المنظم الكهربائي

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  • 1. ‫٘جٛغ اٌدٙذ أعجبثٗ ٚغشق ِؼبٌدزٗ‬ ‫اٌذوزٛس إٌّٙذط ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدسٞ‬ ‫‪munthear@gmail.com‬‬‫2102/4/5‬ ‫ِشوض اٌزذس٠ت اٌؼشثٟ - ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدسٞ‬ ‫1‬
  • 2. ‫أمثلة على أضرار ارتفاع أو انخفاض التوتر‬ Transmitters are often placed in remote locations, at the top of mountains, in rural areas. The long utility lines produce poor voltage regulation, and the transmitter tower attracts lightning strikes. ‫% 51انخفاض التوتر بمقدار‬ 10 % ‫ارتفاع التوتر بمقدار‬‫أخٙضح اإلسعبي‬ Power tube life decreased by Power tube life decreased 2/3 because cold by operation 2/3 due to increased promotes buildup of temperatures contaminates accelerating decarburizing in tube. process. 5/4/2012 ٞ‫ِشوض اٌزذس٠ت اٌؼشثٟ - ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدس‬ 2
  • 3. Critical medical equipment draws large bursts of power. Stable voltages are needed for acceptable images. To work properly, Step less, low impedance regulators are required 15 % ‫انخفاض التوتر بمقدار‬ 10 % ‫ارتفاع التوتر بمقدار‬Underexposed X-Ray and Life of video monitors & inputCAT images, & poor quality power supplies greatly reduced.MRI images due to power Brakes holding the starvation. Controls may arms & tables in place overheat shut down and reset. and fail. 5/4/2012 ٞ‫ِشوض اٌزذس٠ت اٌؼشثٟ - ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدس‬ 3
  • 4. ‫اٌّسشوبد‬ The starting and maximum running torque of standard induction motors varies as the square of the voltage. Heating increases with low or high voltage, and voltage unbalance. 15 % ‫أخفبض اٌزٛرش ثّمذاس‬ 10 % ‫اسرفبع اٌزٛرش ثّمذاس‬ Torque Decreases 38% Torque Increases 21% Current Increases 20% Current Decreases 6% Losses Increase 38% Losses Increase 19% Temp. Increases 32% Temp. Increases 10% Motor Life Decreases 72% Motor Life Decreases 25% 5/4/2012 ٞ‫ِشوض اٌزذس٠ت اٌؼشثٟ - ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدس‬ 4
  • 5. ‫اإلظبءح‬ As shown below, light output and life of incandescent lamps are dramatically affected by changes in the voltage. Fluorescent lamps are less affected. However, fluorescent ballasts are quite sensitive to voltage. 15 % ‫أخفبض اٌزٛرش ثّمذاس‬ 10 % ‫اسرفبع اٌزٛرش ثّمذاس‬ Life Increases 880% Life Decreases 67% Light Decreases 40% Light Increases 33% Need one third more bulbs to Bulbs must be replaced three give adequate lighting. times as often. 5/4/2012 ٞ‫ِشوض اٌزذس٠ت اٌؼشثٟ - ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدس‬ 5
  • 6. Includes: strip, radiant and immersion heaters; soldering irons and pots; heat-treating furnaces; ovens; etc. The heat produced varies as the square of the voltage. 15 % ‫أخفبض اٌزٛرش ثّمذاس‬ 10 % ‫اسرفبع اٌزٛرش ثّمذاس‬ Heat Decreases 28% Heat Increases 21%Typical batch heating job will Heating element life is decreased, take 4 hours instead of 3 and part being hours. heated may be damaged. 5/4/2012 ٞ‫ِشوض اٌزذس٠ت اٌؼشثٟ - ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدس‬ 6
