UNIT‐ 1 Communication skills. Q1. What is communication? Explain the process with the help of examples. Introduction: The term “COMMUNICATION” comes from the Latin word “COMMUNICARE”, this means to impart or participate. In every mode communication is necessary and imperative. Communication: “COMMUNICATION is the process of passing information and understanding from one to another”. PROCESS OF COMMUNICATION Communication has been defined as a process, which is dynamic and ever changing in nature. Process consists of five steps:‐ ‐‐ Idea is generated ‐‐ Idea becomes message ‐‐ Message is transmitted ‐‐ Receiver gets message ‐‐ Receiver responds the message (Feed back) IDEA SENDER ENCODING MESSAGE IS TRANSMITTED RECEIVING RECEIVER DECODING MEDIUM FEED BACK
IDEATION:‐ • The process of communication begins with ideation, which refers to the formation of idea or selected message is to be communicated. • The scope of ideation is determined by sender’s knowledge, experience and abilities. SENDER:‐ • Sender is one who starts the process of communication. Sender may select the content and its kind. • It may be logical or emotional. Message may be on formal subject or general subject. ENCODING:‐ • In this stage messages are composed of symbols having translation of an already conceived idea by sender through appropriate medium. • Converting idea to message can be termed as encoding, which needs to have selected medium for it. TRANSMISSION:‐ • Transmission refers to the flow of message over a chosen channel. It is one of the most basic aspects of communication because it also involves in selecting proper time, place and way. RECEIVING MESSAGE:‐ • Receiver receives message from sender through a selected medium. The receiver has to assign meaning to a message in order to understand the message. DECODING:‐ • Decoding is reverse of encoding. It is a process of converting a message into thoughts by translating the received stimuli. • Process of decoding involves to interpretation and analysis of a message, which is done by receiver. FEED BACK:‐ • Response is the last stage in communication process. It is an action or reaction of receiver to the message received. Response is thus known as key to communication effectiveness.
CONCLUSION:‐ The flow of communication will be more effective if all the above have smooth flow, without any hindrance or noise. Other form of questions would be ‐‐‐‐‐ • Draw communication cycle. • Explain the term encoding decoding and feedback. • Explain in detail flow of communication.
Q2. What are elements of communication? Explain each element with suitable example. INTRODUCTION:‐ In communication language embodies (combines) and conveys thoughts along with language. There is also other element, which contributes to communication. ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION:‐ Intellectualism Language Initiation Expression ELEMENTS OF Feedback COMMUNICATION Knowledge Channel Attitudes Situation Purpose IN DETAIL:‐ INITIATION:‐ Communication begins a source initiates a statement in order to transmit some thoughts need idea or information. To give a welcome speech there must be an idea for what to speak.
FEEDBACK:‐ The response of the receiver that is sent back to the source forms a feed back. Feed back helps to know if the message was received correctly or not. We may intend to give feed back after attending a seminar so as how far we understood the topic. CHANNEL:‐ Channel connects the source (E.g. speaker) and receiver (listener).They may be connected to each otter by sound waves or light waves. Sound waves are carried of by language we use and light waves with facial expression and body gestures. SITUATION:‐ Situation is the place or setting in which a communicative events occur .The content will differ always when you communicate with your friends and with your boss as according to the situation. PURPOSE:‐ Purpose consists of intention of the source or speaker. It is a communicative aim of speaker. In college your teachers will speak with purpose to teach to you a given topic. ATTITUDE:‐ The speaker and the listener carry with them certain ideologies, world views, beliefs and aptitude. They are under the influence of varying emotional and mental states. Students will have negative view towards dull students of the class or to the naughty ones. KNOWLEDGE:‐ The speaker has to possess adequate knowledge of the message that is to be transmitted. Knowledge is based upon observation, study and personal experience.
There must be a proper knowledge of a given subject before examination for students. EXPRESSION:‐ Expression consists of the ability to transmit or communicate effectively. There must be clarity, intelligibility and fluency for smooth flow of it. When we have pain and sorrow we may express it with the help of tears. LANGUAGE:‐ Language is one of the most important elements in the communication process. There must be appropriate words and pattern of sentences to use language effectively. There should be politeness, in our language, when we are talking to our elders. INTELLECTUATISM:‐ Communication is sustained and made effective with the intellectualism. Speaker and listener have to express and understand views calmly, rationally, reflectively, precisely and effectively. When intellectualism is absent, thoughts and ideas are likely to be insufficient. CONCLUSION:‐ Communication needs to have creativity, which can be attained with involvement of different elements. Q3. Explain in detail the flow of communication. INTRODUCTION
Information flows in an organization both formally and informally. The flow of communication can be into various directions as: ‐ (1) Vertical communication (2) Horizontal Communication. .Upward .Downward VERTICAL COMMUNICATION .Lateral or diagonal HORIZONTAL COMMUNICATION Formal communication will flow with official hierarchy level and informal flow has no definite structure or hierarchy to follow. FLOW OF COMMUNICATION MANAGING DIRECTOR DIAGONAL HORIZONTAL DIRECTOR 1 DIRECTOR 2 DIRECTOR 3 M1 M2 M3 M1 M2 M3 M1 M2 M3 UPWARD DOWNWARD IN DETAIL:
• DOWNWORD COMMUNICATION : Downward communication flows from a manager .i.e. from top to the chain of command. For example when managers inform, instruct or advice their subordinates, the flow of communication is in downward pattern. Downward communication can take any form as member notice, new policies or procedure to ask for any analysis etc. Conversation may be through written form, face to face or telephonic.
Upward communication: When the flow of communication is from bottom line to the top authority it is termed as upward communication. For example when subordinates send a report to inform their superiors or to present their findings, communication flows upward. The extent of upward communication depends on the organization. Open culture creates a climate of trust, participative or empowerment, as they would provide input for managerial division. Suggestion box, survey, grievance procedures, reviews reports etc. provides information to top management. Lateral /Horizontal communication. This form of communication takes place among peer group or hierarchical equivalent employees. Such communication is necessary to facilitate co‐ordination, save time and bridge communication gap. Lateral communication enables the sharing of information with a view to apprise the peer group of activities of a department. This type of communication is very vital for growth of an organization as it builds co‐operation among various branches. Probability of communication gap is found because of decentralization.
