interventions
    • Leading and managing change
    • Evaluating and institutionalizing organization development interventions
    • Diagnosing groups and Jobs INPUTS -> TRANSFORMATION -> OUTPUTS - Organisation level
        • INPUTS
          • General environment and industry structure
        • TRANSFORMATION
          • Strategy, Technology, Structure, Measurement systems, human resource systems and (Intermediate output – and culture)
        • OUTPUTS
          • Organisation effectiveness, Performance productivity, stakeholder satisfaction
  • 53. The Process of Organisation Development
    • Entering and contracting
    • Diagnosing organizations
    • Diagnosing groups and jobs
    • Collecting and analyzing diagnostic information
    • Designing interventions
    • Leading and managing change
    • Evaluating and institutionalizing organization development interventions
        • Diagnosing groups and Jobs INPUTS -> TRANSFORMATION -> OUTPUTS - Group level
        • INPUTS
          • Organisation Design
        • TRANSFORMATION
          • Goal clarity
          • Team/ group functioning
          • Task structure
          • Group composition
          • Group norms
        • OUTPUTS
          • Team effectiveness – quality of work life, performancen
  • 54. The Process of Organisation Development
    • Entering and contracting
    • Diagnosing organizations
    • Diagnosing groups and jobs
    • Collecting and analyzing diagnostic information
    • Designing interventions
    • Leading and managing change
    • Evaluating and institutionalizing organization development interventions
        • Diagnosing groups and Jobs INPUTS -> TRANSFORMATION -> OUTPUTS - Individual level
        • INPUTS
          • Organisation Design
          • Group design
          • Personal characteristics
        • TRANSFORMATION
          • Skill variety
          • Autonomy
          • Feedback about results
          • Task identity
          • Task significance
        • OUTPUTS
          • Individual effectiveness – Job satisfaction, performance, absenteeism, personal development.
  • 55. The Process of Organisation Development
    • Entering and contracting
    • Diagnosing organizations
    • Diagnosing groups and jobs
    • Collecting and analyzing diagnostic information
    • Designing interventions
    • Leading and managing change
    • Evaluating and institutionalizing organization development interventions
    • Core activities
      • Planning to collect data
      • Collecting data
      • Analyzing data
      • Feeding back data
      • Following up
  • 56. The Process of Organisation Development
    • Entering and contracting
    • Diagnosing organizations
    • Diagnosing groups and jobs
    • Collecting and analyzing diagnostic information
    • Designing interventions
    • Leading and managing change
    • Evaluating and institutionalizing organization development interventions
      • Planning to collect data
    • Who am I?
    • Why am I here and What am I doing?
    • Who do I work for
    • What do I want from you and why?
    • How will I protect your confidentiality?
    • Who will access data?
    • What is in it for the organisaton?
    • Can I be trusted?
  • 57. The Process of Organisation Development
    • Entering and contracting
    • Diagnosing organizations
    • Diagnosing groups and jobs
    • Collecting and analyzing diagnostic information
    • Designing interventions
    • Leading and managing change
    • Evaluating and institutionalizing organization development interventions
      • Collecting data
    • Questionnaire
    • Interviews
    • Observations
    • Unobtrusive measures
    • Sampling …….