  • 7. These include solenoids, vibratory feeders, magnetic clutches and brakes, contactors, relays, etc. The pull of AC solenoids varies as the square of the voltage. 15 % ‫أخفبض اٌزٛرش ثّمذاس‬ 10 % ‫اسرفبع اٌزٛرش ثّمذاس‬ Force Decreases 28% Force Increases 21%Solenoid takes longer to open Solenoid temperature and valve, close a relay, eject a wear go up, and the life of part, etc. The device may the solenoid is substantially fail to operate. reduced. 5/4/2012 ٞ‫ِشوض اٌزذس٠ت اٌؼشثٟ - ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدس‬ 7
  • 8. Items from military radar, to personal computers, to numerical machine tools. These devices are so greatly affected by voltage variations that some regulation is usually built in.15 % ‫أخفبض اٌزٛرش ثّمذاس‬ 10 % ‫اسرفبع اٌزٛرش ثّمذاس‬ Electron tubes (computer Unregulated electron tubes fail monitors and TV picture 4 times as fast, circuits tubes) put out much less component malfunction,power, pictures shrink, and and systemcircuits may fail to operate. failures increase.5/4/2012 ٞ‫ِشوض اٌزذس٠ت اٌؼشثٟ - ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدس‬ 8
  • 9. These include plating, DC welders, precipitators, battery chargers and DC motor supplies. The rectifier output voltage varies with the AC input voltage. 15 % ‫أخفبض اٌزٛرش ثّمذاس‬ 10 % : ‫اسرفبع اٌزٛرش ثّمذاس‬ Poor welds are produced. Plating thickness may bePlating deposition rates drop excessive. Welds burn 15-40%. Battery charging through. Batteries over may cease. 38% drop in charge. Reduced surge capacity precipitator power. of metal rectifiers. 5/4/2012 ٞ‫ِشوض اٌزذس٠ت اٌؼشثٟ - ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدس‬ 9
  • 10. ‫المواصفات األولٌة المطلوبة‬ ‫للمنظمات‬ ‫1- تنظٌم الجهد. ( دقة التنظٌم الدٌنامٌكً والستاتٌكً)‬ ‫2- مجال الدخل . ( مجال عرٌض لتغٌرات جهد الدخل)‬ ‫3- الممانعة الداخلٌة. ( ممانعة خرج منخفضة).‬ ‫4- توافق مع الحمل. (احمال إقالع, حمل ردي,حمل نبضً, حمل‬ ‫مضجج,..)‬‫5– عناصر الحماٌة.( الحاالت العابرة , الحمل الزائد, إرتفاع الجهد,‬ ‫فلترة ,)‬ ‫6- المردود.(مردود عالً , عدم الحاجة لتبرٌد)‬ ‫2102/4/5‬ ‫ِشوض اٌزذس٠ت اٌؼشثٟ - ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدسٞ‬ ‫01‬
  • 11. ‫رٕظ١ُ اٌدٙذ‬ ‫عشػخ اإلعزدبثخ‬ ‫رٕظ١ُ عزبر١ىٟ‬ ‫رٛاصْ األغٛاس‬ ‫رٕظ١ُ د٠ٕبِ١ىٟ‬‫2102/4/5‬ ‫ِشوض اٌزذس٠ت اٌؼشثٟ - ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدسٞ‬ ‫11‬
  • 12. ‫مقدار الزٌادة‬ ‫خٙذ اٌذخً‬ ‫+%‬ ‫إزاحة المجال‬ ‫ِدبي رغ١شاد اٌذخً‬ ‫% ِدبي اٌزٕظ١ُ‬ ‫-%‬ ‫مقدار النقصان‬‫2102/4/5‬ ‫ِشوض اٌزذس٠ت اٌؼشثٟ - ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدسٞ‬ ‫21‬
  • 13. ‫ممانعة خرج المنظم‬ ‫اٌّّبٔؼخ اٌؼبٌ١خ اٌذاخٍ١خ ٌٍّٕظُ رإدٞ ئٌٝ:‬ ‫1- إنخفاض الجهد‬ ‫2- إزدٌاد التشوه التوافقً للجهد‬ ‫3- إرتفاع حرارة المنظم وإنخفاض مردوده.‬‫2102/4/5‬ ‫ِشوض اٌزذس٠ت اٌؼشثٟ - ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدسٞ‬ ‫31‬
  • 14. ‫توافق مع الحمل‬ ‫اٌمذسح ػٍٝ اٌزؼبًِ ِغ خّ١غ أٔٛاع األزّبي:‬ ‫1- أزّبي راد ر١بس ئلالع ػبٌٟ.‬ ‫2- أزّبي راد ِؼبِالد لذسح ِخزٍفخ.‬ ‫3- أزّبي راد ِؼبًِ رسًّ ٔجعٟ ػبٌٟ ‪Crest factor‬‬‫2102/4/5‬ ‫ِشوض اٌزذس٠ت اٌؼشثٟ - ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدسٞ‬ ‫41‬