Diagonal or cross lines. Diagonal or cross lines communication flows in all direction and cuts across all function and level in an organization. For example sales manager communication directly to vice president (production). This form of communication deviates from normal chain, but it’s quick and efficient. The increase use of e‐mail also encourages cross lines communication. As there is no specific line command in diagonal communication, it is also referred as cross lines, radial or circle communication, depending upon structure of an organization.
Q4. Explained basic forms of communication. Introduction:‐ There are different forms of communication by which the massage can be transmitted, it shows how massage is compassed and delivered. Forms of communication:‐ Picture/symbols/signs. Oral communication. Written communication Object language communication Body language Voice modulation space distance In detail:‐ 1. Oral communication Oral means stemming from mouth, message in the form of spoken words are referred as oral communication. The use and position of words in oral communication can make difference in understudying the intent of message. 2. Written communication:‐ Written communication refers to the words that are written and studied in the form of a message. In an organization written from of communication written from of communication is in the form of letters, means, reports etc. Whenever message is transmitted in written format, they acquire a formal structure; simple language is used, for better interpretation.
3. Body language. Body language refers to the transfer of message through signals emitted by body. Body language in almost all situations is involuntary. The receiver on most occasions is able to grasp the signals and moments at a collective’s understudying of the message. 4. Space / distance:‐ The space or distance you maintain with receiver or sender communicates the nature of relationships between both. Zone that an individual maintains:‐ Imitate 1 or 1 ½ feet Personal 4 approximately Social 10 to 11 Public 11 feet 5. Voice modulation. Voice modulation and inflection in the tone refers to the changes in voice and speech patterns. Variations in voice modulation can communication much about the feeling and attitude of the sender. Level of energy and peach of speaking also communication a message. 6. Object language. Object language refers to the message communicated by the objects. For example a respectable dress code and a brief case communicate a class. Object language allows precede oral communication, which either strengthens or negatives the image.
7. Picture / symbols/ signs. Picture, symbols and signs used, to add the content for easy understanding. Complexity to the content may anise, if picture, symbols are not used property. It must be simple, conventional, lays and creative one. Thus different forms of communication are used to convey the message with an appropriate media or channel to make more effective. Q5. Explain different levels of communication. Introduction:‐ Communication is an activity which involves transmission and inter‐change of ideas at various levels. Levels of communication:‐ Human communication takes place at various levees as:‐ • Extra personal • Intra personal • Inter personal • Organization • Mass
In detail:‐ Extra personal communication:‐ Communication between human beings and non‐human entities is known as extra‐personal. For example, “A parrot responding to your greeting”. In this form of communication, it require to perfect co‐ordination and understanding between sender and receiver. One of them will transmit information or respond in sign language. Intrapersonal communication:‐ The communication that takes place within the individual is known as intrapersonal. Brain is linked to all the parts of the body by an electrochemical system. When any information is sent to the brain it acts as receiver, and responds to the sender after processing the information. Self motivation, self determination etc. take place at the intrapersonal level. Organizational communication:‐ Communication is an organization takes place at different hierarchical levels, which is necessary for the sustenance of any organization. Communication here needs to be with proper networking for a smooth flow. It includes as:‐
Internal operational:‐ All communication that Occurs in conducting work within organization is known as inter‐operational. External operational:‐ The work related communication that an organization does with people out side the organization is called external communication personal. All communication in an organization that occurs without purpose as far as business is concerned is called personal communication. Mass Communication:‐ Communication to a large audience which is heterogeneous (made up of people) and anonymous (unknown). This type of communication is more persuasive in nature, which also requires more care on part of sender in encoding the message. Oral communication through mass media requires equipment as microphone, amplifier written form need print or visual media. Characteristics:‐ • Large reach • Impersonality • Presence of a gatekeeper.
Q6. State the difference between general and technical communication:‐ Communication is said to be a circulatory system of an organization use of different technology for a medium of communication is found, which make communication process more effective. Difference between general and technical communication Heading Technical General communication communication Factual Technical communication General form of is always found factual communication may not be always factual Formal elements Need to have formal There is no need of formal elements elements Structure In this form it’s logically Structure is not be always organized and structured. maintain Audience It defines for specific There may or may not be audience specific audience. Technique Complex and important There is no specific exposition of techniques exposition of techniques are found Graphics Usually involves graphics May or may not use graphics Style Always found to be formal Both formal and informal style style are used Content Content is technical here Content is general hereVocabulary Involves to have special Involves general vocabulary vocabulary Nature Objectives Objectives & subjective
Importance of technical communication Technical communication plays a pivotal role in an organization whether its business enterprise, an industry or an academic. Communication serves as an instrument to measure the success or growth of an organization. Revolution in information technology is having a profound impact on technical communication. Special Skill is required as of Change in Technological Environment These Skills Include 1‐Knowledge of High‐tech Communication 2‐Ability to Present 3‐Explain Complex Technical Information in Simple and Familiar Style 4‐Analyyze and Understand the data The flow of information through technical mode makes it easy and speedier Example:‐E‐mail, fax, internet etc Technical communication provides better and effective structure to a given source of information Examples: Manuals, reports, proposals. Etc. Quality and quantity of information is more overfund through technical communication which becomes more organized in an organization. Technical communication in an organization can be divided into oral and written form; selection of media plays an important role here. It is impossible for an organization to survive without communication; use of technical aspect so can never be ignored here.
Q7. Explain communication networks A variety of patterns emerge when communication combines through vertical horizontal channels. The patterns are termed as communication networks. FORMAL: There are five common communication networks that play an important role in formal network. CHAIN NETWORK – The chain network represents a vertical hierarchy in which communication can flow only upward or downward. This type of network is found as direct –line of authority communications with no deviations. Y‐NETWORK‐ Y‐Network is in effect a multi‐level hierarchy and combination of horizontal and vertical flow of communication.
It is found that two subordinates report to one senior, with two levels of authority above the latter. WHEEL NETWORK‐ Wheel network refers to several subordinates reporting in a superior. This is a combination of horizontal and diagonal flow of communication. CIRCLE NETWORK‐ Circle network allows employee to interact with adjacent members but no further. There is a vertical communication between superiors and subordinates. Horizontal is only at lowest level.
