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  1. 1. Beringia the way of fisrt americans Xue xue zhu 1r Btx D INS M ÀRIUS TORRES
  2. 2. INDEX <ul><li>1-Introdution </li></ul><ul><li>1.1 what ‘s the Beringia </li></ul><ul><li>1.2 where is ? </li></ul><ul><li>1.3 why is important </li></ul><ul><li>2- Pleistocene age </li></ul><ul><li>2.1 what happen? </li></ul><ul><li>2.2 why so important ? </li></ul><ul><li>2.3 what kind of the organism living in that moment ? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introdution <ul><li>  The Earth was formed about 4,600 million years ago, was a huge fireball .... Then, little by little, it cooled and its elements are joined in layers thatsubsequently formed the crust. The interior continued hot and spewing volcanicgases erupted that led to the atmosphere;  In the atmosphere there was great amount of steam that turned to rain, thus forming the first oceans and continents.  With the presence of these components are the first forms of life, the first plantsand animals, mainly in the sea. </li></ul><ul><li>  Terrestrial plants to multiply, increase oxygen in the atmosphere, causing the planet to be more suitable for life. So the plants began to diversify.  Many years later appeared on the early Earth humans. And story began of this way……… </li></ul>
  4. 4. Where is ? <ul><li>There was then a land bridge between Asia and Alaska (Siberia and Alaska, there is no more than 75 miles. ) </li></ul>
  5. 5. What’s the Beringia <ul><li>During the last glaciation, the ice concentration in the continents lowered the sea level about 120 meters. This decrease was that in several parts of the world land connections were created, one of those places was called Beringia. Because theBering Strait, which separates Asia from America, has a depth of 30 to 50 meters, falling waters exposed a vast territory reaching 1500 km wide, joining the lands ofSiberia and Alaska, approximately 40 000 years ago. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Why is so important? <ul><li>Because there was the main way of the arrival of man in America, is the crossing of the Bering Bridge: Scientists say theBering Bridge, ready to be trodden by men and animals, lasted a &quot;short&quot; period during the last glaciation, when the level sea ​​reached approximately 120 metersdown, and the current Bering Strait, isthmus became, during two stages. The firststage lasted about 4,000 years and the second stage, some 15,000 years. That is, the Bering Bridge traffic conditions remained for about 19,000 years ago. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Pleistocene age <ul><li>Pleistocene, also known as alluvial World (from 2,588,000 years ago to 11,700 years ago), the early Quaternary geological age. During this period the vast majority ofanimal and plant species similar to modern. Salient features of climate cooling, there is a clear glacial and interglacial alternate. At this point, five major ice age occurredin Europe: more brain glacial, glacial intellectual groups, Minde glacial, Rees andTamaki glacial ice. Humans also appear during this period. </li></ul>
  8. 8. What happen? <ul><li>Apperence of biggest animals </li></ul><ul><li>In this age , apperence the humans </li></ul><ul><li>And the humans traveled continent to continent. </li></ul><ul><li>Apprence ice age </li></ul><ul><li>End the this age, began a extinction of animals </li></ul>
  9. 9. What kind of organism living in that moment? <ul><li>Like: </li></ul><ul><li>mastodon american (mammut americamun ) </li></ul><ul><li>Saber-toothed cats </li></ul><ul><li>Camelops hesternus </li></ul><ul><li>Dire wolves </li></ul><ul><li>Harlan’s ground sloth </li></ul><ul><li>Western horse </li></ul><ul><li>Bison antiquus </li></ul>
  10. 10. Mammut americamum <ul><li>The american mastodon was a distant relative of the ancestors of the elaphant. During the pleistocene it ranged from Alasaka to Florida. </li></ul><ul><li>Mastodons differ from mammoths by their smaller size and lower-crowned ridged teeth. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Saber-toothed cats <ul><li>Saber-toothed cats were powerfully buit ambush predators that were only distantly related to true cats. </li></ul><ul><li>Smilodon fatalis is the california state fossil and remains of more than 2,000 individuals have been recovered from Rancho la Brea. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Camelops hesternus <ul><li>Camels evolved in North america about 45million years ago and subsequently migrated to Asia, africa, and south america. The extinct camelops from rancho la brea was large as living camels bur more closely related to living llamas. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Dire wolf <ul><li>Dire wolves are the most common large mammal from Rancho La Brea and remains of more than 4,000 individuals have been retrieved from the asphalt deposits. Most were probably trapped while attempting to feed on other animals stuck in the asphalt. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Harlan ‘s ground slothe <ul><li>This is the largest and most common of the three species of ground sloth found at Rancho La Brea and may have weighed up to 1,500 Ibs. </li></ul><ul><li>Harlan ‘s ground slothe had small nodules of bone (osteoderms)buried in its skin that provided a kind of amor against attack by predators. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Western horse <ul><li>Horses evolved in North America about 50 million years ago and survives unthil about 11,000 years ago. The western horse was one of the last horse species native to North America. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Bison antiquus <ul><li>Bison are the most common large herbivores from Rancho La Brea. Orginating in Asia, they only enteres North America about 200.000years ago . their arrival marks the beginning of the Rancholabrean land mammal age. </li></ul>
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