  • 58. The Process of Organisation Development
    • Entering and contracting
    • Diagnosing organizations
    • Diagnosing groups and jobs
    • Collecting and analyzing diagnostic information
    • Designing interventions
    • Leading and managing change
    • Evaluating and institutionalizing organization development interventions
      • Analyzing data
    • Content analysis
    • Force field analysis
    • Quantitative tools
      • Mean, standard deviation, frequency distribution
  • 59. The Process of Organisation Development
    • Entering and contracting
    • Diagnosing organizations
    • Diagnosing groups and jobs
    • Collecting and analyzing diagnostic information
    • Designing interventions
    • Leading and managing change
    • Evaluating and institutionalizing organization development interventions
      • Feeding back diagnostic information
      • Determining the content of the feedback
      • Characteristics of effective feedback
        • Relevant
        • Understandable
        • Descriptive
        • Verifiable
        • Timely
        • Limited
        • Significant
        • Comparitive
        • Unfinalised
  • 60. The Process of Organisation Development
    • Entering and contracting
    • Diagnosing organizations
    • Diagnosing groups and jobs
    • Collecting and analyzing diagnostic information
    • Designing interventions
    • Leading and managing change
    • Evaluating and institutionalizing organization development interventions
      • Feeding back diagnostic information
      • Characteristics of the feedback
      • Process –(Five features of successful
      • feedback process)
      • Motivation to work with data
      • Structure of the meeting
      • Appropriate attendance
      • Appropriate power
      • Process help
      • SURVEY FEEDBACK
  • 61. The Process of Organisation Development
    • Entering and contracting
    • Diagnosing organizations
    • Diagnosing groups and jobs
    • Collecting and analyzing diagnostic information
    • Designing interventions
    • Leading and managing change
    • Evaluating and institutionalizing organization development interventions
      • Feeding back diagnostic information
      • SURVEY FEEDBACK INVOLVES THE FOLLOWING FIVE STEPS
        • Members of the organization ,including those at the top, are involved in the preliminary planning of the survey
        • The survey instrument is administered to all members of the organization or department
        • The OD Consultant usually analyses the survey data, tabulates the results , suggests approaches to diagnsis and trains client members to lead the feedback process
  • 62. The Process of Organisation Development
    • Entering and contracting
    • Diagnosing organizations
    • Diagnosing groups and jobs
    • Collecting and analyzing diagnostic information
    • Designing interventions
    • Leading and managing change
    • Evaluating and institutionalizing organization development interventions
      • Feeding back diagnostic information
      • SURVEY FEEDBACK INVOLVES THE FOLLOWING FIVE STEPS
        • Data feedback usually begins at the top of the organization and cascades downward to groups reporting to managers at successive lower levels
        • Feedback meetings provide an opportunity to work with the data
      • Following up
      • Survey feedback and organizational dependencies
      • Limitations of survey feedback
      • Results of survey feedback
  • 63. The Process of Organisation Development
    • Entering and contracting
    • Diagnosing organizations
    • Diagnosing groups and jobs
    • Collecting and analyzing diagnostic information
    • Designing interventions
    • Leading and managing change
    • Evaluating and institutionalizing organization development interventions
      • Effective intervention
      • Criteria that defines effective intervention
        • The extent to which it fits the needs of the organization
        • The degree to which it is based on causal knowledge of the intended outcomes
        • The extent to which it transfers change management competence to organization members
  • 64. The Process of Organisation Development
    • Entering and contracting
    • Diagnosing organizations
    • Diagnosing groups and jobs
    • Collecting and analyzing diagnostic information
    • Designing interventions
    • Leading and managing change
    • Evaluating and institutionalizing organization development interventions
      • Effective intervention
      • Contingencies related to the change situation
        • Readiness for change
        • Capability to change
        • Cultural context
        • Capabilities of the change agent
  • 65. The Process of Organisation Development
    • Entering and contracting
    • Diagnosing organizations
    • Diagnosing groups and jobs
    • Collecting and analyzing diagnostic information
    • Designing interventions
    • Leading and managing change
    • Evaluating and institutionalizing organization development interventions
      • Effective intervention
      • Contingencies related to the target of change –Organizational issues
        • Strategic issues
        • Technology and structure issues
        • Human resource issues
        • Human process issues
  • 66. The Process of Organisation Development
    • Entering and contracting
    • Diagnosing organizations
    • Diagnosing groups and jobs
    • Collecting and analyzing diagnostic information
    • Designing interventions
    • Leading and managing change
    • Evaluating and institutionalizing organization development interventions
      • Overview of interventions
      • Human process interventions
      • Techno-structural interventions
      • Human resource management interventions
      • Strategic interventions
  • 67. The Process of Organisation Development
    • Entering and contracting
    • Diagnosing organizations
    • Diagnosing groups and jobs
    • Collecting and analyzing diagnostic information
    • Designing interventions
    • Leading and managing change
    • Evaluating and institutionalizing organization development interventions
      • Overview of interventions
      • Human process interventions