ALL CHANNELS – This form of communication network is least structured, which enables each employee to communication freely with the others. All are equal as no employee formally or informally assumes a leading role. INFORMAL NETWORK MODELS Besides flow through formal network communication in an organization also travels in informal networks. The Grapevine The informal network is very active in almost every organization. The different patterns of networks found are:‐ 1. Single stand: Single stand is the way in which most people are view in grapevine. Here the message is passed from one person to another along a single stand. 2. Gossip: In gossip network one person passes information to all other. As one to many form.
3. Probability: In this form of network the information is passed by at random, no fix structure is found here. 4. Cluster: Cluster is the most popular form of grapevine in which some people will pass information to select few others. I F B C E D J A In general informal / grapevine is: Not expensive Rapid Multidirectional Voluntary and unforced one But: Should not ignore information received through grapevine Should use supplement formal channel. Should identify but not threaten source of information Should try to understand human relationship involved
UNIT‐2 Verbal and Non Verbal Communication Skill Q1. Discuss the main elements of non verbal communication. OR What are the main components of non verbal communication? Following are the component & non verbal communication. 1) Kinesics: • Kinesics is word related to gestures, facial expression and eye contact. • One can express Intimacy, love, hate, anger, affection, agreement through your eyes. • The face also conveys happiness, sadness, love, radness and hatred ness. • Gestures are used to call someone close, or instruct to go away. 2) Proxemics: • Proxemics is derived from ‘Proximity’ which means ‘nearness’. • Distance or closeness that we maintain among ourselves communicate definite message. 3) Haptics: • Haptics is related to human touch. • Touch can communicate different message. • It depends on location, duration, intensity, frequency, instrument & touch. • Touch can communicate care for someone, concern, anger or violence
• Aggressive touches such hating or pushing. • The location of touch such as handholding or face touching convey intimacy & friendliness. 4) Chronemics: • Chronemics is the study related to study of how human beings communicate through their use of time. • In the professional world, time is a valuable commodity. When you are late for an appointment, people react negatively. • If you arrive early, you are considered either over – eager or aggressive. 5) Body language: • Body has its own language. • Body language skill is one of the essential qualities of a professional. There are some important points to be remembered to a master to a good body language. 5.1 First Impression: First impression is the last impression. 5.2 Eye contact • Eye contact with the audiences creates intimacy. • The speaker becomes a part of the audience for some moment. • Shift your vision in all direction with little pause. 5.3 Facial expression: • A speaker must look pleasant & confident. • Avoid fear from mind. • The “toilet going” facial expression creates bad impression about the speaker. 5.4 Gesture control:
5.4.1 Hands:‐ • Keep your hands empty & still. • Avoid playing with objects. • Genuine & impressive hand gestures are good to confidence & vitality. 5.4.2 Legs:‐ • Legs should be still & firm. • Speaker should stand firmly. • Don’t change place every now & then. • Speaker with interest & enthusiasm. Q2. Explain barriers of effective communication. 1. Intrapersonal Barriers 2. Interpersonal Barriers 3. Organizational Barriers. 1.) Intrapersonal Barriers:‐ • Individuals are unique because of their idiosyncrasies. • Each interprets the same information in different ways. • Certain common causers are responsible for the individual’s inbuilt barriers. 1.1Wrong Assumptions:‐ • Many barriers storm from wrong assumptions. • Wrong assumptions are generally made because the sender or receiver does not have adequate knowledge about each other back ground.
• A skilled communication keeps these issues in mind prevent them from becoming barriers. 1.2Varied Perception:‐ • Individual in organization precive situations in different ways. • The best way to overcome this barrier is to step back and take a wide perspective of the issue. 1.3Differing Backgrounds:‐ • No two persons have a similar background. • Our background plays a significant role in how we interpret message. • To enhance your communicate on skill, it is necessary to know the background of your audience. • Empathy or identification with another person is the solution to their barrier. 1.4Wrong Inferences:‐ • Inferences are more dramatic then facts and for this reason they give more scope for gossip and rumor to burgeon. • Inferences supported by facts are essential for professionals when they analyze materials, solve problems & plan procedures. 1.5Impervious categories:‐ • In general, we react positively to information only if it is in consonance with our own views and attitude. • Conversely, when we receive information that does not confirm to our personal views, habits and attitudes, appears unfavourable to us, we tend to create negatively or even disbelieve.
• Rejection, distortion and avoidance are three common, undesirable, and negative reactions to unfavorable information. • Similarly people who are very rigid in their opinions way face problems in communicating effectively. 1.6Categorical Thinking:‐ • People who feel that they “know it all” are called pan sophists. • This type of thinking exists in people who feel that they know everything about a particular subject, and therefore refuse to accept any further information on that topic. • The clue to deleting this barrier in others and ourselves is the use of words like all, always, everybody, everything, every time and there opposite like none, never, nobody and nothing. • To avoid this barrier, substitute these words with phrase like “in most situations “or likely. 2.) Interpersonal barrier:‐ • Interpersonal barriers occur due to the in appropriate transaction of words between two or more people. • The two board categories into which this barrier can be classified are. 1. Inefficiency in communication skill. 2. Negative aspect nurturing in the element. 2.1 Limited vocabulary:‐ • An inadequate vocabulary can be a major hindrance is communication. • During your speech if you are at a loss for words, your communication skill will be very ineffective and you will leave a poor impression on the audience.
• On the other hand if you have varied and substantial, vocabulary you can create an indelible impression on your listeners 2. Communication across culture. 1. Cross culture communication:‐ • Cross culture communicational flexibility is a major requirement for successful communication in our modern world. • The presentation examines the length and breadth of the issue. 2. Non verbal communication:‐ • Facial expression, other gestures, posture, bodily movements and the three distances (intimate, personal and social) are introduced. • The basic example of “sign language “are demonstrated cross culturally and the communicational implication of each are discussed. 3. Creative perception:‐ • Participants are introducing to the method and principle for sharpening observational and listening skills in cross cultural contexts. 4. Cross culture difference:‐ • In the global arena workplace we tend to minimizing or even to ignore our cultural difference while mythologizing that they no longer exist. • But this is a dangerous myth for it greatly heightens the potentials for miscommunication. 5. Cross culture miscommunication:‐ • We communicate through language, symbols, gestures and our whole bodies.
