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Orientation%20to%20 report%20writing writing%20process[1]

  1. 1. Module 1, Unit 1Analyzing Workplace Reports
  2. 2. Learning ObjectivesUpon completion of this module, students will beable to:D. Identify the various factors that shape a report.F. Define the term “report”.H. Determine the qualities that make a report effective.
  3. 3. Objective A: Factors that shape a report.When reading a report you should be able toanswer the following 7 questions…
  4. 4. Questions Elements1. Who is asking that this report be Authorizerwritten?2. Who is writing the report? Writer (Sender)3. To whom is the report being written? Audience (Receiver)4. What is the report about? Subject Matter5. Why is the report being written? Purpose• Informing or analyzing • general• What is the writer hoping to • specificaccomplish?6. How is the report being sent? Format• Oral or written• Letter, memo, formal report,telephone, fax, oral, e-mail, Internet7. How often is the report being sent? Time Frequency• Periodic reports (internals – daily,weekly, monthly, annually)• Special report – single occasion for a Due dateunique situation
  5. 5. APPLICATION #1Identify Common Reasons for Writing Reports Refer to page 4 of your Study Guide.
  6. 6. Complete the following sentences:
  7. 7. Reports are generallyassigned by…• Authorizer: The person who has asked/ instructed that the report be written in the first place.
  8. 8. Reports are written by…• Writer (Sender): The person who has developed/written the report.
  9. 9. Reports are written to…• Audience (Receiver): – This group of people are the ones the report is intended for. – The group of people to whom the writer is writing. – The people who will be reading the report.
  10. 10. Reports are written about…• This question refers to the subject matter of the report
  11. 11. Reports are written for a…Purpose – General – SpecificWhy is the report being written? • Informing or analyzing • What is the writer hoping to accomplish?
  12. 12. Reports are presented using formatssuch as…• What channel of communication: – oral – written• In what medium will the report be presented: – letter - telephone – memo - fax – formal report - oral – memo - e-mail
  13. 13. Reports written regularly arecalled…• Periodical reports: – Daily – Weekly – Monthly – Annually
  14. 14. Reports written for oneoccasion only are called…• Special reports: – Written for a single occasion in response to a unique situation.
  15. 15. Objective B: Working Definition of the term“report”A “report” is an organized1, objective2presentation of facts3 sent to one or morepersons4 for a specific purpose5.
  16. 16. Objective B: Working Definition of the term“report”A “report” is an organized1, objective2presentation of facts3 sent to one or morepersons4 for a specific purpose5.
  17. 17. 1. Organize your report.• If a reader cannot follow the writer’s organization…communication will not occur.
  18. 18. To be organized a report must:• Follow an established format that fits the occasion.• Follow a writing pattern (sequence) that fits the occasion.• Adopt a direct or indirect approach.
  19. 19. 1. Follow an established format suitablefor the occasion. a. oral vs. written, b. forms, c. memo vs. long and formal d. Etc…
  20. 20. 2. Follow a writing pattern (sequence)appropriate to the occasion. • Incid e nt R e p orts : ch ronological ord e r (accid e nt re p orts … h ow d id it all occu r?) • E valu ating R e p orts : (com p are / contras t and e valu ate a p e rs on, p rod u ct, or s e rvice accord ing to you r crite ria) • Inve s tigative R e p orts :(id e ntify th e p rob le m , e s tab lis h th e cau s e and p rop os e a s olu tion)
  21. 21. 3. Adopt a direct or indirect approach.• direct approach: the main message goes right up front so that the reader knows exactly what is happening as soon as they begins to read.• indirect approach (the diplomatic method), the writer explains the problem or the reasons before giving the main message. Used when the writer thinks the reader may not be receptive to the message.
  22. 22. Direct approach…eg.• When Gerry writes up his investigation report about Cathy, the missing camper, he will want to put his recommendations right up front at the beginning of the report. Because the directors had already asked him to investigate the situation, he does not need to persuade them that changes should be made.
  23. 23. Indirect Approach…eg.• As a team leader, you feel that the members of your team would benefit from a workshop on empowerment. However, after researching the project, you realize that it will be costly. As a result, you will need to persuade your boss that the benefits of this workshop justify the cost.
  24. 24. Objective B: Working Definition of the term“report”A “report” is an organized1, objective2presentation of facts3 sent to one or morepersons4 for a specific purpose5.
  25. 25. 2. Write Objectively• To be objective, a writer must present facts without bias, prejudice or opinion and include all relevant data.
  26. 26. • Although a report should always seek to present the true picture, it is not possible to be totally unbiased: – Each person sees life based on his or her own PRECEPTIONS – We often make INFERENCES about different on-the-job situations,• HOWEVER…you must always be prepared to prove that your conclusion is based on facts, not on bias, prejudice, or opinion.
  27. 27. Objective B: Working Definition of the term“report”A “report” is an organized1, objective2presentation of facts3 sent to one or morepersons4 for a specific purpose5.
  28. 28. 3. Presentation of the facts:
  29. 29. • As such, the information must be: – Complete: get all the details – Accurate: make sure info. is correct… don’t assume
  30. 30. Application #3Distinguishing Between Fact and Inferences Pages 3 & 4 in your handout. Page 6 of your Study Guide
  31. 31. Objective B: Working Definition of the term“report”A “report” is an organized1, objective2presentation of facts3 sent to one or morepersons4 for a specific purpose5.