        • T-groups
        • Process consultation
        • Third party intervention
        • Team building
        • Organisation confrontation meeting
        • Intergroup relations
        • Large-group interventions
        • Grid organisation development
  • 68. Human process interventions INTERVENTION INDIVIDUAL GROUP ORGANISATIONAL
        • T-groups
    YES YES
        • Process consultation
    YES
        • Third party intervention
    YES YES
        • Team building
    YES Organisation confrontation meeting YES YES Inter-group relations YES YES Large-group interventions YES
        • Grid organisation development
    YES YES
  • 69. The Process of Organisation Development
    • Entering and contracting
    • Diagnosing organizations
    • Diagnosing groups and jobs
    • Collecting and analyzing diagnostic information
    • Designing interventions
    • Leading and managing change
    • Evaluating and institutionalizing organization development interventions
      • Overview of interventions
      • Techno-structural interventions
        • Structural design
        • Downsizing
        • Re-engineering
        • Parallel Structures
        • High-involvement organizations
        • TQM
        • Work design
  • 70. Techno-structural interventions INTERVENTION INDIVIDUAL GROUP ORGANISATIONAL Structural design YES Downsizing YES Re-engineering YES YES Parallel Structures YES YES High-involvement organizations YES YES YES TQM YES YES Work design YES
  • 71. The Process of Organisation Development
    • Entering and contracting
    • Diagnosing organizations
    • Diagnosing groups and jobs
    • Collecting and analyzing diagnostic information
    • Designing interventions
    • Leading and managing change
    • Evaluating and institutionalizing organization development interventions
      • Overview of interventions
      • Human resource management interventions
        • Goal Setting
        • Performance Appraisal
        • Reward system
        • Career Planning and development
        • Managing work force diversity
        • Employee wellness
  • 72. Human resource management interventions INTERVENTION INDIVIDUAL GROUP ORGANISATIONAL Goal Setting YES YES Performance Appraisal YES YES Reward system YES YES YES Career Planning and development YES Managing work force diversity YES YES Employee wellness YES
  • 73. The Process of Organisation Development
    • Entering and contracting
    • Diagnosing organizations
    • Diagnosing groups and jobs
    • Collecting and analyzing diagnostic information
    • Designing interventions
    • Leading and managing change
    • Evaluating and institutionalizing organization development interventions
      • Overview of interventions
      • Strategic interventions
        • Integrated strategic change
        • Transorganisation development
        • Mergers and acquisitions integration
        • Culture change
        • Self-designing organisation
        • Organisation learning and knowledge management
  • 74. Strategic interventions INTERVENTION INDIVIDUAL GROUP ORGANISATIONAL Integrated strategic change YES Transorganisation development YES Mergers and acquisitions integration YES Culture change YES Self-designing organisation YES YES Organisation learning and knowledge management YES YES
  • 75. The Process of Organisation Development
    • Entering and contracting
    • Diagnosing organizations
    • Diagnosing groups and jobs
    • Collecting and analyzing diagnostic information
    • Designing interventions
    • Leading and managing change
    • Evaluating and institutionalizing organization development interventions
    • Focus of change
      • Resistance to change to creating a vision and desired futures
    • Activities contributing to effective change management
      • Motivating change
      • Creating a vision
      • Developing political support
      • Managing the transition
      • Sustaining the momentum
  • 76. The Process of Organisation Development
    • Activities contributing to effective change management
    • Motivating change
      • Creating readiness for change
        • Sensitize organisation to pressures for change
        • Reveal discrepancies between current and desired states
        • Convey credible positive expectations for the change
      • Overcoming resistance to change
        • Empathy and support
        • Communication
        • Participation and involvement
    • Entering and contracting
    • Diagnosing organizations
    • Diagnosing groups and jobs
    • Collecting and analyzing diagnostic information
    • Designing interventions
    • Leading and managing change
    • Evaluating and institutionalizing organization development interventions
  • 77. The Process of Organisation Development
    • Activities contributing to effective change management
    • Creating a vision
      • Describing the core ideology
        • (thoughts, actions faith ??)
        • Considerable time to discover (3-5 basic beliefs/principles)
      • Constructing the envisioned future
        • Bold and valued outcomes
        • Desired future state
    • Entering and contracting
    • Diagnosing organizations
    • Diagnosing groups and jobs
    • Collecting and analyzing diagnostic information
    • Designing interventions
    • Leading and managing change
    • Evaluating and institutionalizing organization development interventions
  • 78. The Process of Organisation Development
    • Activities contributing to effective change management
    • Developing political support
      • Assessing change agent power
        • Knowledge -> playing it straight
        • Others support -> Using social networks
        • Personality -> Going round the formal system
      • Identifying key stake holders
      • Influencing stake holders
    • Entering and contracting
    • Diagnosing organizations
    • Diagnosing groups and jobs
    • Collecting and analyzing diagnostic information
    • Designing interventions
    • Leading and managing change
    • Evaluating and institutionalizing organization development interventions
  • 79. The Process of Organisation Development
    • Activities contributing to effective change management
    • Managing the transition.