• But just as we are able to communicate through all these means, there is always the potentials to miscommunication or send unintended or false massage. • Chance of miscommunication where the communication is mixing of HC and LC communication modes such as When one party is communicating in a HC way and other in a LC way, or when a LC medium is used in a HC way. 6. Understanding conflicts in different cultures. • Much of the conflicts we experience in our global ‘market place’ today is due to the experience of unfulfilled culture specific expectations. • We can avoid the conflict by understanding what result cross culturally, in other words by understanding what is ‘acceptable’ and what is not, cross culturally. • A basic method for discovery of conflicting cultural pathways is presented. 7. Responding to conflicts in different cultures:‐ • Understanding why conflicts occur is one thing and resolving them is another. • Every culture has its own pathways for resolving conflicts. • When Parties in conflict are on different cultural tracks their expectations regarding the stages and processes of the resolution process will be different. • This usually results in a heightening of anxiety, fear or frustration, which in turn leads to a break in the process or the further devolution of the process and more conflict. • Fostering the conflict resolution process can also mean adapting the implicit expectations of European peace building NGO to those of the local groups in conflict.
UNIT‐3 Listening skills Q1. What is the difference between listening and hearing? Explain in brief different types of listening. INTRODUCATION No communication process is complete without listening. We spend near about 45% of our working time in listening only. Listening is a process of receiving. Interpreting and reacting to a message received from the speaker However listening and hearing are not same. Hearing is solely dependent on the ears, is a physical act, and barring physically impaired persons. Every one can hear without deliberate effort, as hearing is merely the vibration of sound waves on eardrums. On other hand, listening requires a voluntary attention and then making a sense of what is heard. It requires conscious efforts to interpret the sound, words and its meaning to react the message. It also depends on the knowledge and attitude towards the sender in the listening proces 1
TYPES OF LISTENING: Different situation requires having different types of listening there are certain skills, which are basic and necessary for different types of listening. In Detail: 2
• Active Listening: Active Listening reflects a whole orientation to the speaker In this form of listening the receiver absorbs as whole to what is being said and makes an attempt to verify all that is being said Active listening involves verbal feedback and would respond the message. Here, listener will not only pay attention towards verbal but nonverbal is also equally important. This kind of listening is found during discussion or with interesting topic. SIGNALS: Leveling and assimilation takes place. • PASSIVE LISTENING This kind of listening is where there a physical presence but mentally absent. In this kind of listening, listener is partly or entirely ignoring the message as well as speaker. He/she might be “Pretending” to listen or thinking. There will be a heap of verbal garbage in the form alterance without any actual process Signal: ‐ pretending like listening. • Selective listening :‐ Selective listening is listening to part of conversation, while ignoring the most of it. Listener is here only concern to the related message .When there is too much, unrelated or uninteresting information, will load to selective listening. Listening happens to be at superficial level and will not go beyond understanding. 3
Signal: ‐ Hearing partial. • Empathetic Listening : In this form of listening, the receiver is able to understand the view point of speaker exactly the same as intend to. Match between self and others / speakers perception = Empathetic Listening Empathetic listening is paying attention to another person with empathy. Empathy: ‐ Feeling as a same one. [Emotional, compassion, feeling, insight] It is an excellent technique to help one to attain, “Active Listening”. • Appreciative Listening :‐ This is a listening for deriving pleasure or for entertainment. The quality of appreciative listening depends on large extent to three factors as :‐ 1. Presentation 2. Perception 3. Previous experience For example, we are listening to a comedian, musician or entertainer. • Critical Listening :‐ When the purpose is to accept or reject the message or to evaluate critically, one requires having critical listening. For example, when you would purchase from sales person, you would critically examined and listen before spending on it. 4
• Projective Listening :‐ In this type of listening, the responses of receiver are in state of. The image of camera can be use to understand the concept, which means eye of camera only takes what is been showed to it. There will be list attempted to work and understand. Signal: ‐ Message understanding within receiver frame. • Relationship Listening :‐ The relationship listening is either to help and individual or to improve the relationship among the people. The rapeutic listening is a special type of relationship listening which allows a troubled person to talk through a problem. • Comprehensive Listening :‐ This type of listening is required by the students, to listen to lectures to understand and comprehend the message. Comprehensive listening is required to receive and interpreted message. Listening is necessary but above all, to adopt different type listening according to the situation is also important. Q2. Describe Features Of Good Listener (Active Listener). As it is not very easy to pay full attention to what others say and to listen them carefully the following are some traits to be a good listener, these characteristics improve one’s efficiency in listening and with the increased listening efficiency one can justify him wherever he goes. They are as under: 5
1) A good listener should concentrate on the message fully avoiding physical distractions such as an attractive face or fragrance of a perfume. 2) A listener’s capacity to absorb the information is always much more than a speaker’s ability to talk and therefore the listener gets a lot of time between two points. During the time, a good listener should not allow his mind to wander or day dream. 3) A good listener gives the speaker a chance to complete this speech. He should not jump to conclusions about the message unless the speaker has finished. 4) A good listener should not allow his prejudices to close his mind to the conveyed information. If one is prejudiced, he can never accept the truth. 5) A listener should take notes if he or she feels it desirable to use it at a later stage. However this might destruct him or her from listening and so it is advisable to take minimum notes. 6) One shouldn’t be afraid to ask questions to make the things clear where doubts arise. In fact this leads the speaker to believe that you really want to collect information. 7) One important trait of a good listener is patience. Though he or she may be in hurry, he or she should listen the speaker patiently. 8) The listener should control his or her temper while listening. Though he feels completely disagreement with what the speaker says, he should calm down and discus at the end of the speech. 9) A good listener should send some verbal utterances as ‘Yes’ , ‘hum’ and some non – verbal signs as rolling eyes to indicate that the listener is following what the speaker is saying. Q3. Discuss various barriers to effective listening. Introduction : Listening is one of the most import skills to complete the process of communication effectively. Listening is obtain information, understanding, learning or to enjoyment. 6