  • 15. Overload ‫تجاوز الحمل‬ 100% rated continuous 200% rated 60 seconds 400% rated 3 seconds 600% rated 1 second 800% rated 0.5 second 1000% to 2500% 1/2 cycle inrush . ِٓ‫ثؼط األزّبي رغزدش ر١بسا وج١شا ٌفزشح لص١شح ِٓ اٌض‬5/4/2012 ٞ‫ِشوض اٌزذس٠ت اٌؼشثٟ - ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدس‬ 15
  • 16. ‫عناصر الحماٌة‬ ‫1- زيادة التحميل.‬ ‫2- الحالة العابرة.‬ ‫3- إرتفاع التوتر.‬ ‫4- إقالع ناعم.‬ ‫5- تأخير الخرج.‬ ‫6- إرتفاع الحرارة .‬ ‫7- الممر اآللي.‬ ‫8- عسل الحمل.‬‫2102/4/5‬ ‫ِشوض اٌزذس٠ت اٌؼشثٟ - ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدسٞ‬ ‫61‬
  • 17. ‫‪Efficiency‬‬ ‫المردود‬ ‫ِٕظُ ‪ِ 100KVA‬شدٚد %09‬ ‫ِثبي :‬ ‫٠غزٍٙه ‪ 111KVA‬رمش٠جب‬ ‫اٌع١بػبد ‪11KVA‬‬ ‫اإلعزٙالن ثّؼذي 01عبػبد ػًّ ٠ِٛ١ب ‪11 KVAH‬‬ ‫اإلعزٙالن اٌغٕٛٞ ‪3300KVAH‬‬ ‫اٌٙذس 000001 ي ط رمش٠جب عٕٛ٠ب‬ ‫٠ؼبدي سثغ ثّٓ إٌّظُ!!!!!!‬‫2102/4/5‬ ‫ِشوض اٌزذس٠ت اٌؼشثٟ - ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدسٞ‬ ‫71‬
  • 18. ‫أنواع منظمات الجهد‬ Tap Switching System ‫1- نظام تبدٌل التفرٌعات‬ ‫2- محول متغٌر مع محول رافع خافض‬Variable Transformer with Buck-Boost Transformer Limited Range Variable ‫3- محول متغٌر بمجال محدود‬ ‫ 4- المفاعلة المشبعة‬Transformer Constant ‫ 5- محولة الطنٌن ذو التوتر الثابت‬Saturable Reactor Voltage Ferroresonant Transformer Induction System ً‫6- النظام التحرٌض‬ Phase Controlled Regulators ‫7- المنظمات المحكومة بالطو ر‬ Power 5/4/2012 ٞ‫ِشوض اٌزذس٠ت اٌؼشثٟ - ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدس‬ ‫8- ِى١فبد اٌمذسح‬ 18
  • 19. ‫ِٕظّبد رجذ٠ً اٌزفش٠ؼخ‬ ‫‪Tap Switching Transformer‬‬‫2102/4/5‬ ‫ِشوض اٌزذس٠ت اٌؼشثٟ - ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدسٞ‬ ‫91‬
  • 20. ‫اٌزفش٠ؼبد ٠ّىٓ أْ رىْٛ فٟ اٌذخً أٚ فٟ اٌخشج.‬ ‫٠ّىٓ ئ٠زُ رجذ٠ً اٌزفش٠ؼبد ػٕذ ِشٚس ِٛخخ اٌدٙذ ثبٌصفش ٚ٘زا ٠ف١ذ فٟ ئٌغبء اٌسبٌخ اٌؼبثش ح.‬ ‫٠ّىٓ ٌٍّٕظُ أْ رىْٛ ئ عزدبثزٗ عش٠ؼخ ِٓ ِشرجخ دٚسح ٚازذح أٚ دٚسر١ٓ‬ ‫ِٓ ِغبؤٜ ٘زا إٌّظُ - ػذَ ٚخٛد ػضي .‬ ‫- ػذَ ئِىبٔ١خ ِؼبٌدخ اٌسبالد اٌؼبثشح ٚاٌزشٛ٘بد .‬ ‫- اٌزٕظ١ُ ػٍٝ خطٛاد ِسذٚدح‬‫2102/4/5‬ ‫ِشوض اٌزذس٠ت اٌؼشثٟ - ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدسٞ‬ ‫02‬
  • 21. ‫ِسٛالد رغ١١ش اٌزفش٠ؼخ‬‫‪Electronic tap changing transformer‬‬ ‫2102/4/5‬ ‫ِشوض اٌزذس٠ت اٌؼشثٟ - ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدسٞ‬ ‫12‬
  • 22. ‫النظام التحرٌضً‬ ‫٘زا اٌزصّ١ُ رُ ئشزمبلٗ ِٓ اٌّسشن اٌزسش٠عٟ رٚ اٌذائش اٌٍّفٛف.‬ ‫ٌٗ ٍِف ئثزذائٟ ِٛصٛي ػً غشفٟ دخً اٌزغز٠خ , ٚاٌٍّف اٌثبٔٛٞ ِٛصٛي ػٍٝ‬ ‫اٌزغٍغً ِغ اٌسًّ . أزذ اٌٍّفبد ِزٛظغ ػٍٝ اٌدضء اٌثبثذ ٚاٌٍّف ا٢خش ػٍٝ‬ ‫اٌدضء اٌذٚاس.‬ ‫٠زُ ظجػ خٙذ اٌسًّ ثٛاعطخ ِٛلغ اٌّسٛس,ز١ث أْ رذٚ٠شاٌّسٛس ٠زغ١ش‬ ‫اٌّٛظغ إٌغجٟ ٌٍٍّفبد . ٚألٔٗ ٠ؼًّ ِٓ خالي فؼً ِسٛي خطٟ غ١ش خطٛٞ‬‫فأٗ ٠ّزبص ثذلخ خ١ذح ٚلذسح رسًّ خ١ذح . ٚثغجت اٌفدٛح اٌٙٛائ١خ ث١ٓ اٌثبثذ ٚاٌذائش‬ ‫فأٗ ٠أخز ِّ١ضاد اٌّسشن, ِثً ِّبٔؼخ خشج ػبٌ١خ ِٚشدٚد ِزٛعػ ٚزدُ وج١ش‬ ‫ٚثم١ً ٚثط١ئ , ٚئِىبٔ١خ اٌّدزضءاد غ١ش ِّىٕخ ِغ ٘زا اٌزصّ١ُ .‬ ‫2102/4/5‬ ‫ِشوض اٌزذس٠ت اٌؼشثٟ - ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدسٞ‬ ‫22‬
  • 23. ‫المحول الرافع الخافض المحكوم بمحول متغٌر‬ ‫‪Variable Transformer Controlled Buck-Boost Transformer‬‬ ‫٘زٖ إٌّظّبد رغزخذَ ِسٛال ِزغ١شا ٌٍزسىُ ثبٌدٙذ ػٍٝ اٌٍّف اإلثزذائٟ ٌٍّسٛي‬‫اٌشافغ-اٌخبفط ‪ buck-boost‬اٌٍّف اٌثبٔٛٞ رٚ اٌدٙذ إٌّخفط ٌٍّسٛي اٌشافغ-اٌخبفط‬ ‫٠زُ ٚصٍٗ ػٍٝ اٌزغٍغً ِغ اٌسًّ . ئػزّبدا ػٍٝ ٚظغ اٌّسٛي اٌّزغ١ش ٘زا اٌٍّف‬‫اٌثبٔٛٞ عٛف ٠ع١ف أٚ ٠طشذ خٙذا ِٓ ل١ّخ اٌذخً ٌدؼً خٙذ اٌخشج ثبثزب ػٍٝ ل١ّخ‬ ‫ِسذدح . ثاػزجبس أْ وال اٌّسٌٛ١ٓ ٠سزبج لذسح ِّب ٠إدٞ ئٌٝ خفط اٌّشدٚد ٚص٠بدح‬ ‫اٌّّبٔؼخ .‬ ‫2102/4/5‬ ‫ِشوض اٌزذس٠ت اٌؼشثٟ - ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدسٞ‬ ‫32‬
