Logic Education for Philosophers: A Case in Japan
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Logic Education for Philosophers: A Case in Japan

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Tokyo Forum of Analytic Philosophy, Dec 13, 2012

Tokyo Forum of Analytic Philosophy, Dec 13, 2012

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  • 1. Logic education for philosophers: a case in JapanLogic education for philosophers: a case in Japan Yuko Murakami Tohoku University December 13, 2012Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 1 / 69
  • 2. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan BackgroundsLogic tradition in Japan: Ono KatudiOno Katudi (1909-2001)Ono wrote the first logic paper as Japanese: Untersuchungen uber ¨die Grundlagen der Mathematik, J. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo, Sect. I 3,329-389 (1938).It was reviewed by Gentzen and MacLane.taught at Shizuoka and Nagoya: still strong in logic Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 2 / 69
  • 3. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan BackgroundsLogic tradition in Japan: Takeuti GaishiTakeuti Gaishi (1926-): colleague and friend of G¨del o 1956 Sugaku Kisoron (Foundation of Mathematics) 1962 Professor, Tokyo University of Education 1963 Moved to Univ Illinois (-1992) 1971 Gendai Shugoron Nyumon (Introduction to modern set theory) 1972 Sugaku Kisoron no Sekai (The world of foundation of mathematics) Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 3 / 69
  • 4. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan BackgroundsLogic tradition in Japan: Takeuti Gaishi 1975 Proof Theory 1978 So, Ken, Topos (Sheaf, Category, and Topos) 1980 Chokkan shugi teki Shugoron (Intuitionistic set theory) 1981 Senkei Daisu to Ryosirikigaku (Linear algebra and Quantum Mechanics) Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 4 / 69
  • 5. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan BackgroundsLogic tradition in Japan: Takeuti GaishiMore philosophical? 1982 Sugaku teki Sekai Kan (A mathematical worldview) 1983 Lee daisu to Soryusiron (Lee algebra and Particle theory) 1985 Mugen Sho Kaiseki to Butsurigaku (Infinitesimal and Physics) 1986 G¨del o 1988 Shomeiron Nyumon (Introduction to Proof Theory) with Yasugi Mariko 1990 G¨del no Yume (G¨del’s dream) o o Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 5 / 69
  • 6. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan BackgroundsLogic tradition in Japan: Takeuti GaishiEven after he moved to UIUC from Tokyo U of Education in 1963, hetrained many Japanese logicians, including Takahashi (Horai) Masako Yasugi Mariko Okada Mitsuhiro (Mitsu)Proof theory became the mainstream of logic in Japan Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 6 / 69
  • 7. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan BackgroundsLogic tradition in Japan: Ishimoto ArataIshimoto Arata (1917-) Tokyo Tech. (1968-1991) Logic leader ofphil. of sci community. Polish logic. Mereology. translations Hilbert-Ackermann Gruntz¨ge der theoretische Logik(with Takeo u Ji-ichiro) Reichenbach Elements of symbolic logic Lemmon Introduction to axiomatic set theory1965 Kyoto U. part-time lecturer. Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 7 / 69
  • 8. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan BackgroundsLogic tradition in Japan: Seki SetsuyaSeki Setsuya (1926-) One of early logicians in Japan. later shifted tomath education. 1954 Sugaku Josetu (Introduction to Mathematics, with Yoshida Yoichi) 1955 Kisoron (Foundation) 1956 Kori (Axioms) 1957 Shugo-ron Nyumon (Introduction to Set Theory) 1958 Kakuritu ron Nyumon (Introduction to Probability theory)Yoshida Natsuhiko (1928-) Hokkaido U, Tokyo Tech.One of importers of logical positivism 1955 Translation of Ayer Language, Truth and Logic 1958 Ronrigaku (Logic) Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 8 / 69
  • 9. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan BackgroundsLogic tradition in Japan: Maehara ShojiMaehara Shoji (1927-1992)1938- Tokyo University of Education1955- Tokyo TechAuthor of items ”Foundation of Mathematics” and ”Set theory”Encyclopedic Dictionary of Mathematics: The Mathematical Societyof Japan (Kiyoshi Ito (ed.)) 1966 Suri Ronrigaku Josetsu (Introduction to Mathematical Logic) 1967 Kigo Ronri Nyumon (Introduction to Symbolic Logix) Reprinted in 2005 1968-1969 Translation of Bourbaki Set Theory 1973 Suri Ronrigaku (Mathematical Logic) 1977 Sugaku Kisoron Nyumon (Introduction to Foundation of Mathematics) Reprinted in 2006 Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 9 / 69
  • 10. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan BackgroundsLogic tradition in Japan: Algebraic and Relevantlogic Relevant logics, logical operations: Hirokawa Sachio (Kyushu), Komori Yuichi (Chiba) Modal logic: Sugihara Takeo (Fukui U), Suzuki (Shizuoka) Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 10 / 69
  • 11. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan BackgroundsStanford Connectionnot just philosophy but linguistics and cognitive science Japanese visiting scholars at CSLI: Nakatogawa, Tutiya, Harada, Ishikawa, Irifuji... Researcher Kameyama Ph.D.s Kanazawa (NII) Shirahata (Keio) publication Barwise-Gawron-Plotkin-Tutiya (eds.)Situation Theory and its Applications: Volume 2 (1991) Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 11 / 69