Barriers To Effective Listening : Listening is a complex process. It is desirable to take care of the barriers that may obstruct the smooth flow of communication. A) PHYSICAL BARRIERS • Noise • Physical Discomfort • Physical Distraction One chief cause of bad listening could be person’s inability to hear properly. NOISE: Refers to any sound that disturbs the listening process. For e.g. When talk to someone on a running bus or train, surrounding sound with disturb the listening process. Physical Discomfort: Disrupts the listening process as one is not comfortable while listening. For e.g. One cannot be comfortable to listen in hot summer without a fan or air – conditioner. Physical Distraction: Is where one get’s distracted from the speaker to what he/she is speaking. For e.g. When a person talks to some one in a crowded market B) PSYCHOLOGICAL BARRIERS • Emotional • Mind set • Anxiety • Fear • Age & attitude Most common barriers to listening is caused by listeners disturbed mind i.e. is psychological in nature. Emotional Disturbance: Can prove to be a barrier to effective listening because it leads to lack of interest and concentration. 7
For e.g. Feeling anger over arousal of emotion adversely effect to decode the message. Age and attitude : Difference of age and attitude often makes one fed that, person speaking cannot have interest or relevant to say. E.g. parents guiding children will not be cared much by children’s. Mindset : If a conversation starts with certain mind set, than no listening or partial listening will take place. Meaning here might be wrongly inferred or vital part may be skipped off. For e.g. Students will not listen, if they have mind set of faculty is funny by nature. Anxiety, Fear: Feeling of anger, frustration, sadness, anxiety or fear influence our reception and receptivity to others ideas. C ) Linguistic Barriers : • Improper message decoding • Ambiguous Language • Jargon Improper Message Decoding: Improper message decoding during listening is the recurrent barrier in the process of oral communication. Such message is decoded incorrectly the listener, it may lead to confusion and misunderstanding. Ambiguous Language: Decoding an oral message, listener should concentrate on the linguistic code. E.g. If he/she does not understand a lecture in French. Jargon: Use of difficult words should be avoided here. D) Cultural Barriers: • Cultural Difference • Different Values • Different social norms 8
Cultural Difference: If the speaker and listener belong to different cultures and share different values, listening and comprehension could become a difficult process in oral communication. Different Values: Listener who assigns meaning to message sues and meanings are assigned in terms of the listener’s frame of reference. Different Social Norms: The interpretation of meaning can create misunderstandings during intercultural communication due to differences in norms and values are our personal guides to thought and behavior and exert a strong influence on us. 9
UNIT‐4 Presentation Skills. 1. Basic step for presentation strategy. a) Formulate a strategy b) Develop a flexible flowing structure c) Methodologies of how you present you present d) Response to questions and challenge 2. Elements of good presentation. OR 2. Organizing content. • Introduction • The Main body • The conclusion 1. Introduction • Address the audience • Introduce your self • Provide Impact • Indicate the aim of your presentation, by explaining you also indicate the relevance of it for the audience. • Indicate the main topic of the presentation. 2. The Main body:‐ • The ideas should be supported by facts, illustration and claims.
• The topic discussed in the body should be organized in the logical manner. o Chronological order:‐ Starting with the oldest event and ending with the most recent. o Spatial order:‐ Discussing one topic in different places. For e.g. – unemployment in east the west. o Causes and Effects:‐ Describe causes and effects of something; especially suitable when you want to explain why something happened. For e.g. ‐ The cause of a disaster the effect of measure. o Problem and solution :‐ Offer a solution for a problem for e.g. How to reduce the rate of unemployment? o Sequential order:‐ This order is related to chronological order. It explains the steps in process. o General to specific:‐ Start with a general picture and then move on to a detail. o Specific to general:‐ Start with a detail and put it in a more general contest. o Start with something small and familiar then move on to something larger and less familiar. 3. The Conclusions:‐ • In the final phase of presentation, you should either summaries the main points of your presentation or put what you have said in a certain perspective. • You should not add new facts to your presentation in the conclusion. • You should take time to round off your presentation. • Use a phase like “with this I would like to conclude my presentation”.
Q‐3 Define the purpose of presentation. Ans: 1) Describe:‐ • In this type of presentation, the aim is usually to give information or to explain the situation. • The contents are after general and factual. • When the speech comes to an end the audience should have knowledge that they did not know on the subject before they started listening. 2) Instruct:‐ • In this type of presentation, the aim is to teach the audience knowledge and skills. • After the presentation the listener should be able to do something which he did not know how to do. 3) Persuade:‐ • In this type of presentation, the aim is to stimulate people to do something. • After the presentation you want the listener to believe something that he did not believe before he started listening. 4) Entertain:‐ • In this type of presentation the aim is to entertain people. • The aim of this type of presentation is mostly to make the audience feel happy, but they may be hidden goals. • Crucial element of this presentation is humor. • For most people, it is very difficult to give a humorous presentation because the humor is not spontaneous.
Q ‐4 Types of virtual aids generally used in presentation. Ans: 1) Flip chart 2) Overhead transparencies 3) Poster 4) 35 mm slides 5) Videotapes 1) Flip chart:‐ • Help the speaker proceed through the material. • Convey information. • Provide audience with something to look at in addition to the speaker. • Can be prepared prior to, as well as during the presentation. • Can be converted to slides. Limitation:‐ • May require the use of graphics talent. • Are not suitable for use for a large audience setting. • May be difficult to transport. Benefit:‐ • Flip chart are quick inexpensive. 2) Overhead transparencies:‐ • The standard transparency size is 8”×11”.The only piece of hardware required is an overhead transparency projector (OHP). • Overlay transparencies provide a good growing presentation. • Speaker can use an overhead projector with significant light in the room, so enabling the speaker to maintain eye contact with the audience.
Limitations:‐ • The projected image size is sometime too small to be seen from the back of a large room. • It is difficult to write on the transparency while it is on the projector. • Sometimes the projector head gets in the audience’s way. • Some speakers feel captive to the machines. 3) Posters:‐ • Posters are prepared graphic devices. • Posters are permanent and portable. • Poster can be used alone or in a series to tell a story. • Poster works the best in small audience sizes. Limitation:‐ • Posters tend to contain too much detail. • Transporting them can be difficult. • The more elaborate posters require extensive presentation can be quite costly. 4) 35 mm slides:‐ • Slides have high credibility with audiences because viewers looking at photographic slides taken in the field often feel that seeing believes. • The only hardware required is a slide projector and a screen slide programs are easy to package in slide trays. • Changes in slides or in their sequencing can be done rapidly to meet changing condition or audiences. Limitation:‐ • Slides cannot be made using photocopying machine. Therefore, they require more time and money to produce than overhead transparencies. • The lights must be dimmed more for slides than overhead transparencies.