  • 24. ‫اٌّسٛي اٌّزغ١ش اٌّمبد ثّسشن‬ ‫ٍِفبد رغٍغٍ١خ‬‫اٌذخً‬ ‫اٌخشج‬ ‫ِسشن اٌزصس١ر‬ ‫‪Motorized variac‬‬ ‫2102/4/5‬ ‫ِشوض اٌزذس٠ت اٌؼشثٟ - ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدسٞ‬ ‫42‬
  • 25. ‫ِٕظُ ع١شفٛ – اٌّسٛي اٌّزغ١ش‬‫2102/4/5‬ ‫ِشوض اٌزذس٠ت اٌؼشثٟ - ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدسٞ‬ ‫52‬
  • 26. ‫اٌّخطػ اٌصٕذٚلٟ ِغ اإلظبفبد‬‫2102/4/5‬ ‫ِشوض اٌزذس٠ت اٌؼشثٟ - ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدسٞ‬ ‫62‬
  • 27. ‫2102/4/5‬ ‫ِشوض اٌزذس٠ت اٌؼشثٟ - ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدسٞ‬ ‫72‬
  • 28. ‫2102/4/5‬ ‫ِشوض اٌزذس٠ت اٌؼشثٟ - ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدسٞ‬ ‫82‬
  • 29. ‫2102/4/5‬ ‫ِشوض اٌزذس٠ت اٌؼشثٟ - ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدسٞ‬ ‫92‬
  • 30. ‫منظمات المفاعلة المشبعة‬‫٠غزخذَ ر١بس ِغزّش ٌٍزسىُ ثّٕظُ ّٔػ سافغ – خبفط ٌ١مٛد ِفبػٍخ ِشجؼخ‬ ‫ئٌٝ داخً ٚخبسج اإلشجبع اٌّغٕبغ١غٟ ػٕذ إٌمطخ اٌّطٍٛثخ ػٍٝ اٌّٛخخ‬ ‫اٌد١ج١خ. اٌّفبػٍخ اٌالخط١خ ٟ٘ ػٍٝ اٌزغٍغً ِغ اٌز١بس اٌّغجت ِّبٔؼخ‬‫ػبٌ١خ , رشٖٛ رٛافمٟ ِدبي ِسذٚد ٌّؼبًِ اٌمذسح ٌٍسًّ ‪factor load power‬‬ ‫ئْ ثٛاثذ اٌضِٓ اٌطٛ٠ٍخ اٌّشافمخ ٌٍٍّف ٠ّىٓ أْ رغجت ئعزدبثخ ثط١ئخ .‬ ‫٘زا اٌزصّ١ُ ٠سذ ِٓ ل١ّخ اٌز١بس اٌّغزٞ ِّب ٠ف١ذ فٟ ػٍّ١خ اٌسّب٠خ ِٓ‬ ‫ردبٚص اٌسًّ , ز١ث ال٠غزط١غ رغز٠خ أزّبي رزطٍت ر١بساد ئلالع وج١شح‬ ‫خذا.‬‫2102/4/5‬ ‫ِشوض اٌزذس٠ت اٌؼشثٟ - ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدسٞ‬ ‫03‬
  • 31. ‫خبٔك اٌزشجغ ٚ اٌّعخُ اٌّغٕبغ١غٟ‬ ‫‪Vin‬‬ ‫‪Vout‬‬‫2102/4/5‬ ‫ِشوض اٌزذس٠ت اٌؼشثٟ - ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدسٞ‬ ‫13‬
  • 32. ‫ِٕظّبد اٌّفبػٍخ اٌّشجؼخ‬ ‫ِفبػٍخ ِشجؼخ‬ ‫اٌخشج‬‫اٌذخً‬‫‪Saturable reactor regulator‬‬ ‫2102/4/5‬ ‫ِشوض اٌزذس٠ت اٌؼشثٟ - ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدسٞ‬ ‫23‬
  • 33. ‫محوالت الجهد الثابت‬ ‫)‪(Ferroresonant‬‬ ‫٘زٖ اٌّسٛالد صّّذ ٌزىْٛ إٌٛاح ِشجؼخ ِغٕبغ١غ١ب ػٕذ اٌدٙذ ٚاٌزشدد اٌّطٍٛة, ثاػزجبس أْ اٌّسٛي ِشجغ‬ ‫فاْ اٌخشج ِم١ذ ثدٙذ ثبثذ ٔغج١ب .‬ ‫ئْ اٌخشج ٌ١ظ ِٛخخ خ١ج١خ ثً ٘ٛ ألشة ٌٍّٛخخ اٌّشثؼخ, ٚخصٛصب ِغ األزّبي اٌالخط١خ.‬ ‫رعبف ػٕبصش سٔ١ٓ ٌسّب٠خ خٙذ اٌخشج ِٓ اٌزشٖٛ اٌىج١ش. اٌزشٖٛ فٟ اٌخشج ألً ِٓ %5‬ ‫٘زٖ اٌٛزذاد رٕظُ اٌزٛرش ثذلخ %5-3 .‬ ‫اٌّّبٔؼخ اٌذاخٍ١خ ػبٌ١خ. ٌزٌه غ١ش ِٕبعجخ ألزّبي اإللالع.‬ ‫ٌٙب ظد١ح رارٟ .‬ ‫رزأثش ثزغ١شاد اٌزشدد.‬ ‫٠غزخذَ ٘زٖ اٌطش٠مخ اٌزّبثٍ١خ فٟ ػٍٝ ٔظبق ٚاعغ فٟ ِى١فبد اٌمذسح ٌزغز٠خ األزّبي اإلٌىزشٚٔ١خ .‬ ‫رّزبص ٘زٖ إٌّظّبد ثمذسرٙب ػٍٝ رخّ١ذ اٌسبالد اٌؼبثشح وّب رف١ذ فٟ ززف اٌزٛافم١بد‬‫2102/4/5‬ ‫ِشوض اٌزذس٠ت اٌؼشثٟ - ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدسٞ‬ ‫33‬
  • 34. ٟ‫ِٕظّبد اٌطٕ١ٓ اٌّغٕبغ١غ‬Ferroresonant transformer with a neutralizing winding 5/4/2012 ٞ‫ِشوض اٌزذس٠ت اٌؼشثٟ - ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدس‬ 34
  • 35. ‫رغزخذَ ٘زٖ اٌطش٠مخ اٌزّبثٍ١خ فٟ ػٍٝ ٔظبق ٚاعغ فٟ ِى١فبد اٌمذسح ٌزغز٠خ األزّبي اإلٌىزشٚٔ١خ .‬‫٠ؼًّ اٌّسٛي فٟ ِٕطمخ اإلشجبع اٌّغٕبغ١غٟ . ٚثبٌزبٌٟ اٌخشج ٌ١ظ ِٛخخ خ١ج١خ ثً ٘ٛ ألشة ٌٍّٛخخ اٌّشثؼخ,‬ ‫ٚخصٛصب ِغ األزّبي اٌالخط١خ.‬ ‫رّزبص ٘زٖ إٌّظّبد ثمذسرٙب ػٍٝ رخّ١ذ اٌسبالد اٌؼبثشح وّب رف١ذ فٟ ززف اٌزٛافم١بد .‬ ‫اٌزٕظ١ُ ِغزّش ٚعٍظ.‬ ‫اٌشدٚد ظؼ١ف.‬ ‫2102/4/5‬ ‫ِشوض اٌزذس٠ت اٌؼشثٟ - ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدسٞ‬ ‫53‬