  32. 32. 4. Direct the report to one ormore persons:• Reports are written to people who need your information in order to make decisions and take action. 1. Primary Audience 3. Secondary Audience
  33. 33. • Primary Audience: the main person who needs your report in order to be informed.• Secondary Audience: anyone else who might read your report to: – become informed – help in the decision making process – carry out instructions
  34. 34. Types of Communication Audience/Receiver FunctionUpward • President or director • To inform about what isCommunication • Administrators happening(Internal) • Supervisors • To facilitate problem-solving • To facilitate decision- makingDownward • Personnel within different • To informCommunication departments (financial, • To request information(Internal) human resources, plant, • To request cooperation training, maintenance) • Front-line workers • SecretariesHorizontal At the same organizational • To informCommunication level: • To facilitate problems(Internal) •Between colleagues solving •From one department to • To facilitate decision- another makingExternal • Clients/customers • To informCommunication • Public • To facilitate problem-solving(directed upwards, horizontally • Government • To facilitate decision-and/or downwards) • Financial sources making • Workers and/or supervisors in agencies, businesses, industries
  35. 35. Objective B: Working Definition of the term“report”A “report” is an organized1, objective2presentation of facts3 sent to one or morepersons4 for a specific purpose5.
  36. 36. 5. Write for a purpose!• Why have you written your report?• What do you want to happen as a result?
  37. 37. Each report should have a: Common reason General purpose Specific purposeEach report is written for a reason or apurpose and often one report can suitseveral purposes at one time…eg…
  38. 38. Double purpose reporting:• A supervisor reports to her boss about the high turnover of staff at their work place. In doing so, she is informing her boss about possible problems in the workforce while at the same time, helping her boss resolve situations and make long-term plans.
  39. 39. Common reasons for writing reportscould include…• To document services and • To share information. statistics – provide necessary data – Employee progress reports about a customer/client or – Inventory services to third parties. – Profits/losses • To control quality standards• To provide legal – To investigate and evaluate documentation. in order to improve and – records of all accidents and maintain high standards. incidents (WSIB) • To make decisions and long-• To provide continuity of term plans. service. – To provide a supervisor – Passing off a client from with complete and correct information so that he/she worker A to worker B. can make good decisions and long-term plans.
  40. 40. Application #4Common Reasons for Writing Reports Page 5 in your handout Page 11 in your Study Guide
  41. 41. “General” purposes for writingreports:• In “general” people write reports to either inform or analyze
  42. 42. Informing vs. Analyzing• Writers write to: – Inform (present the facts) or, – Analyze (Analyze the facts in order to come to a conclusion and make recommendations). 1.
  43. 43. Informational Reports• They present facts, observations, and/or experiences without any analysis, interpretation, conclusions, or recommendations. – daily logs - financial reports – service documentation, - sales reports – statistical reports
  44. 44. Analytical Reports• Also inform, but they go a step further.• They present information about an issue, a problem or a situation. The report then offers an analysis or interpretation of the information presented.• After the writer has evaluated the problem or situation, he may go on to present conclusions and recommendations. – Gerry, the camp director, will present the data on the three applicants for the position of camp assistant; he must then analyze his data so that he can make the best selection.
  45. 45. Application #5General Purpose of a Report Page 7 of your handout Page 13 of your Study Guide
  46. 46. “Specific” purposes for writingreports:• Besides identifying whether you need to inform or to analyze, you must also determine why you are writing your report.
  47. 47. • What do you want or expect to happen because of your report? – To help you shape the direction of your report writing, picture handing the report to the boss and saying, “When I hand you this report, I want such and such to happen.” – What you want to happen is your “specific” purpose.
  48. 48. Application #6Specific Purpose of the Report Page 7 in your handout Page 14 of your Study Guide
  49. 49. Application – Group Activity (time permitting??) Analyze a Report According to the Definition of a Report Page 9 in your handout Page 15 of your Study Guide Investigation Report - 206
  50. 50. Objective C: Qualities of an Effective Report• Workplace readers require efficient reports.• They want reports that: – waste no words; – do not use pompous language; – state the main point quickly, clearly and concisely.
  51. 51. • What is liability?
  53. 53. Writers are accountable for theirdocuments.• In questions of liability, faulty writing is no different from any other faulty product.• If you’re inaccurate or unclear or incomplete information leads to injury or damage or loss, you can be held legally responsible.
  54. 54. To make your report effective, you mustinclude the following qualities:• Content• Organization• Style• Format
  55. 55. 1. Content• Content that is complete and accurate: – What the report is about.
  56. 56. 2. Organization• Organization that displays logical thinking and correct emphasis: – How the report is organized.
  57. 57. 3. Style• Style that is clear, concise and correct: – How the report is written.
  58. 58. 4. Format• Format that is accessible and attractive: – How the report looks.
  59. 59. REFERENCES• Sulis, M.A. (Revised 2007) Write and present technical reports: Open Learning Study Guide (In- class version). Northern College.