  • 12. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan Textbooks and curriculumslogic textbooks in late 1980sSakai Hidehisa (1934-1994): active until mid-1980s 1965 Yoso Ronri ni kansuru Ichi Kosatu (An Essay on Modal Logic) 1968 Translation of Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus 1968 Gendai Ronrigaku (Modern Logic) with Sakamoto Hyakudai. 1979 Nihongo no Bunpo to Ronri (Grammer and Logic of Japanese). Montague grammer applied to Japanese with introduction to higher-order logic.Shimizu Yoshio 1984 Kigo Ronrigaku (Symbolic Logic). Up to incompleteness theorem. Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 12 / 69
  • 13. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan Textbooks and curriculumsEarly 1990s : social situationCliche: that Japanese are not logical. Such a claim was heard almostevery day on major newspapersHide Ishiguro and Mitsu Okada came back to Tokyo (Keio U) Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 13 / 69
  • 14. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan Textbooks and curriculumsTextbooks before 2000s: translationsTranslated textbooks mainly for 100-200-level-equivalent logiccourses Quine (1959) Methods of Logic (Japanese translation by Nakamura 1961) Lemmon (1965) Beginning Logic (Japanese translation by Takeo and Asano 1973, reprinted in 2001) Nolt-Rohatyn (1988) Scham’s outline of logic. (Japanese translation by Kachi and Saito, 1995-1996) Jeffrey (1991 Reprinted 2004) Formal Logic (Japanese translation by Todayama 1997) Barwise-Etchemendy Language, Proof and Logic: translation by Osawa-Nakagawa-Nakatogawa (Hokudai group) 2006 Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 14 / 69
  • 15. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan Textbooks and curriculumsTextbooks in 1990s-2000s: original textbooksOno, H. (1994) Joho Kagaku ni okeru Ronri (Logic in Informatics) One of the best logic textbook.Ono, H. (1994) Joho Daisu (Algebra for Informatics) Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 15 / 69
  • 16. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan Textbooks and curriculumsTextbooks in 1990s-2000s: original textbooksNoya(1997) Ronri training exercise book (2001), new version (2006) Flow chart analysis of logical connections of a paragraph under influence of Nolt-Rohatyn Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 16 / 69
  • 17. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan Textbooks and curriculumsTextbooks in 1990s-2000sTodayama Ronrigaku wo Tsukuru (To make logic) focuses on FoL, but mentions modal and intuitionistic logic (frustrated by other textbooks?) Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 17 / 69
  • 18. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan Textbooks and curriculumsTextbooks in 1990s-2000sList of textbooks of mathematical logic (Kamo Hiroyasu) Introductory 1967 (reprinted 2005) Maehara 1992 Hosoi Intermediate 1977 (reprinted 2006) Maehara 1989 Hayashi 1994 Ono Advanced 1988 (reprinted 2010) Takeuti-Yasugi Shomeiron Nyumon (Introduction to Proof Theory) Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 18 / 69
  • 19. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan Textbooks and curriculumsLogic in other communitiesCritical thinking in English education as well as debate Criticalthinking in psychology Critical Shinkaron (comics)Logic in jurisprudence; Need communication. (e.g. Faculty of Law,Kanazawa U.) Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 19 / 69
  • 20. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan activities in academic associationslogic education workshops, PSSJPhilosophy of Science Society, Japan (Katetsu)Organizers: Nakatogawa, Iida 1993 Overview of logic education 1994 Logic in first-year 1995 Logic education software 1999 Japanese language and logic Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 20 / 69
  • 21. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan activities in academic associationsMurakami (1998)Why importing American logic education is irrelevant in Japan System in higher education: lack of practice sessions due to just nominal TA system Number of faculty members in a single philosophy department Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 21 / 69
  • 22. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan Social factorshigher education policy change1992 Liberal art education became non-mandatory, while logicpositions were mostly in liberal artLogic positions in philosophy departments. National U: only in Hokkaido U. Fujimoto, Noya, Nakatogawa. Public: Tokyo Metropolitan U Private: Keio, Waseda Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 22 / 69
  • 23. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan Social factors2000s: under economic depressionSocial demands to higher education reasoning skills, communication skills non-subject examinations PISACritical thinking courses became popular Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 23 / 69