  • 36. Ferro resonant TransformersNeutralizing Winding in Ferroresonant Transformer Clips Voltage Transients and Normal ModeNoise 5/4/2012 ٞ‫ِشوض اٌزذس٠ت اٌؼشثٟ - ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدس‬ 36
  • 37. ‫ِٕظّبد اٌدٙذ اإلٌىزشٚٔ١خ‬‫‪Electronic voltage regulator‬‬ ‫٠غّٝ أز١بٔب ِى١ف لذسح‬ ‫2102/4/5‬ ‫ِشوض اٌزذس٠ت اٌؼشثٟ - ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدسٞ‬ ‫73‬
  • 38. ‫صٕف خذ٠ذ ِٓ إٌّظّبد ا٢ٌ١خ رؼزّذ ػٍٝ رفٕ١خ ئٔفشرش ٠ؼًّ ػٍٝ اٌزمط١غ ثزشدد ػبٌٟ .‬ ‫٠ّىٓ أْ ٠إِٓ اعزدبثخ رصً ئٌٝ ‪. 1m sec‬‬ ‫ِٛخخ اٌخشج خ١ج١خ .‬ ‫رصّ١ُ ِذِح‬ ‫فٟ اإلعزطبػبد اٌؼبٌ١خ ٠صجر غبٌٟ اٌثّٓ.‬‫2102/4/5‬ ‫ِشوض اٌزذس٠ت اٌؼشثٟ - ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدسٞ‬ ‫83‬
  • 39. ‫‪Power Conditioners‬‬ ‫ِى١ف اٌمذسح‬ ‫٠ؼًّ ثٕظبَ اٌزمط١غ , لبدس ػٍٝ ِؼبٌدخ اٌدٙٛد اٌؼبثشح ٚئسرفبػبد اٌدٙذ‬ ‫اٌّإلزخ ٚرٕظ١ُ ئٔخفبض اٌدٙذ اٌذائُ , وّب ٠سزٜٛ ػٍٝ ِسٛي ػضي .‬‫2102/4/5‬ ‫ِشوض اٌزذس٠ت اٌؼشثٟ - ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدسٞ‬ ‫93‬
  • 40. ‫‪Soft Switching Line Conditioners‬‬ ‫ِى١فبد اٌزٛرش راد اٌزمط١غ إٌبػُ‬ ‫2102/4/5‬ ‫ِشوض اٌزذس٠ت اٌؼشثٟ - ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدسٞ‬ ‫04‬
  • 41. ‫ِٕظُ خٙذ ئٌىزشٟٚٔ ٘د١ٓ‬‫2102/4/5‬ ‫ِشوض اٌزذس٠ت اٌؼشثٟ - ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدسٞ‬ ‫14‬
  • 42. Phase Controlled Regulators ‫إٌّظّبد اٌّسىِٛخ ثبٌطٛس‬This technique uses phase controlled thyristors with LC filter to control outputvoltage. It has a slow response, high distortion especially with non-linearloads, over sized filters, very poor input line harmonics and will not handlesurge currents such as motor starting. This scheme has good line transientsuppression but will not suppress transients generated inside plant. 5/4/2012 ٞ‫ِشوض اٌزذس٠ت اٌؼشثٟ - ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدس‬ 42
  • 43. ‫ِمبسٔخ ث١ٓ األٔٛاع اٌّخزٍفخ ٌٍّٕظّبد‬ ‫ٔٛع إٌّظُ‬ ‫اٌذلخ‬ ‫ِدبي ئصازخ‬ ‫سفغ وبًِ‬ ‫ِّبٔؼخ ِٕخفعخ‬ ‫رشٖٛ رٛافمٟ‬ ‫ِؼبًِ لذسح ثىبًِ‬ ‫ردض٠ئ١خ‬ ‫ِشدٚد‬ ‫%1‬ ‫اٌذخً‬ ‫رخف١ط وبًِ‬ ‫خذا‬ ‫ِٕخفط‬ ‫اٌّدبي‬ ‫وبٍِخ‬ ‫%09‬ ‫ِٕظُ رغٍغٍٟ ,‬ ‫‪yes‬‬ ‫‪yes‬‬ ‫‪yes‬‬ ‫‪yes‬‬ ‫‪yes‬‬ ‫‪yes‬‬ ‫‪yes‬‬ ‫‪yes‬‬ ‫ِسٛي ِزغ١ش رٚ ِدبي ِسذٚد‬ ‫ِٕظُ رجذ٠ً اٌزفش٠ؼخ‬ ‫‪no‬‬ ‫‪some‬‬ ‫‪some‬‬ ‫‪yes‬‬ ‫‪yes‬‬ ‫‪no‬‬ ‫‪no‬‬ ‫‪no‬‬ ‫ِسٛي اٌدٙذ اٌثبثذ)‪(Ferro‬‬ ‫‪no‬‬ ‫‪some‬‬ ‫‪no‬‬ ‫‪no‬‬ ‫‪no‬‬ ‫‪no‬‬ ‫‪no‬‬ ‫‪no‬‬ ‫اٌّفبػٍخ اٌّشجؼخ‬ ‫‪yes‬‬ ‫‪no‬‬ ‫‪no‬‬ ‫‪no‬‬ ‫‪no‬‬ ‫‪no‬‬ ‫‪no‬‬ ‫‪no‬‬ ‫ِسٛي ِزغ١ش سافغ - خبفط‬ ‫‪yes‬‬ ‫‪some‬‬ ‫‪no‬‬ ‫‪yes‬‬ ‫‪yes‬‬ ‫‪yes‬‬ ‫‪no‬‬ ‫‪no‬‬ ‫إٌّظُ اٌزسش٠عٟ‬ ‫‪yes‬‬ ‫‪no‬‬ ‫‪no‬‬ ‫‪no‬‬ ‫‪Load‬‬ ‫‪yes‬‬ ‫‪no‬‬ ‫‪no‬‬ ‫‪Dependent‬‬‫2102/4/5‬ ‫ِشوض اٌزذس٠ت اٌؼشثٟ - ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدسٞ‬ ‫34‬
  • 44. ‫‪Voltage sag‬‬ ‫غٛساٌدٙذ‬‫2102/4/5‬ ‫ِشوض اٌزذس٠ت اٌؼشثٟ - ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدسٞ‬ ‫44‬