      • Activity Planning
      • Commitment planning
      • Managing structures
    • Sustaining momentum
      • Providing resources for change
      • Building support systems for change agents
      • Developing new competencies and skills
      • Reinforcing new behaviors
    • Staying the course
    • Entering and contracting
    • Diagnosing organizations
    • Diagnosing groups and jobs
    • Collecting and analyzing diagnostic information
    • Designing interventions
    • Leading and managing change
    • Evaluating and institutionalizing organization development interventions
  • 80. The Process of Organisation Development Entering > contracting > Diagnosing > Intervening > Evaluating
    • Evaluating OD interventions
      • Implementing and evaluating feedback
      • Measurement
        • Designing good measures
          • Operational definition
          • Reliability
          • Validity
          • Research design
            • Internal validity
            • External validity
            • (Hypothesis)
    • Entering and contracting
    • Diagnosing organizations
    • Diagnosing groups and jobs
    • Collecting and analyzing diagnostic information
    • Designing interventions
    • Leading and managing change
    • Evaluating and institutionalizing organization development interventions1
  • 81. The Process of Organisation Development
    • Measurement …Contd
      • Features for assessing changes
      • Longitudinal measurement
        • (Before / after)
      • Comparison unit
      • Statistical analysis
      • Three types of change
      • Alpha (Desired and expected)
      • Beta (Requires calibration)
      • Gamma (Needs fundamental redefinition)
    • Entering and contracting
    • Diagnosing organizations
    • Diagnosing groups and jobs
    • Collecting and analyzing diagnostic information
    • Designing interventions
    • Leading and managing change
    • Evaluating and institutionalizing organization development interventions
  • 82. The Process of Organisation Development
    • Institutionalizing – Three key factors that affect intervention characteristics and institutionalization process
      • Congruence
      • Stability in environment and technology
      • Unionization
    • Entering and contracting
    • Diagnosing organizations
    • Diagnosing groups and jobs
    • Collecting and analyzing diagnostic information
    • Designing interventions
    • Leading and managing change
    • Evaluating and institutionalizing organization development interventions
  • 83. The Process of Organisation Development
    • Institutionalizing- Five features that affect institutionalization process
      • Goal Specificity
      • Programmability
      • Level of change target
      • Internal support
      • sponsorship
    • Entering and contracting
    • Diagnosing organizations
    • Diagnosing groups and jobs
    • Collecting and analyzing diagnostic information
    • Designing interventions
    • Leading and managing change
    • Evaluating and institutionalizing organization development interventions
  • 84. The Process of Organisation Development
    • Institutionalization processes that affect the degree to which OD interventions are institutionalized
      • Socialization
      • Commitment
      • Reward allocation
      • Diffusion
      • Sensing and calibration
    • Entering and contracting
    • Diagnosing organizations
    • Diagnosing groups and jobs
    • Collecting and analyzing diagnostic information
    • Designing interventions
    • Leading and managing change
    • Evaluating and institutionalizing organization development interventions
  • 85. The Process of Organisation Development
    • Indicators of institutionalization.
      • Knowledge
      • Performance
      • Preferences
      • Normative consensus
      • Value consensus
    • Entering and contracting
    • Diagnosing organizations
    • Diagnosing groups and jobs
    • Collecting and analyzing diagnostic information
    • Designing interventions
    • Leading and managing change
    • Evaluating and institutionalizing organization development interventions
  • 86. Types of interventions
    • Human process interventions
    • Techno-structural interventions
    • Human resource management interventions
    • Strategic interventions
  • 87. Human Process Interventions Individual, interpersonal and group process approaches
    • T-groups
    • Coaching
    • Training and development
    • Process consultation
    • Third party intervention
    • Team building
  • 88. T-groups - Purpose
    • Made up of Strangers
    • Purpose – to understand
      • Group dynamics
      • Leadership
      • Interpersonal relationships
    • Results in Better understanding and awareness ….and
      • insight on own behaviour, sensitivity towards behaviour of others, group and inter group process, interpersonal and inter group relations, ability to analyze own behaviour etc..