  • 24. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan ASL questionnaireASL report (Zach 2004)37 answers from top 50 US universities average number of faculty members w AOS logic: 3.83 average number of logic courses (regularly offered): 4.81 Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 24 / 69
  • 25. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan ASL questionnaireCurriculum contents crithical thinking: UG 9, G 0 formalization (no metalogic) UG 18, G 11 metalogic (up to completeness) UG 0, G21 formalization and completeness 2 metalogic as a semester course 14 metalogic plus incompleteness 2 metalogic, incompleteness, computability as a semester course 3 modal logic G5 set theory G1 formal semantics G3 seminar G1 Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 25 / 69
  • 26. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan ASL questionnairenotesOnly one university can obtain a degree in philosophy with taking nologic course (Arizona)Teaching assistantship usually include training of teaching criticalthinking and formalization Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 26 / 69
  • 27. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan ASL questionnaireUS standard of minimal logic skills of philosophers introductory metalogic pedagogy of critical thinking and formalization Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 27 / 69
  • 28. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan ASL questionnaireASL guideline 2004Recommendations for beginning post-secondary education All post-secondary institutions should offer at least one introductory course which teaches the basic notions of logic. All students should be encouraged to take such a course. These courses should include the following: The informal notion of ”logically correct argument”. Informal strategies for producing logically correct arguments and counterexamples to fallacious arguments. The propositional calculus as an example of a formal language, formal proofs, and the formalization of natural language arguments. Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 28 / 69
  • 29. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan ASL questionnaireASL guideline 2004Recommendations for beginning post-secondary education (cont’d) All post-secondary institutions should offer at least one introductory course which teaches the basic notions of logic. All students should be encouraged to take such a course. These courses should include the following: A discussion of the relationship of proof, truth, and counterexamples, including a discussion of the Soundness Theorem. The predicate calculus extension of propositional logic. At least an informal discussion of the Completeness Theorem, if time permits. Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 29 / 69
  • 30. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan ASL questionnaireASL guideline 2004Recommendations for advanced post-secondary education Institutions of higher learning should, in addition, offer a course or (sequence of courses) which cover the following logic-related topics. Elementary facts about sets (up through basic facts about binary relations, the diagonal method, the proof that uncountable sets exist, and the basic properties of countable sets). Basic facts about inductive definitions and proofs by induction, of the kind that permeate logic. Propositional and Predicate Calculus (The formalization of informal argument, the axiomatic method in mathematics and science). Semantics (truth and validity, definability, the Soundness Theorem, the notion of consistency, the Gdel Completeness Theorem). Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 30 / 69
  • 31. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan ASL questionnaireASL guideline 2004Recommendations for advanced post-secondary education (cont’d) The course’s format, the instructor’s field, and the interests of the students and instructor will all influence the tone, the presentation, the emphasis, and the choice of additional topics. The basic concerns and results of logic listed here, however, are relevant and applicable to many areas of science and scholarship, and should be considered within the core of logic. Whether this core material should be covered in one course or a sequence of two or more courseswould depend on many parameters: the backgrounds and abilities of students, the length of the course, and the depth one wanted to go into the various topics, for example. These are matters which will have to be settled at the local level. Beyond this core material, there is additional material which should be made available to all students. Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 31 / 69
  • 32. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan ASL questionnaireASL guideline 2004Recommendations for advanced post-secondary education (cont’d) Institutions of higher learning should also offer courses which include the following material within their scope. An introduction to proof theory (Natural Deduction, the Gentzen Hauptsatz, Herbrand’s Theorem, for example). Some additional model theory (e.g., the L´wenheim-Skolem o theorems for countable languages, the decidability of the theory of dense linear orderings, the non-expressibility of various mathematical notions in first-order logic, non-standard models of arithmetic). Some additional set theory (some cardinal and ordinal arithmetic, a discussion of the axiom of choice). An introduction to computability theory (some machine model of effective computability, Church’s Thesis; absolutely unsolvable problems; the undecidability of validity). Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 32 / 69