  • 45. ‫اٌّشىالد إٌبخّخ ػٓ غٛس اٌدٙذ‬The impact of voltage sags on industrial processes has been extensivelystudied, and is the subject of numerous reports by utilities, industries andconsultants. Short term (3-10 cycle) voltage sags are more frequent in theindustrialized nations, while brownouts tend to be more prevalent in thedeveloping countries. The biggest problem associated with voltage sags is thetripping of sensitive equipment such as motor drives. This occurs because ofinsufficient voltage across contactor and relay coils, and reduced dc busvoltages in adjustable speed motor drives, programmable controllers andother electronic loads. Some ASD’s are designed to provide automatic restart,or in some cases ride through using load inertial energy. In such cases, theASD’s will ride through the short term sag, unless the motor is part of aprecision position controlled servo process. Short term voltage sags have littleimpact on most direct line connected 5/4/2012 ٞ‫ِشوض اٌزذس٠ت اٌؼشثٟ - ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدس‬ 45
  • 46. ‫كبت الحالة العابرة‬ ‫‪Transient Suppression‬‬‫2102/4/5‬ ‫ِشوض اٌزذس٠ت اٌؼشثٟ - ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدسٞ‬ ‫64‬
  • 47. ‫مفتاح الممر الخارجً الٌدوي‬
  • 48. Delayed Output ‫تأخٌر الخرج‬This option is useful in areas where the power is unstable and frequently fails.In these applications the voltage often falls to a low level before failingentirely, and then returns at a high level. When the power goes out, it mayquickly return due to the utility circuit breakers automatically reclosing.Or, thepower may immediately come back on only to fail again as the generatorattempts to start all the connected loads at once. The delayed output option,prevents equipment damage under these conditions, and allows time for thepower to stabilize before energizing the load. This is accomplished by addinga contactor and a timer to the regulator. When the regulator is initiallyenergized: the timer starts, the contactor is open and the load is de-energized. After the preset time delay the contactor automatically closesenergizing the load. The contactor is rated for the full output current of theregulator. The time delay is field adjustable from approximately 5 to 60seconds. Factory adjusted to approximately 10 seconds when shipped. 5/4/2012 ٞ‫ِشوض اٌزذس٠ت اٌؼشثٟ - ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدس‬ 48
  • 49. SOFT START ‫ممٌزة اإلقالع الناعم‬Some loads should be started on reduced voltage in order to limit inrush currents, mechanicalshock, thermal shock, etc. The soft start option controls a WHR Series Voltage Regulator sothat when power is applied the regulator’s output voltage starts out approximately 10% low.After a preset time delay, the output voltage ramps up to the selected regulated output voltage.The soft start option can be ordered in combination with all other standard WHR Seriesregulator options.The soft start option works by driving the regulator to the minimum output voltage positionwhen power is lost (or when a user supplied contact is opened). When input power is lost, thesoft start controls automatically connect the drive motors on the POWERSTAT power module(s)to the output of a small uninterruptible power supply (UPS). This drives the power modules tothe minimum output voltage