• Slides require a great deal of preparation and rehearsal. 5) Videotapes:‐ • A videotape electronically carries both a picture and a sound track. • Its features of sound movement, vivid image, color and variety hold an audience’s attention the way film does. Limitation:‐ • Videotapes production can be expensive to create and require experienced production teams. • In large meetings, the audience may not be able to see the monitor. Q‐5 Tips pertaining to the use of visual aids. Ans: 1) Overhead transparencies:‐ • Use larger fonts, avoid decorative fonts. • Separate the transparencies using sheets of paper. • Keep transparencies uncluttered. • Show only the required information. • Do not add multiple colors or exciting backdrops to your slides. • Familiarize yourself with the operation of the overhead projector. • Be ready with your notes in case of power failures.
2) 35 mm Slides:‐ • Check the computer system. • Familiarize yourself with the operation of the slides. • Transfer your file to the hard disk. • Be familiar with the operation of slide show. • Rehearse your presentation. • Keep printed copy of the slides. 3) Flip charts:‐ • Use different colored markers. • Keep two pads of paper. • Write in large letters. • Use only one slide of the chart. • Wait for the audience to grasp the contents before turning pages. 4) Posters:‐ • Each poster should contain one message or theme, words, charts diagrams must be penned in a large enough size to be seen by everyone in the room. Q‐6 how does the visual aid help you in making presentation effective? Ans:‐ • Increase audience interest. • Illustrate key points. • Signal transition from one part of the presentation to the next. • Increase impact of message.
• Help listener to retain information. • Help you present ideas without depending on notes. • For those not familiar with your language or accent, turn the incomprehensible into something understandable. Q‐7 Explain modes of delivery which can use for making presentations. Ans: There are four modes of delivery which can be used for making presentation. 1)Extemporaneous 2)Manuscript 3)Impromptu 4)Memorization 1) Extemporaneous:‐ • Extemporaneous presentation is by far the most popular and effective method when carefully prepared. • When speaking extempore you must prepare the notes beforehand and rehearse your presentation. • There is no need to learn every word and line by rote. Advantage:‐ • As you have enough time to prepare for the presentation, you work hard on the theme. • The supporting material helps to present your points clearly. • It enables one to move freely with ease. • Your delivery sounds natural and spontaneous to the audience as it allows you to establish a rapport with the audience through more eyes contact. Disadvantage:‐ • If presentation is inadequate, you can get lost and find yourself uncomfortable.
• If you rely too much on note cards and start reading out from them instead of just consulting them for reference, then your speech will lose its spontaneity. 2) Manuscript:‐ • In manuscript presentation, material is written out and you are supposed to read it out aloud verbatim. • You are not supposed not to memorize the speech and then recollect it. • Do cultivate familiarity with speech. • You should know what is written where. Advantages:‐ • It’s permanent and accurate record of whatever you have to say. • There is no chance of tampering with the facts and figures. • The material is organized systematically. Disadvantages:‐ • You get less time for making proper eye contact. • There is not much scope either for non‐verbal communication. • Adaptation is rather difficult. • Conversational flavor along with vocal inflection takes a back seat here, which is a great asset for you as speaker. 3) Impromptu:‐ • The impromptu mode, as the word suggests in what you use when you have to delivery an informal speech without preparation. Advantages:‐ • You sound very natural because you do not get enough time to make any elaborate preparation. • You get a chance an express your thoughts irrespective of what others think or say about that particular topic. • You are spontaneous as you say what you feel, not what you ought to say. Disadvantage:‐ • The presentation lacks organized development of ideas because of the shortage of time. • Chances of rambling are very high. Various points may hang loose.
• There is frequent use of vocalized pauses. 4) Memorization:‐ • This method of presentation is very difficult for most of us. • Probably only handful of you can actually memorize an entire speech. • Usually you memorize the main parts and are in the habit of writing key word on your cards to help you out through the actual presentation. Advantage:‐ • It’s very easy for such speaker to maintain an eyes contact with the audience throughout presentation. • It is possible to finish the speech in allotted time. Disadvantage:‐ • Memorization requires too much of time. • Even your mnemonic skills fail you if you have not rehearsed adequately. • No flexibility or adaptation is possible during the speech. Q8. Discuss impact of body language in making presentation effective. The study reveals that 60% of all human communication is your body language and 30% of what you say is your tone. 1) Personal appearance:‐ • Makes the first impact on the audience includes dress, hairstyle, make‐up etc. 2) Posture:‐ • Refers to the way one stands sits and walks. • A good speaker stands tall; feet together with the weight directly over the instep keeping his chin parallel to the floor. 3) Caution:‐ • A relaxed shoulder and protrude stomach indicate that the speaker is discouraged, tired and worm out.
4) The posture of sitting:‐ • The posture of sitting may convey an air optimism or sadness or be indicative of a sense of failure or of in attractiveness. 5) Walk gracefully:‐ • Move legs freely from the hips; lift your feet from the floor. Walk in straight line, avoid a stride or ting step. 6) Gesture:‐ • All oral communication is accompanied by gesture such as shrugging of shoulders, flourish of the hands movement of the head etc. • These gestures enhance the impact and add a greater value to what is being said. 7) Facial Expressions:‐ • Face is the most expressive. • A smile = friendliness • A frown= discontent • Raising the eye brow= disbelief • Tightening the jaw muscles= Antagonism Can add to the meaning conveyed through verbal means. 8) Eye contact:‐ • The eyes are an extension of the brain and a window of the soul. • A better eye contact leads to more effective communication. 9) Space & Distancing:‐ • It differs from culture to culture. • In formal gathering it may be ranging from 4 ‐12 feet. Paralinguistic:‐ • Body Language and Paralanguage are components of non verbal communication. • Paralinguistic features are non verbal vocal clue that help you to give urgency to your voice. • Your voice your trademark. It is that part of yourself that adds human touch to your words.