  • 33. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan ASL questionnaireASL guideline 2004Recommendations for advanced post-secondary education (cont’d) Institutions of higher learning should also offer courses which include the following material within their scope. An introduction to other kinds of logic. Just which would depend on the interests of the faculty in question. Some examples include intuitionistic logic, higher-order logic, modal logic, temporal logic, infinitary logic, and substructural logics. An introduction to uses of logic in computer science (e.g., unification and the resolution method and their connections to PROLOG, and the λ-calculus and its connections to LISP in particular and computation in general). Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 33 / 69
  • 34. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan ASL questionnairenotes Category theory and other contents may be adequate nowadays unified approach to substructural logics are necessary More background knowledge in mathematics absolutely needed for philosophy students Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 34 / 69
  • 35. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan toward current projectA proposal and trialsMurakami (2009) proposal on logic in philosophy education critical thinking formalization introductory metalogic Turing machine, incompleteness proof theory non-classical logics remedial of mathematics Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 35 / 69
  • 36. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan toward current projectworkshop 2009Workshop (2009): How to train philosophers as heavy users of logic?What about logic should philosophers know in 2030? Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 36 / 69
  • 37. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan toward current projectworkshop 2009From discussion PSSJ should encourate information sharing A roadmap needed: what to learn before grad school admission Career paths of philosophers and logicians should be discussed Critical thinking should become a required course for every philosophy student Philosophy of science has same problems Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 37 / 69
  • 38. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan toward current projectworkshop 2009Comments from questionnaire, mostly from graduate students andpostdocsWant connections to philosophy want to learn not just technical skills but also applications and history of logic It is not clear which part of logic relates to my own specialized field like to study history of logic as well as non-hand-waving mathematical logic Philosophical logic and philosophy of logic history and background philosophical discussion behind logic training of symbolizatoin of philosophical arguments of my specialization area may be of interest Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 38 / 69
  • 39. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan toward current projectworkshop 2009Faculty comment from questionnaireActive learning or practice sessions desired In my student days, there were few logic textbooks. No practice sessions. I just took notes and at only some occations I answered questions when I was pointed. Homework every week or practice sessions will train students more. Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 39 / 69
  • 40. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan toward current projectworkshop 2009Faculty comment from questionnaireCurriculum There is no connection between logic education and math education. We should have been taught first-order logic before analysis in the first-year of college [i.e. real-number analysis, which requires the ϵ − δ argument] Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 40 / 69
  • 41. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan toward current projectworkshop 2009from questionnaireWorkshops and tutorials 72 percent (34) of answers want tutorials. 26 like non-classical logics, 21 like set theory 3-day intensive session a year is popular Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 41 / 69
  • 42. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan toward current projectworkshop 2009Observations Graduate students have little idea which skills and knowledge of logic are involved in their own field Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 42 / 69
  • 43. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan toward current projectA responseTutorial on non-classical logic by Graham Priest, Kyoto February15-17, 2010 Day 1. Modal logic. Day 2. Conditionals and Intuitionistic logic Day 3. Many-valued logic. Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 43 / 69