  • 89. Coaching
    • Involves
      • Guided inquiry, active listening, reframing to enable individuals see a new or different possibility.
    • The process can be technique driven
      • when formula, tools and advice are substituted for Good judgment, facilitation and compassion.
    • Goals:
      • Execute transition, addressing a performance problem, leadership development,
    • Coaching and Therapy
  • 90. Coaching
    • Application – closely follows planned change – entering, contracting, assessment, debriefing, action planning, intervention and assessment
      • Establish the principles of the relationship
      • Conduct an assessment
      • Debrief the results
      • Develop an action plan
      • Implement the action plan
      • Asses the results.
  • 91. Training and development
    • Provide skills and knowledge the employees need to perform.
    • For T&D to be an OD Intervention it must focus on changing the skills and Knowledge of a group, to improve their effectiveness and build capabilities of an organisation system.
  • 92. Training and development
    • Application –
      • perform a needs assessment
      • Develop the objectives and design the training
      • Deliver the training
      • Evaluate the training
  • 93. Process consultation
    • “ Creation of a relationship that permits the client to perceive, understand and act on the process events that occur in [his or her] internal and external environment in order to improve the situation as defined by the client” – Schein
  • 94. Process consultation
    • 10 principles
      • Always try to be helpful
      • Always stay in touch with the current reality
      • Access your ignorance
      • Everything you do is an intervention
      • The client owns the problem and the solution
      • Go with the flow
      • Timing is crucial
      • Be constructively opportunistic with confrontive intervention
      • Everything is information: errors will always occur and are the prime source for learning
      • When in doubt share the problem
  • 95. Process consultation
    • Group process – must be able to address the following issues
      • Communication – verbal and non verbal
      • The functional roles of group members
      • Group problem solving and decision making
      • Group norms
      • The use of leadership and authority
  • 96. Process consultation
    • Individual interventions
      • Johari window
      • Page 276 (Effective feed back)
    • Group interventions
      • Address the process, content or structure of the group
        • Process interventions
          • Sensitize group to its own internal processes and generate interest in analyzing them
          • Involves – comments, questions, observations – or members- behavior, problem solving and decision making, identity and purpose of the group.
        • Content interventions
        • Structural interventions
  • 97. Process consultation
    • Group interventions
      • Address the process, content or structure of the group
        • Process interventions
        • Content interventions
          • Helps determine what the group works on
        • Structural interventions
          • Examines the stable and recurring methods it uses to accomplish tasks and deal with external issues.
  • 98. Third party interventions
    • Focus on conflicts arising between two or more people within the same organisation
      • Arise on account of differences in personality, task orientation, goal independence, perception among group members, competition for scarce resources - Work methods, pay rates, conditions of employment
    • Effectiveness of third party intervention???
    • Episodic model of conflict -
  • 99. Conflict cycle Issues – triggering event – Behavior – Consequences – Leads to (newer )issues triggering event
  • 100.  
  • 101. Conflict resolution
    • Understand the type of conflict
    • Context in which the intervention is occurring
    • Role to be assumed and tactic chosen
    • Must have skill in diagnosis , intervention, follow up and be highly sensitive to own feeling and others feeling
  • 102. Team building
    • FSNP
      • Employee involvement, work design, restructuring and strategic change
    • Team effectiveness tool – page 285 { Җ }
  • 103. Team building
    • One or more individuals
    • Group operation and behavior
    • Relationship with the organisation
      • (Team building process becomes relevant and important in all three categories)
      • Page 292 (tool)
  • 104. Human Process Interventions Organisation process approaches
    • Organisation confrontation meeting
    • Inter group relations
    • Large-group interventions
    • Grid organisation development
  • 105. Human Process Interventions Organisation process approaches
    • Organisation confrontation meeting
    • Inter group relations
    • Large-group interventions
    • Grid organisation development
    • Mobilise resources of the entire organisation
      • Identify problems
      • Set priorities
      • Action targets
      • Work on identified problems
    • Results
      • Classic approach to problem solving in org.