• Voice gives extra life to your delivery. • Therefore, you may find it useful to understand the characteristic nuances of voice, namely Quality, Volume, Pace/rate, Pitch, Articulation, Pronunciation, Pauses. 1. Quality:‐ • Quality is a characteristic distinguishes one voice from another. • Each one of us has a unique voice. • While the quality of one’s voice can’t be changed, it can be trained for optimum impact. • Very few people are naturally blessed with deep resonant quality. • Everybody can improve upon the quality of the voice and develop it to its fullest potential. 2. Volume:‐ • Volume is the loudness or softness of the voice. • Your voice should always project but need not always be loud. • One way to improve your voice & speaking is through reading aloud. 3. Race/Rate:‐ • Rate is number of words which you speak per minute. (WPM‐Word Per minute) • The normal rate is from 120 to 150 words. • Cultivate your pace so as to fit in this reasonable limit. • If the person speaks too slowly and monotonously, he is most likely to the considered a dull speaker. • A fast speaker also causes discomfort because the listeners do not get time to grasp the thoughts and switch from one thought to another. • Use pauses to create emphasis. 4. Pitch:‐ • Pitch refers to the number of vibration per second of your voice.
• The rise and fall of the voice conveys various emotions. • Lowness of pitch can indicate sadness, shock, dullness. • High pitch can indicate joyous, ecstatic, triumphant and even energy. • A well balanced pitch results in a clear and effective tone. • Pitch is also influenced by your air supply. 5. Articulation:‐ • Speaker should be careful not to slop, slur, chop, truncate or omit sounds between words or sentences. • Lazy articulation, slurred sounds or skipping over words will lower the credibility of the speaker. • Develop in yourself the ability to speak distinctly. 6. Pronunciation:‐ • If articulation means speaking out all the sounds distinctly, then pronunciation requires us to speak out sound in way that is generally accepted. • One should be careful enough to pronounce individual sounds along with word stress according to the set norms. • Whenever there is confusion, always consults a good dictionary & try to pronounce it accordingly. 7. Voice modulation:‐ • Voice Modulation pertains to the way we regulate, vary or adjust the tone, pitch and volume of the sound and speaking voice. • Modulation of voice brings flexibility and vitality to your voice. • One can express emotions, sentiments like impatience, careful planning, despondency, suspicion etc. in the best possible way. 8. Pause:‐ • A pause is a short silence flanked by words.
• A pause in speaking lets the listener reflect on the massage and digest it accordingly. • It helps you glide from one thought to another one. • It embellishes your speech because it is a natural process to give a break. • Be spontaneous. • If you become too self conscious, this process becomes artificial.
UNIT‐5 INTERVIEWS Q1. Explain the expectation in you from your prospective employer when you appear for an interview. In general, employees are looking for two things: whether the candidate can handle a specific job and evidence that the person will fit in the organization. Following are the attributes an employer looks for in his employees: 1) Integrity: Your answers must reflect the total character. 2) Intelligence: It includes basic common sense as well as presence of mind. 3) Endurance: Reflect endurance through your statements. Even the slightest sign of laziness will lay you out of the queue. 4) Team players: Project the ability to work in team. Top executives are team builders. 5) Self – confidence: Answers like ‘may be’ etc depict lack of commitments and self‐confidence. At the same time, over‐confidence and over‐smartness should be avoided. 6) Sense of humour: Project grace even under difficult conditions. Occasionally, laugh at yourself and cultivate a readiness to accept the mistakes. 7) A ‘can‐do’ attitude: This can be done by showing enthusiasm to take responsibilities. 8) Accomplishments: It is important to show what you have achieved. This contributes to meet he targets. 9) An ability to think quickly: Your answers should be spontaneous. 10) Logical professions: If there is a gap in the progression, then there is always a chance that one will be asked. Be honest about your failures. 11) Performance: Ensure to reflect that your performance is either industry specific or function specific.
12) Relevant experience: Talk of experience which will make value addition to the current jobs. 13) Motivation: What has led you to this ‘position ‘. Employers are usually concerned with the candidate’s experience. Intelligence, communication skills, enthusiasm, creativity and motivation. Q2. Explain different types of interviews. Depending on their objective and nature, interviews can be categorized into the following types: • Job • Information • Persuasive • Exit • Evaluation • Counseling • Conflict‐resolution • Disciplinary • Termination Job Interviews : Here, the candidate wants to learn about the position and the organization, the employer wants to learn about the applicant’s abilities and experience. Both hope to make a good impression and to establish rapport. In the initial round, job interviews are usually formal and structured. Information interviews : The interviewer seeks facts that bear on a decision or contribute to basic understanding. Information flows mainly in one direction : one person asks a list of questions that must be covered and
listens to the answers supplied by the other person, e.g. doctor patient, boss subordinate. Persuasive interviews : One person tells another about a new idea, product or service and explains why the other should act on his or her recommendations. Persuasive interviews are often associated with, but are certainly not limited to selling. These persuasive interviews require skill in drawing out and listening to others as well as the ability to impact information. Exit interviews : The interviewers try to understand why the interviewee is leaving the organization or transferring to another department or division. The interviewer tends to ask all the question while the interviewee provides answers. Encourage the employee to focus on events and process rather than on personal grips. Evaluation Interviews : Supervisor periodically gives an employee feedback on his performance and discusses progress towards predetermined standards or goals to evaluate the area that require improvement. Counseling interviews: A supervisor talks with an employee about personal problems that are interfering with work performance. The interviewer is concerned with welfare of both the employee and organization. Conflict resolution interviews: Two competing people or groups of people with opposing point of view explore their problems and attitudes. The goal is to bring two parties closer together cause adjustments, in perception and attitudes and create more productive climate. Disciplinary interviews : A supervisor tries to correct the behavior of an employee who has ignored the rules and regulation of the organization. The interviewer tries to get the employee to see the reason for the rules and agree to comply. The interviewer also reviews the facts and explores the person’s attitude.