  • 44. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan toward current projectPJ: advanced logic for philosophersJSPS Grant-in-aid Project ”Promotion of Advanced Logic forPhilosophers” (2011-2014) Aim. development of a teaching material of advanced logic in Japanese. review trends in logic via colloquium test runs of advanced logic courses Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 44 / 69
  • 45. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan Kaken project: PhilLogMathPhilLogMathAim: Trend review of logicPhilosophy, Logic and Mathematics (Linguistics too)Day-long seminars on logic in Tokyo and Kyoto Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 45 / 69
  • 46. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan Kaken project: PhilLogMathPhilLogMath 0As a satellite workshop of PSSJ November 11 2011, Osaka University Shunsuke Yatabe (AIST) Yablo’s paradox and coinduction Ryota Akiyoshi (Keio) Reconsidering Gentzen’s consistency proof Yuko Murakami (Tohoku) Development of non-classical logic Takeshi Yamada (Tokyo) Concept of evidence in anti-realism Takuro Onishi (Kyoto) How to find logical rules Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 46 / 69
  • 47. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan Kaken project: PhilLogMathPhilLogMath 1First workshop in Tokyo November 21 2011, Seiryo Kaikan Morning session: celebrating publication of the translation of Graham Priest’s Towards non-being Minao Kukita (Kyoto) ambiguity of description phrases Naoya Fujikawa (Kyoto) Intensional transitive verbs in Towards Non-being Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 47 / 69
  • 48. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan Kaken project: PhilLogMathPhilLogMath 1 Afternoon session: Ambiguity Tetsuji Iseda (Kyoto) Statistical model and subjective probability of ambiguous predicates Kengo Okamoto (Tokyo Met) Transitions, contextual variables, ignorability—Ambiguity from the point of dynamic hybrid logic Shunsuke Yatabe (AIST) Ambiguity and limits: definability of coinductive objects in constructive naive set theory and its consequences Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 48 / 69
  • 49. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan Kaken project: PhilLogMathPhilLogMath 2Shift to an international workshop March 14, 2012, Seiryo Kaikan Takuro Onishi (Kyoto) ”BHK-interpretation and Bilateralism” Katsuhiko Sano (JAIST) ”An ‘Impossibility’ Theorem in Radical Inquisitive Semantics” Masahiko Sato (Kyoto) ”Bootstrapping Mathematics” Richard Dietz (Tokyo) ”Comparative Concepts” Conrad Asmus (JAIST) ” Vagueness and Revision Sequences” Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 49 / 69
  • 50. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan Kaken project: PhilLogMathPhilLogMath 3Linguistics included May 17 2012, Seiryo Kaikan ”Author meets Critics” meeting on Takuro Onishi’s Doctor thesis on proof theoretic semantics (session in Japanese) Daisuke Bekki and Hiroko Ozaki (Ochanomizu University) Sub-directional Combinatory Logic (SDCL) and Categorial Grammar Chung-chieh Shan (Cornell Unversity/ Tsukuba University) Interpreting generic statements in topological spaces” Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 50 / 69
  • 51. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan Kaken project: PhilLogMathPhilLogMath 4theoretical linguistics, metaphysics and non-classical logicContinued to be in English July 16 2012, Seiryo Kaikan Wataru Uegaki (MIT) scalar implicature Takashi Yagisawa (SCUN) possibilities beyond possible worlds Tetsuhiro Kamide (Cyber University) An embedding-based method for non-classical logics Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 51 / 69
  • 52. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan Kaken project: PhilLogMathLessons so far from PhilLogMathThe workshop series has its model— Logic seminar in Indiana Presentation or attendance should give one of goals for graduate students in the related areas? Linguistics should be emphasized more? Philosophical talks? Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 52 / 69
  • 53. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan Kaken project: Course practiceadvanced undergraduate and graduate Kyoto (Yatabe) Tohoku 2011 (Murakami) Tohoku 2012 (Murakami) Kyoto CAPE seminar 2012 (Yatabe and Murakami) Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 53 / 69
  • 54. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan Kaken project: Course practiceKyoto(Yatabe)One-year course covering Proof theory Minimal logicGetting popular! Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 54 / 69
  • 55. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan Kaken project: Course practiceTohoku (Murakami)Based on ideas outlined in Murakami (2010) Tetsugaku no tame noronrigaku nyumon ippo mae (Advanced introduction to logic forphilosophers) Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 55 / 69
  • 56. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan Kaken project: Course practiceTohoku 2011(Murakami)Goal: To understand Ishiguro’s infinitesimal interpretation of Leibniz FOL completeness Skolem theorem existence of non-standard modelResult: spent too much time on remedial mathematics. FOUND: Nomath in written entrance examination for Tohoku philosophy. Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 56 / 69