      • Out comes are successful as well as not so – evaluative research is necessary
  • 106. Human Process Interventions Organisation process approaches
    • Organisation confrontation meeting
    • Inter group relations
    • Large-group interventions
    • Grid organisation development
    • Application stages
      • A group meeting of all involved is scheduled
      • Representation from all departments/functional areas
      • Groups are to open and honest
      • One/two hours to identify the problem
      • All groups Reconvene to present report on problems
      • Segregate the problem as solvable by themselves / by other in their department
      • Rank the problems and develop tactical action plan, timetable for completing the set priorities
      • Meet regularly to follow up on progress and reset priorities
  • 107. Human Process Interventions Organisation process approaches
    • Organisation confrontation meeting
    • Inter group relations
    • Large-group interventions
    • Grid organisation development
    • Need
      • Groups often must work through other groups
      • Groups within organisation create problems and place demands on other groups
      • The quality of relationship between groups can affect the effectiveness of the organisation
    • Two interventions
      • Microcosm groups
      • Inter group conflict resolution
  • 108. Human Process Interventions Organisation process approaches
    • Organisation confrontation meeting
    • Inter group relations
    • Large-group interventions
    • Grid organisation development
    • Microcosm groups
      • A small group of individuals who reflect on the issue being addressed
      • Application stages
        • Identify an issue
        • Convene the group
        • Provide group training**
        • Address the issue
        • Dissolve the group
  • 109. Human Process Interventions Organisation process approaches
    • Organisation confrontation meeting
    • Inter group relations
    • Large-group interventions
    • Grid organisation development
    • Inter group conflict resolution
      • To resolve dysfunctional * conflicts between groups
    • Application stages
      • A consultant external to the two groups obtains agreement to work directly on improving the relationship
      • Time is set for groups to meet
  • 110. Human Process Interventions Organisation process approaches
    • Organisation confrontation meeting
    • Inter group relations
    • Large-group interventions
    • Grid organisation development
    • Inter group conflict resolution
    • Application stages
      • Asked to answer questions on
        • What qualities, attributes / characteristics that describe their own group
        • What qualities attributes / characteristics that describe the other group
        • Encourage groups to specify norms of openness for feedback and discussion
      • Sent to separate rooms for answering the three questions – written statements
  • 111. Human Process Interventions Organisation process approaches
    • Organisation confrontation meeting
    • Inter group relations
    • Large-group interventions
    • Grid organisation development
    • Inter group conflict resolution
    • Application stages
      • Reconvene –A representative from each group reads the written statements (Ensure the correct image, perception and attitudes are presented)
        • Questions are allowed to ensure clear understanding of the written statements. [justifications, accusations or other statements are not allowed]
      • The groups separate again – review the reason for discrepancy
  • 112. Human Process Interventions Organisation process approaches
    • Organisation confrontation meeting
    • Inter group relations
    • Large-group interventions
    • Grid organisation development
    • Inter group conflict resolution
    • Application stages
      • After working through the areas of discrepancy and agreement – Permit open discussion between the groups to develop an overall list of remaining areas of friction and isolation
      • The two groups are asked to develop specific plans of action for solving specific problem and improving the relationship.
      • Progress as per action plan and Follow up meeting to review the problem, identify new issues and problems that have come up and design action plans for such problems
  • 113. Human Process Interventions Organisation process approaches
    • Organisation confrontation meeting
    • Inter group relations
    • Large-group interventions
    • Grid organisation development
    • Inter group conflict resolution
      • Results
        • Has positive effect
        • Attitudinal an behavioral changes will have to be planned
  • 114. Human Process Interventions Organisation process approaches
    • Organisation confrontation meeting
    • Inter group relations
    • Large-group interventions
    • Grid organisation development
    • LARGE-GROUP INTERVENTIONS
      • Also called - [Search conferences, open space meetings, open systems planning, World Cafes, future searches]
    • Need
      • New product, new environmental change. New technology, defining future of a large group.
    • The current state is the outcome of intentional and unintentional interaction among groups and individuals both from inside and outside the organisaiotn
  • 115. Human Process Interventions Organisation process approaches
    • Organisation confrontation meeting
    • Inter group relations
    • Large-group interventions
    • Grid organisation development
    • Changing organisations Vision, structure , strategy or work requires four Key assumptions
      • Organisation members perception play a major role in environmental relations
      • Organisation members must share a common view if the environment to permit coordinated action towards it
      • Organisation members perception must accurately reflect the conditions of environment if organisational responses are to be effective.