position. After a predetermined time the UPS is automaticallyturned off. It requires up to 15 seconds (depending on the size of the regulator) to drive thePOWERSTAT power module(s) to the minimum output voltage position.When regulator power is restored, the load voltage will be approximately 7% less than the inputvoltage on narrow range WHR Regulators and 13% less than the input voltage on wide rangemodels. After the soft start timer times out, the regulator control module(s) are engaged and theoutput voltage ramps up to the selected, regulated output voltage. The time delay is field 5/4/2012adjustable from 2 to 20 seconds. ٞ‫ِشوض اٌزذس٠ت اٌؼشثٟ - ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدس‬ 49
  • 50. ‫‪ISOLATION TRANSFORMERS‬‬ ‫ِسٛالد اٌؼضي‬ ‫2102/4/5‬ ‫ِشوض اٌزذس٠ت اٌؼشثٟ - ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدسٞ‬ ‫05‬
  • 51. ¥ Isolation transformers consist of two coils (primary and secondary) intentionally coupled together, on a magnetic core.¥ They have two primary functions: a)They provide isolation between two circuits, by converting electrical energy to magnetic energy and back toelectrical energy, thus acting as a new power source. b)They provide a level of common mode shielding between two circuits.¥ Since the ability of a transformer to pass high frequency noise varies directly with capacitance, isolation transformers shouldbe designed to minimize the coupling capacitance between primary and secondary sides, while increasing the coupling toground.¥ Isolation transformers have no direct current path between primary and secondary windings. This feature is not characteristicof the auto-transformer; see "Regulators".¥ Unshielded isolation transformers can only attenuate low frequency common mode noise.¥ High frequency normal mode noise can be attenuated by specially designed and shielded isolation transformers. Standardisolation transformers could not mitigate this problem because any voltage variations across the primary windings inducecorresponding voltage variations in the secondary windings.¥ An isolation transformer is normally designed with a simple Faraday electrostatic shield between the two sets of windings, toimprove the isolation characteristics of the device. Attenuation of common mode noise is typically in the 10 kHz -100 kHz range.¥ Enhanced or Super Isolation Transformers incorporate single or multiple shields to provide a higher level of attenuation ofcommon mode noise, and possibly a degree of normal mode noise attenuation. Magnetically coupled signals may still penetratethe shield. Whether or not multiple shields are included, however, it is the noise rejection capability of the installed device that isimportant. Very often a single shield is adequate. 5/4/2012 ٞ‫ِشوض اٌزذس٠ت اٌؼشثٟ - ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدس‬ 51
  • 52. ‫اعزخذاِبرٙب‬ ‫- رغزخذَ ِسٛالد اٌؼضي ٌزخّ١ذ ظد١ح إٌّػ اٌّشزشن .‬ ‫- رإِٓ ٔمطخ ِشخؼ١خ ز١بدٞ ئٌٝ األسظٟ .‬ ‫- ٠ّىٓ أْ ٠غزخذَ ٌفزر زٍمبد اٌزأس٠ط.‬ ‫- ٠ّىٓ أْ رخفط ِٓ اٌزٛافم١بد راد اٌّشرجخ اٌؼبٌ١خ, ٌىٕٙب ال رٍغٟ اٌزشٖٛ اٌزٛافمٟ أٚ رسّٟ‬ ‫ِٓ اٌمطش ‪notch‬‬‫- ٠ىّٓ أْ رزشبسن ِغ ػٕبصش أخشٜ ِثً ِخّذاد اٌسبٌخ اٌؼبثشح ٚلٛاغغ ٚغ١ش٘ب ِشىٍخ ثزٌه‬ ‫داساد ِؼمذح رؼشف ثٛزذاد رٛص٠غ اٌمذسح . )‪Power Distribution Units (PDUs‬‬ ‫- فٟ اٌزطج١مبد اٌسشخخ ٠دت ئعزخذاَ ِسٛالد ػضي ِسدجخ راد خٛدح ػبٌ١خ .‬ ‫2102/4/5‬ ‫ِشوض اٌزذس٠ت اٌؼشثٟ - ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدسٞ‬ ‫25‬