  • 57. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan Kaken project: Course practiceTohoku 2012(Murakami)Goal: understand (1) Putnam’s twin earth (2) Kripke’s rigiddesignator basic model theory toward homomorphism and isomorphism of structures possible world semantics of quantified modal logicPutnam seemed OK. Rigid designator might have well required awhole semester... Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 57 / 69
  • 58. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan Kaken project: Course practiceKyoto CAPEShort course: 1.5-hour lectures, 4 times Yatabe 1 proof theory: substructural logic and hypersequents Yatabe 2 theory of truth on non-classical logics Murakami 1 modal logic: from relational semantics to algebraic semantics Murakami 2 algebraic logic Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 58 / 69
  • 59. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan Kaken project: Course practicefindings Need a full-semester or year-long course even for a single topic No prerequisite system. How to make it teacher-proof? Kyoto students have better math skills? Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 59 / 69
  • 60. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan Kaken project: Course practiceNext plansCredit-awarding course at Kyoto Kyoto CAPE 2013: graduate-level logic course (Yatabe, Murakami)Possibilities of other forms Open University, Tokyo Met U.: Matsuzaka et al. Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 60 / 69
  • 61. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan Kaken project: Course practiceanalysis Institutional problems budgetary-personnel problems academic problems Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 61 / 69
  • 62. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan Kaken project: Course practiceinstitutional problems and budgetary problemsSuch problems are not specific to logic but common to fields withoutdepartment-level organization, such as statistics.Lack of course numbering system: no standard curriculum, noprerequisite description. Transfer is exceptional.Few universities offer sound classes of logic. Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 62 / 69
  • 63. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan Kaken project: Course practiceLogic specific problems?Training of philosophers of science has common problems interdisciplinary area which requires knowledge and skills in natural science/math most students learn those areas only for university entrance examination for humanities: most national universities: multiple choice test of math up to high school Math II (without differentiation/integration but introduction) and introductory natural science. Tokyo and Kyoto are better as they have written exams of math even for humanities and social science. private universities: math is required only in exceptional cases for humanities. Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 63 / 69
  • 64. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan Kaken project: Course practicecf. Ishiguro’s comments on British educationsystem”I am sorry for those excellent philosophers not to have a chance tolearn mathematics after they chose their subjects when they were 11years old in a grammar school. They did not even know much aboutelementary calculus. I really appreciate Japanese education afterWWII, where even girls learnt mathematics!” Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 64 / 69
  • 65. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan Kaken project: Course practiceno need of philosophers any more?Naturalization of philosophy. Methodology of individual science,mostly experimentalLogic as a tool of mathematicization of philosophy: it was theprogram of analytic philosophy Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 65 / 69
  • 66. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan Situation changingonlinemassive open online course (MOOC).COURSERA does not offer a transcript in Japanese for courses of thefirst-year courses, but it is possible in a few years.English as teaching language? Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 66 / 69
  • 67. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan Situation changingwho should offer basic training for professionals?University or academic associations?can the organization offer advanced courses?sustainability of part-time lecturer system Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 67 / 69
  • 68. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan Situation changingShould logic stay in philosophy? If yes, how?Already shifted to CS/mathematics?What research areas of philosophy require logic? historical investigation of philosophy of logic and others, i.e. analytic philosophy of the 20th century philosophical logic foundation of mathematics, or philosophy of mathematics any others? Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 68 / 69
  • 69. Logic education for philosophers: a case in Japan Situation changingFuture of philosophers with logical skillsacademic writing centers: a possible career option of philosophers? International Symposium on Academic Writing and Critical Thinking Nagoya University, Japan, 16 February 2013 Yuko Murakami (Tohoku University) December 13, 2012 69 / 69