Termination interviews: A supervisor informs an employee for the reason of termination of latter’s of job. The interviewer tries to avoid involving the company in legal action and tries to maintain a positive relationship as possible with the interviewee. Q3. Your friend is going for an interview. What tips will you give him / her for better performance? The following are few tips that would be given for better performance in an interview to a friend of mine: • Be well prepared. • Brush up your subject and general knowledge. • Memorize your resume. • Know about the company. • Dress appropriately. • Be smart, clean, and well groomed. • Carry a briefcase or neat folder containing all relevant papers. • Show up 10 – 15 minutes early. In case you feel you may get delayed, call up and inform. • When you meet your interviewer(s), shake their hands confidently. • Stay calm, don not fidget or twiddle your thumb. • Be polite. • Never chew gum or smoke during the interview. • Be yourself, be honest. • Show a real interest in the job. • Be aware of all the answering techniques. • Do not answer a question you did not understand; ask for clarification first. • Speak clearly using positive words/phrases such as enjoy, enthusiastic, positive attitude, excellence, striving to be my best, etc. • Appropriately use the top five: non‐verbal eye contact, facial expression, posture, gestures, and space.
• In the end, restate your interest in the job. • Smile and say ‘thank you’. • Tell them how you look forward to seeing them again. • Shake hands firmly. • Tell them how much you enjoyed the interview.
UNIT‐ 6 Group Discussion Q1. Your friend is going for an interview he/she has to first appear fora group discussion. What tips you would give him/her for betterperformance.Introduction Now days the importance of teamwork and group communication has been increased a lot, it also acts as apart of selection process. Guidelines for group discussion To a friend of my following would be few tips to take care of in a group discussion. • Be thorough with current issues. • Always enter the room with a piece of paper/ dairy or pen. • Listen to the topic well. • Jot down as many ideas you can in first few minutes. • Organize your ideas before speaking. • Speak first only if you have something sensible to say. • Identity your supporters and opponents and allow your supporters to augment your ideas. • Keep a track of time and share time fairly. • Have an open mind and listen to others views. • Maintain an eye contact while speaking and listening. • Do not indulge in parallel conversation. • Body language and discipline should be properly maintained.
• Use fact, humor and wit. • Draw of silent members and encourage them to speak. • Look at topic from all various angles and perspective • Be loud enough to be heard by everyone. • Avoid personal attacks and name calling • Support your points with suitable or related facts. • Try to be group centered rather than self centered. • Attempt to arrive at a consensus through your ultimate aim to reach a conclusion within specified time. • Do not take a negative stance of any member in a group. • Use proper language and adhere principle of politeness. Thus, about given tips would aid a friend to go for a group discussion and put into better performance. Q2. Importance of group discussion in recruitment procedureintroductionGroup discussion, which is conducted for the selection process is a well –formulated devices that is used for judging the personality, communication skill, knowledge and their ability to work as a team. IN DETAIL:‐ Group discussion has become an integral part of most of selection process today, the four components generally evaluated are as:‐
• Knowledge • Communication skills • Group behavior • Leadership potential Knowledge • This refers to the depth and range of your knowledge as well as analytical and organizational abilities. • Some knowledge of the topic concerned & supported by common sense which will be able to win laurels. • If is important to have a fairly good general knowledge and awareness of the current situation, to perform in a good discussion well. • In this approach candidates are being evaluated on how you think and not on what you think. • Of course the contribution of your knowledge must be relevant, rational, convincing and above all interesting appealing to selection panel. Communication skills:‐ During a group discussion, candidate will be assessed in forms of: • Active listening • Clarity of expression
• Language & vocabulary • Appropriates of body language LISTENING: • Listening is an important in group discussion, as it will help you to pick up the thread of discussion and continue. • It is easy for the selection panel to identify poor listeners as their discussion lacks continuity. CLARITY OF EXPRESSION: • The panel’s perception of a candidate’s personality and ability to influence and convince others depends greatly upon right tone. Voice and articulation. • It is not sufficient to have ideas but have to be express effectively. • Fluency’ modulation and good delivery are also important here. LANGUAGE: • Language used should be accurate, free from grammatical errors, • It should be direct, clear and precise with ideas flowing in an organized manner. • Language used must be kept simple and unambiguous. • Using too much of jargon, high sounding words or ambiguous expression may project as showoff.
BODY LANGUAGE:‐ • Score of a group discussion depends not only on your verbal communication but also non‐verbal skills. • The selection panel observes your appearance, eye contact, posture, gestures and facial expression. • Your gestures and mannerism would reflect your attitude than what you say. • Body language is of an important weightage for assessment of candidates accordingly. GROUP BEHAVIOUR:‐ • Group behavior reflects ability to interact with other members of a group on brief acquaintance. • Participating in a group discussion involves co‐ordination and co‐operation among various members. • The selection panel notes the difference in amount of participation by members. • This needs to have an appropriate verbal and non‐verbal means of communication.
Leadership skills:‐ • The success of any team depends, to a large extent on its leader. • Candidate who posses both functional ability and co‐coordinating ability will emerge as the leader. • Functional ability involves knowledge, mental and physical energy, emotional stability, communication skill and objectivity. • Co‐coordinating involutes to have traits as group adaptability and motivation. • Organization would aid to above aspect in a group discussion as to select an appropriate candidates best suitable for a given job. Q3. Discuss techniques of organizational group discussion:INTRODUCTION:‐ In an organization, the group discussions are mainly used for group decision making. Members of interacting group take the responsibility of explaining their ideas and arriving at a consensus. TECHNIQUES:‐ In order to minimize the censor themselves and pressure other group members, the following techniques may be used:‐ #Brainstorming
#Nominal group technique #Delphi technique BRAINSTROMING:‐ • Brainstorming is a method for generating a variety of ideas and perspectives. • It is as uncritical as possible because criticism inhabits the free flow of ideas. • In this form, a group of six to twelve people will sit around a table and a group leader states the problem in a clear manner. • Members may suggest as many alternatives as they can, & make a note of it. • No criticism is allowed, all alternatives are recorded for discussion and analysis. • There are two types of brainstorming as:‐ 1. Story board :‐ it identifies major issues 2. Lotus Board:‐ Core thoughts are presented in surrounding ideas like petals. This technique is mainly for process of generating ideas only. Nominal Group Technique:‐ • In this technique group members are all physically present in a traditional committee meeting. They operate independently.