      • Organisation can not only adapt to their environment: they must create it proactively
  • 116. Human Process Interventions Organisation process approaches
    • Organisation confrontation meeting
    • Inter group relations
    • Large-group interventions
    • Grid organisation development
    • Application stages
      • Preparing large group meetings
        • Compelling meeting theme
        • Appropriate participants
        • Relevant tasks to address the conference theme
  • 117. Human Process Interventions Organisation process approaches
    • Organisation confrontation meeting
    • Inter group relations
    • Large-group interventions
    • Grid organisation development
    • Conducting the meeting - Open system methods
      • Map the current environment surrounding the organisation
      • Asses the organisations response to environmental expectation
      • Identify core mission of the organisation
      • Create realistic future scenario of environmental expectations and organisations response
      • Compare the present with the ideal future and prepare action plan for reducing the discrepancy
  • 118. Human Process Interventions Organisation process approaches
    • Organisation confrontation meeting
    • Inter group relations
    • Large-group interventions
    • Grid organisation development
    • Conducting the meeting - Open system methods
      • Set the conditions for self organizing
      • Create the agenda
      • Coordinate the activity through information
      • Follow up on meeting outcomes
    • Results
      • Found to have impact
      • There is dramatic rise in the method
  • 119. Human Process Interventions Organisation process approaches
    • Organisation confrontation meeting
    • Inter group relations
    • Large-group interventions
    • Grid organisation development
    • An out come of managerial and organisational effectiveness
      • Barriers to excellence
        • Planning
        • Communications
      • Normative model of leadership – The managerial Grid has two dimensions
        • The concern for people
        • The concern for production
  • 120.  
  • 121. Human Process Interventions Organisation process approaches
    • Organisation confrontation meeting
    • Inter group relations
    • Large-group interventions
    • Grid organisation development
    • Objective and result
      • Improve planning by developing a strategy for organisational excellence
      • IS most effective in overcoming communication barrier to corporate excellence
  • 122. Human Process Interventions Organisation process approaches
    • Organisation confrontation meeting
    • Inter group relations
    • Large-group interventions
    • Grid organisation development
    • Six phases
      • Grid seminar
      • Team development
      • Inter group development
      • Ideal model of organisational excellence
      • Implementation of the model
      • Evaluation of the organisation
  • 123. Types of interventions
    • Human process interventions
    • Techno-structural interventions
    • Human resource management interventions
    • Strategic interventions
  • 124. Techno-structural interventions
    • Structural design
    • Downsizing
    • Re-engineering
    • Parallel Structures
    • High-involvement organizations
    • TQM
    • Work design
  • 125. Peter singe “The fifth Discipline”
    • Personal mastery
    • Mental models
    • Building shared vision
    • Team learning
    • Systems thinking
  • 126. Robert K. Greenleaf
    • Servant leaders
  • 127. Ken Blanchard
    • Kenneth Hartley Blanchard (born May 6, 1939)
      • One minute manager
        • - one-minute goals, one-minute praising and one-minute reprimands.
      • Seagull manager
        • - "Seagull managers fly in, make a lot of noise, dump on everyone, then fly out."
  • 128. Henry Mintzberg - The Rise and Fall of Strategic Planning
    • Mintzberg advocates more emphasis on post graduate programs that educate practicing managers (rather than students with little real world experience) by relying upon action learning and insights from their own problems and experiences
  • 129. Henry Mintzberg
  • 130. Max de pree
  • 131. Edgar schein
  • 132. John Seddon
    • John Seddon
      • Known for attacks on current British management thinking including: the belief in economies of scale, quality standards such as ISO9000
      • Criticism of public sector reform including 'deliverology', the use of targets, inspection and centralised control of local services.
  • 133. Jim Collins - the Hedgehog concept
  • 134. Arie de Geus
    • In "The Living Company", he maintains that the most enduring companies treat their enterprises as 'living work communities' rather than purely economic machines.
      • A 'global statesman' of business change, widely recognised as the originator of many of the principles and practises underlying the Learning Organisation concept, and is one of the world's most effective business strategists.