  • 53. Input – Output Nominal Voltages See Rating ChartsPhases See Rating ChartsFrequencyInput Voltage Range See Rating Charts See Rating Charts ‫المواصفات العامة‬Output Accuracy Adjustable from 1% to 3%Response Time 0.025 seconds at 60 Hz, 0.030 seconds at 50 HzRecovery Rate See Rating ChartsMaximum Input Current See Rating ChartsLoad Current and kVA See Rating ChartsLoad Capacity 100% rated continuous 200% rated 60 seconds 400% rated 3 seconds600% rated 1 second 800% rated 0.5 second 1000% to 2500% 1/2 cycle inrushLoad Power Factor 0 lagging to 0 leadingLoad Crest Factor 6 Max (I peak / I RMS)Efficiency 99% typical, at full loadHeat Generated BTU (typical) = 35 x rated kVAHarmonic Distortion Less than 1% addedSurge Withstand Capability 6000 volts per IEEE C62.41, location category BImpedance 1% (typical) without transient suppression option 2% (typical) with transient suppression option Transverse-Mode Noise Attenuation 40 dB (typical) with transientsuppression option
  • 54. ‫2102/4/5‬ ‫ِشوض اٌزذس٠ت اٌؼشثٟ - ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدسٞ‬ ‫45‬
  • 55. Temperature ‫اٌظشٚف اٌّس١ط١خ اٌج١ئ١خ‬ Operating Average ambient temperature for any 24 hour period not to exceed 30°C(86°F), and maximum temperature not to exceed 40°C (104°F). Average ambient temperature for any24 hour period may be increased to 40°C (104°F), and the maximum temperature may beincreased to 50°C (122°F), if the load is decreased to 90% of standard rating. Minimumtemperature is 0°C (32°F). Storage -40°C to +70°C (-40°F to +158°F)Humidity (Operating and Storage) Units without tropicalization 10 to 75% average relative humidity for any 7 day period, and maximumrelative humidity not to exceed 95% non-condensing. Units with tropicalization 10 to 95% average relative humidity and maximum relative humidity not toexceed 95% non-condensing.Altitude Operating Storage 50,000 Ft. (15,000 meters) max
  • 56. ‫اٌسشاسح اٌؼبٌ١خ ٌٍٛعػ اٌّس١ػ‬‫ٌجب ذكر الحرارة األعظمٌة التً ٌمكن أن ٌعمل عندها المنظم ,وهً عادة 04 درجة‬ ‫مئوٌة, وٌجب معرفة فترة التشغل على هذه الحرارة.‬ ‫كما ٌجب ذكر الحرارة الوسطى على مدى 42 ساعة , وهً عادة 03 درجة.‬ ‫كما ٌجب معرفة معدل إنخفاض اإلستطاعة مع إرتفاع الحرارة.‬ ‫2102/4/5‬ ‫ِشوض اٌزذس٠ت اٌؼشثٟ - ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدسٞ‬ ‫65‬
  • 57. High altitudes‫اإلرتفاع عن سطح البحر‬The standard ratings apply to operation in altitudes up to(2,000meters)For higher altitudes up to 10,000 Ft. (3,000 meters) and amaximum ambient of 30°C (86°F), the load should not exceed95% of rated. When selecting a regulator for these conditions,increase the required capacity by 5%.For altitudes up to 15,000 Ft. (4,500 meters) and a maximumambient of 20°C (68°F), the load should not exceed 90% of rated.When selecting a regulator for these conditions, increase therequired capacity by 10%. 5/4/2012 ٞ‫ِشوض اٌزذس٠ت اٌؼشثٟ - ِسّذ ِٕزس اٌمبدس‬ 57